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relation.h
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * relation.h
4  * Definitions for planner's internal data structures.
5  *
6  *
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2018, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
8  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
9  *
10  * src/include/nodes/relation.h
11  *
12  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
13  */
14 #ifndef RELATION_H
15 #define RELATION_H
16 
17 #include "access/sdir.h"
18 #include "fmgr.h"
19 #include "lib/stringinfo.h"
20 #include "nodes/params.h"
21 #include "nodes/parsenodes.h"
22 #include "storage/block.h"
23 
24 
25 /*
26  * Relids
27  * Set of relation identifiers (indexes into the rangetable).
28  */
29 typedef Bitmapset *Relids;
30 
31 /*
32  * When looking for a "cheapest path", this enum specifies whether we want
33  * cheapest startup cost or cheapest total cost.
34  */
35 typedef enum CostSelector
36 {
38 } CostSelector;
39 
40 /*
41  * The cost estimate produced by cost_qual_eval() includes both a one-time
42  * (startup) cost, and a per-tuple cost.
43  */
44 typedef struct QualCost
45 {
46  Cost startup; /* one-time cost */
47  Cost per_tuple; /* per-evaluation cost */
48 } QualCost;
49 
50 /*
51  * Costing aggregate function execution requires these statistics about
52  * the aggregates to be executed by a given Agg node. Note that the costs
53  * include the execution costs of the aggregates' argument expressions as
54  * well as the aggregate functions themselves. Also, the fields must be
55  * defined so that initializing the struct to zeroes with memset is correct.
56  */
57 typedef struct AggClauseCosts
58 {
59  int numAggs; /* total number of aggregate functions */
60  int numOrderedAggs; /* number w/ DISTINCT/ORDER BY/WITHIN GROUP */
61  bool hasNonPartial; /* does any agg not support partial mode? */
62  bool hasNonSerial; /* is any partial agg non-serializable? */
63  QualCost transCost; /* total per-input-row execution costs */
64  Cost finalCost; /* total per-aggregated-row costs */
65  Size transitionSpace; /* space for pass-by-ref transition data */
67 
68 /*
69  * This enum identifies the different types of "upper" (post-scan/join)
70  * relations that we might deal with during planning.
71  */
72 typedef enum UpperRelationKind
73 {
74  UPPERREL_SETOP, /* result of UNION/INTERSECT/EXCEPT, if any */
75  UPPERREL_PARTIAL_GROUP_AGG, /* result of partial grouping/aggregation, if
76  * any */
77  UPPERREL_GROUP_AGG, /* result of grouping/aggregation, if any */
78  UPPERREL_WINDOW, /* result of window functions, if any */
79  UPPERREL_DISTINCT, /* result of "SELECT DISTINCT", if any */
80  UPPERREL_ORDERED, /* result of ORDER BY, if any */
81  UPPERREL_FINAL /* result of any remaining top-level actions */
82  /* NB: UPPERREL_FINAL must be last enum entry; it's used to size arrays */
84 
85 
86 /*----------
87  * PlannerGlobal
88  * Global information for planning/optimization
89  *
90  * PlannerGlobal holds state for an entire planner invocation; this state
91  * is shared across all levels of sub-Queries that exist in the command being
92  * planned.
93  *----------
94  */
95 typedef struct PlannerGlobal
96 {
98 
99  ParamListInfo boundParams; /* Param values provided to planner() */
100 
101  List *subplans; /* Plans for SubPlan nodes */
102 
103  List *subroots; /* PlannerInfos for SubPlan nodes */
104 
105  Bitmapset *rewindPlanIDs; /* indices of subplans that require REWIND */
106 
107  List *finalrtable; /* "flat" rangetable for executor */
108 
109  List *finalrowmarks; /* "flat" list of PlanRowMarks */
110 
111  List *resultRelations; /* "flat" list of integer RT indexes */
112 
113  List *nonleafResultRelations; /* "flat" list of integer RT indexes */
114  List *rootResultRelations; /* "flat" list of integer RT indexes */
115 
116  List *relationOids; /* OIDs of relations the plan depends on */
117 
118  List *invalItems; /* other dependencies, as PlanInvalItems */
119 
120  List *paramExecTypes; /* type OIDs for PARAM_EXEC Params */
121 
122  Index lastPHId; /* highest PlaceHolderVar ID assigned */
123 
124  Index lastRowMarkId; /* highest PlanRowMark ID assigned */
125 
126  int lastPlanNodeId; /* highest plan node ID assigned */
127 
128  bool transientPlan; /* redo plan when TransactionXmin changes? */
129 
130  bool dependsOnRole; /* is plan specific to current role? */
131 
132  bool parallelModeOK; /* parallel mode potentially OK? */
133 
134  bool parallelModeNeeded; /* parallel mode actually required? */
135 
136  char maxParallelHazard; /* worst PROPARALLEL hazard level */
137 } PlannerGlobal;
138 
139 /* macro for fetching the Plan associated with a SubPlan node */
140 #define planner_subplan_get_plan(root, subplan) \
141  ((Plan *) list_nth((root)->glob->subplans, (subplan)->plan_id - 1))
142 
143 
144 /*----------
145  * PlannerInfo
146  * Per-query information for planning/optimization
147  *
148  * This struct is conventionally called "root" in all the planner routines.
149  * It holds links to all of the planner's working state, in addition to the
150  * original Query. Note that at present the planner extensively modifies
151  * the passed-in Query data structure; someday that should stop.
152  *----------
153  */
154 typedef struct PlannerInfo
155 {
157 
158  Query *parse; /* the Query being planned */
159 
160  PlannerGlobal *glob; /* global info for current planner run */
161 
162  Index query_level; /* 1 at the outermost Query */
163 
164  struct PlannerInfo *parent_root; /* NULL at outermost Query */
165 
166  /*
167  * plan_params contains the expressions that this query level needs to
168  * make available to a lower query level that is currently being planned.
169  * outer_params contains the paramIds of PARAM_EXEC Params that outer
170  * query levels will make available to this query level.
171  */
172  List *plan_params; /* list of PlannerParamItems, see below */
174 
175  /*
176  * simple_rel_array holds pointers to "base rels" and "other rels" (see
177  * comments for RelOptInfo for more info). It is indexed by rangetable
178  * index (so entry 0 is always wasted). Entries can be NULL when an RTE
179  * does not correspond to a base relation, such as a join RTE or an
180  * unreferenced view RTE; or if the RelOptInfo hasn't been made yet.
181  */
182  struct RelOptInfo **simple_rel_array; /* All 1-rel RelOptInfos */
183  int simple_rel_array_size; /* allocated size of array */
184 
185  /*
186  * simple_rte_array is the same length as simple_rel_array and holds
187  * pointers to the associated rangetable entries. This lets us avoid
188  * rt_fetch(), which can be a bit slow once large inheritance sets have
189  * been expanded.
190  */
191  RangeTblEntry **simple_rte_array; /* rangetable as an array */
192 
193  /*
194  * all_baserels is a Relids set of all base relids (but not "other"
195  * relids) in the query; that is, the Relids identifier of the final join
196  * we need to form. This is computed in make_one_rel, just before we
197  * start making Paths.
198  */
200 
201  /*
202  * nullable_baserels is a Relids set of base relids that are nullable by
203  * some outer join in the jointree; these are rels that are potentially
204  * nullable below the WHERE clause, SELECT targetlist, etc. This is
205  * computed in deconstruct_jointree.
206  */
208 
209  /*
210  * join_rel_list is a list of all join-relation RelOptInfos we have
211  * considered in this planning run. For small problems we just scan the
212  * list to do lookups, but when there are many join relations we build a
213  * hash table for faster lookups. The hash table is present and valid
214  * when join_rel_hash is not NULL. Note that we still maintain the list
215  * even when using the hash table for lookups; this simplifies life for
216  * GEQO.
217  */
218  List *join_rel_list; /* list of join-relation RelOptInfos */
219  struct HTAB *join_rel_hash; /* optional hashtable for join relations */
220 
221  /*
222  * When doing a dynamic-programming-style join search, join_rel_level[k]
223  * is a list of all join-relation RelOptInfos of level k, and
224  * join_cur_level is the current level. New join-relation RelOptInfos are
225  * automatically added to the join_rel_level[join_cur_level] list.
226  * join_rel_level is NULL if not in use.
227  */
228  List **join_rel_level; /* lists of join-relation RelOptInfos */
229  int join_cur_level; /* index of list being extended */
230 
231  List *init_plans; /* init SubPlans for query */
232 
233  List *cte_plan_ids; /* per-CTE-item list of subplan IDs */
234 
235  List *multiexpr_params; /* List of Lists of Params for MULTIEXPR
236  * subquery outputs */
237 
238  List *eq_classes; /* list of active EquivalenceClasses */
239 
240  List *canon_pathkeys; /* list of "canonical" PathKeys */
241 
242  List *left_join_clauses; /* list of RestrictInfos for mergejoinable
243  * outer join clauses w/nonnullable var on
244  * left */
245 
246  List *right_join_clauses; /* list of RestrictInfos for mergejoinable
247  * outer join clauses w/nonnullable var on
248  * right */
249 
250  List *full_join_clauses; /* list of RestrictInfos for mergejoinable
251  * full join clauses */
252 
253  List *join_info_list; /* list of SpecialJoinInfos */
254 
255  List *append_rel_list; /* list of AppendRelInfos */
256 
257  List *rowMarks; /* list of PlanRowMarks */
258 
259  List *placeholder_list; /* list of PlaceHolderInfos */
260 
261  List *fkey_list; /* list of ForeignKeyOptInfos */
262 
263  List *query_pathkeys; /* desired pathkeys for query_planner() */
264 
265  List *group_pathkeys; /* groupClause pathkeys, if any */
266  List *window_pathkeys; /* pathkeys of bottom window, if any */
267  List *distinct_pathkeys; /* distinctClause pathkeys, if any */
268  List *sort_pathkeys; /* sortClause pathkeys, if any */
269 
270  List *part_schemes; /* Canonicalised partition schemes used in the
271  * query. */
272 
273  List *initial_rels; /* RelOptInfos we are now trying to join */
274 
275  /* Use fetch_upper_rel() to get any particular upper rel */
276  List *upper_rels[UPPERREL_FINAL + 1]; /* upper-rel RelOptInfos */
277 
278  /* Result tlists chosen by grouping_planner for upper-stage processing */
279  struct PathTarget *upper_targets[UPPERREL_FINAL + 1];
280 
281  /*
282  * grouping_planner passes back its final processed targetlist here, for
283  * use in relabeling the topmost tlist of the finished Plan.
284  */
286 
287  /* Fields filled during create_plan() for use in setrefs.c */
288  AttrNumber *grouping_map; /* for GroupingFunc fixup */
289  List *minmax_aggs; /* List of MinMaxAggInfos */
290 
291  MemoryContext planner_cxt; /* context holding PlannerInfo */
292 
293  double total_table_pages; /* # of pages in all tables of query */
294 
295  double tuple_fraction; /* tuple_fraction passed to query_planner */
296  double limit_tuples; /* limit_tuples passed to query_planner */
297 
298  Index qual_security_level; /* minimum security_level for quals */
299  /* Note: qual_security_level is zero if there are no securityQuals */
300 
301  bool hasInheritedTarget; /* true if parse->resultRelation is an
302  * inheritance child rel */
303  bool hasJoinRTEs; /* true if any RTEs are RTE_JOIN kind */
304  bool hasLateralRTEs; /* true if any RTEs are marked LATERAL */
305  bool hasDeletedRTEs; /* true if any RTE was deleted from jointree */
306  bool hasHavingQual; /* true if havingQual was non-null */
307  bool hasPseudoConstantQuals; /* true if any RestrictInfo has
308  * pseudoconstant = true */
309  bool hasRecursion; /* true if planning a recursive WITH item */
310 
311  /* These fields are used only when hasRecursion is true: */
312  int wt_param_id; /* PARAM_EXEC ID for the work table */
313  struct Path *non_recursive_path; /* a path for non-recursive term */
314 
315  /* These fields are workspace for createplan.c */
316  Relids curOuterRels; /* outer rels above current node */
317  List *curOuterParams; /* not-yet-assigned NestLoopParams */
318 
319  /* optional private data for join_search_hook, e.g., GEQO */
321 
322  /* Does this query modify any partition key columns? */
324 } PlannerInfo;
325 
326 
327 /*
328  * In places where it's known that simple_rte_array[] must have been prepared
329  * already, we just index into it to fetch RTEs. In code that might be
330  * executed before or after entering query_planner(), use this macro.
331  */
332 #define planner_rt_fetch(rti, root) \
333  ((root)->simple_rte_array ? (root)->simple_rte_array[rti] : \
334  rt_fetch(rti, (root)->parse->rtable))
335 
336 /*
337  * If multiple relations are partitioned the same way, all such partitions
338  * will have a pointer to the same PartitionScheme. A list of PartitionScheme
339  * objects is attached to the PlannerInfo. By design, the partition scheme
340  * incorporates only the general properties of the partition method (LIST vs.
341  * RANGE, number of partitioning columns and the type information for each)
342  * and not the specific bounds.
343  *
344  * We store the opclass-declared input data types instead of the partition key
345  * datatypes since the former rather than the latter are used to compare
346  * partition bounds. Since partition key data types and the opclass declared
347  * input data types are expected to be binary compatible (per ResolveOpClass),
348  * both of those should have same byval and length properties.
349  */
350 typedef struct PartitionSchemeData
351 {
352  char strategy; /* partition strategy */
353  int16 partnatts; /* number of partition attributes */
354  Oid *partopfamily; /* OIDs of operator families */
355  Oid *partopcintype; /* OIDs of opclass declared input data types */
356  Oid *partcollation; /* OIDs of partitioning collations */
357 
358  /* Cached information about partition key data types. */
361 
362  /* Cached information about partition comparison functions. */
365 
367 
368 /*----------
369  * RelOptInfo
370  * Per-relation information for planning/optimization
371  *
372  * For planning purposes, a "base rel" is either a plain relation (a table)
373  * or the output of a sub-SELECT or function that appears in the range table.
374  * In either case it is uniquely identified by an RT index. A "joinrel"
375  * is the joining of two or more base rels. A joinrel is identified by
376  * the set of RT indexes for its component baserels. We create RelOptInfo
377  * nodes for each baserel and joinrel, and store them in the PlannerInfo's
378  * simple_rel_array and join_rel_list respectively.
379  *
380  * Note that there is only one joinrel for any given set of component
381  * baserels, no matter what order we assemble them in; so an unordered
382  * set is the right datatype to identify it with.
383  *
384  * We also have "other rels", which are like base rels in that they refer to
385  * single RT indexes; but they are not part of the join tree, and are given
386  * a different RelOptKind to identify them.
387  * Currently the only kind of otherrels are those made for member relations
388  * of an "append relation", that is an inheritance set or UNION ALL subquery.
389  * An append relation has a parent RTE that is a base rel, which represents
390  * the entire append relation. The member RTEs are otherrels. The parent
391  * is present in the query join tree but the members are not. The member
392  * RTEs and otherrels are used to plan the scans of the individual tables or
393  * subqueries of the append set; then the parent baserel is given Append
394  * and/or MergeAppend paths comprising the best paths for the individual
395  * member rels. (See comments for AppendRelInfo for more information.)
396  *
397  * At one time we also made otherrels to represent join RTEs, for use in
398  * handling join alias Vars. Currently this is not needed because all join
399  * alias Vars are expanded to non-aliased form during preprocess_expression.
400  *
401  * We also have relations representing joins between child relations of
402  * different partitioned tables. These relations are not added to
403  * join_rel_level lists as they are not joined directly by the dynamic
404  * programming algorithm.
405  *
406  * There is also a RelOptKind for "upper" relations, which are RelOptInfos
407  * that describe post-scan/join processing steps, such as aggregation.
408  * Many of the fields in these RelOptInfos are meaningless, but their Path
409  * fields always hold Paths showing ways to do that processing step.
410  *
411  * Lastly, there is a RelOptKind for "dead" relations, which are base rels
412  * that we have proven we don't need to join after all.
413  *
414  * Parts of this data structure are specific to various scan and join
415  * mechanisms. It didn't seem worth creating new node types for them.
416  *
417  * relids - Set of base-relation identifiers; it is a base relation
418  * if there is just one, a join relation if more than one
419  * rows - estimated number of tuples in the relation after restriction
420  * clauses have been applied (ie, output rows of a plan for it)
421  * consider_startup - true if there is any value in keeping plain paths for
422  * this rel on the basis of having cheap startup cost
423  * consider_param_startup - the same for parameterized paths
424  * reltarget - Default Path output tlist for this rel; normally contains
425  * Var and PlaceHolderVar nodes for the values we need to
426  * output from this relation.
427  * List is in no particular order, but all rels of an
428  * appendrel set must use corresponding orders.
429  * NOTE: in an appendrel child relation, may contain
430  * arbitrary expressions pulled up from a subquery!
431  * pathlist - List of Path nodes, one for each potentially useful
432  * method of generating the relation
433  * ppilist - ParamPathInfo nodes for parameterized Paths, if any
434  * cheapest_startup_path - the pathlist member with lowest startup cost
435  * (regardless of ordering) among the unparameterized paths;
436  * or NULL if there is no unparameterized path
437  * cheapest_total_path - the pathlist member with lowest total cost
438  * (regardless of ordering) among the unparameterized paths;
439  * or if there is no unparameterized path, the path with lowest
440  * total cost among the paths with minimum parameterization
441  * cheapest_unique_path - for caching cheapest path to produce unique
442  * (no duplicates) output from relation; NULL if not yet requested
443  * cheapest_parameterized_paths - best paths for their parameterizations;
444  * always includes cheapest_total_path, even if that's unparameterized
445  * direct_lateral_relids - rels this rel has direct LATERAL references to
446  * lateral_relids - required outer rels for LATERAL, as a Relids set
447  * (includes both direct and indirect lateral references)
448  *
449  * If the relation is a base relation it will have these fields set:
450  *
451  * relid - RTE index (this is redundant with the relids field, but
452  * is provided for convenience of access)
453  * rtekind - copy of RTE's rtekind field
454  * min_attr, max_attr - range of valid AttrNumbers for rel
455  * attr_needed - array of bitmapsets indicating the highest joinrel
456  * in which each attribute is needed; if bit 0 is set then
457  * the attribute is needed as part of final targetlist
458  * attr_widths - cache space for per-attribute width estimates;
459  * zero means not computed yet
460  * lateral_vars - lateral cross-references of rel, if any (list of
461  * Vars and PlaceHolderVars)
462  * lateral_referencers - relids of rels that reference this one laterally
463  * (includes both direct and indirect lateral references)
464  * indexlist - list of IndexOptInfo nodes for relation's indexes
465  * (always NIL if it's not a table)
466  * pages - number of disk pages in relation (zero if not a table)
467  * tuples - number of tuples in relation (not considering restrictions)
468  * allvisfrac - fraction of disk pages that are marked all-visible
469  * subroot - PlannerInfo for subquery (NULL if it's not a subquery)
470  * subplan_params - list of PlannerParamItems to be passed to subquery
471  *
472  * Note: for a subquery, tuples and subroot are not set immediately
473  * upon creation of the RelOptInfo object; they are filled in when
474  * set_subquery_pathlist processes the object.
475  *
476  * For otherrels that are appendrel members, these fields are filled
477  * in just as for a baserel, except we don't bother with lateral_vars.
478  *
479  * If the relation is either a foreign table or a join of foreign tables that
480  * all belong to the same foreign server and are assigned to the same user to
481  * check access permissions as (cf checkAsUser), these fields will be set:
482  *
483  * serverid - OID of foreign server, if foreign table (else InvalidOid)
484  * userid - OID of user to check access as (InvalidOid means current user)
485  * useridiscurrent - we've assumed that userid equals current user
486  * fdwroutine - function hooks for FDW, if foreign table (else NULL)
487  * fdw_private - private state for FDW, if foreign table (else NULL)
488  *
489  * Two fields are used to cache knowledge acquired during the join search
490  * about whether this rel is provably unique when being joined to given other
491  * relation(s), ie, it can have at most one row matching any given row from
492  * that join relation. Currently we only attempt such proofs, and thus only
493  * populate these fields, for base rels; but someday they might be used for
494  * join rels too:
495  *
496  * unique_for_rels - list of Relid sets, each one being a set of other
497  * rels for which this one has been proven unique
498  * non_unique_for_rels - list of Relid sets, each one being a set of
499  * other rels for which we have tried and failed to prove
500  * this one unique
501  *
502  * The presence of the following fields depends on the restrictions
503  * and joins that the relation participates in:
504  *
505  * baserestrictinfo - List of RestrictInfo nodes, containing info about
506  * each non-join qualification clause in which this relation
507  * participates (only used for base rels)
508  * baserestrictcost - Estimated cost of evaluating the baserestrictinfo
509  * clauses at a single tuple (only used for base rels)
510  * baserestrict_min_security - Smallest security_level found among
511  * clauses in baserestrictinfo
512  * joininfo - List of RestrictInfo nodes, containing info about each
513  * join clause in which this relation participates (but
514  * note this excludes clauses that might be derivable from
515  * EquivalenceClasses)
516  * has_eclass_joins - flag that EquivalenceClass joins are possible
517  *
518  * Note: Keeping a restrictinfo list in the RelOptInfo is useful only for
519  * base rels, because for a join rel the set of clauses that are treated as
520  * restrict clauses varies depending on which sub-relations we choose to join.
521  * (For example, in a 3-base-rel join, a clause relating rels 1 and 2 must be
522  * treated as a restrictclause if we join {1} and {2 3} to make {1 2 3}; but
523  * if we join {1 2} and {3} then that clause will be a restrictclause in {1 2}
524  * and should not be processed again at the level of {1 2 3}.) Therefore,
525  * the restrictinfo list in the join case appears in individual JoinPaths
526  * (field joinrestrictinfo), not in the parent relation. But it's OK for
527  * the RelOptInfo to store the joininfo list, because that is the same
528  * for a given rel no matter how we form it.
529  *
530  * We store baserestrictcost in the RelOptInfo (for base relations) because
531  * we know we will need it at least once (to price the sequential scan)
532  * and may need it multiple times to price index scans.
533  *
534  * If the relation is partitioned, these fields will be set:
535  *
536  * part_scheme - Partitioning scheme of the relation
537  * nparts - Number of partitions
538  * boundinfo - Partition bounds
539  * partition_qual - Partition constraint if not the root
540  * part_rels - RelOptInfos for each partition
541  * partexprs, nullable_partexprs - Partition key expressions
542  * partitioned_child_rels - RT indexes of unpruned partitions of
543  * relation that are partitioned tables
544  * themselves
545  *
546  * Note: A base relation always has only one set of partition keys, but a join
547  * relation may have as many sets of partition keys as the number of relations
548  * being joined. partexprs and nullable_partexprs are arrays containing
549  * part_scheme->partnatts elements each. Each of these elements is a list of
550  * partition key expressions. For a base relation each list in partexprs
551  * contains only one expression and nullable_partexprs is not populated. For a
552  * join relation, partexprs and nullable_partexprs contain partition key
553  * expressions from non-nullable and nullable relations resp. Lists at any
554  * given position in those arrays together contain as many elements as the
555  * number of joining relations.
556  *----------
557  */
558 typedef enum RelOptKind
559 {
567 } RelOptKind;
568 
569 /*
570  * Is the given relation a simple relation i.e a base or "other" member
571  * relation?
572  */
573 #define IS_SIMPLE_REL(rel) \
574  ((rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_BASEREL || \
575  (rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_OTHER_MEMBER_REL)
576 
577 /* Is the given relation a join relation? */
578 #define IS_JOIN_REL(rel) \
579  ((rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_JOINREL || \
580  (rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_OTHER_JOINREL)
581 
582 /* Is the given relation an upper relation? */
583 #define IS_UPPER_REL(rel) \
584  ((rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_UPPER_REL || \
585  (rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_OTHER_UPPER_REL)
586 
587 /* Is the given relation an "other" relation? */
588 #define IS_OTHER_REL(rel) \
589  ((rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_OTHER_MEMBER_REL || \
590  (rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_OTHER_JOINREL || \
591  (rel)->reloptkind == RELOPT_OTHER_UPPER_REL)
592 
593 typedef struct RelOptInfo
594 {
596 
598 
599  /* all relations included in this RelOptInfo */
600  Relids relids; /* set of base relids (rangetable indexes) */
601 
602  /* size estimates generated by planner */
603  double rows; /* estimated number of result tuples */
604 
605  /* per-relation planner control flags */
606  bool consider_startup; /* keep cheap-startup-cost paths? */
607  bool consider_param_startup; /* ditto, for parameterized paths? */
608  bool consider_parallel; /* consider parallel paths? */
609 
610  /* default result targetlist for Paths scanning this relation */
611  struct PathTarget *reltarget; /* list of Vars/Exprs, cost, width */
612 
613  /* materialization information */
614  List *pathlist; /* Path structures */
615  List *ppilist; /* ParamPathInfos used in pathlist */
616  List *partial_pathlist; /* partial Paths */
621 
622  /* parameterization information needed for both base rels and join rels */
623  /* (see also lateral_vars and lateral_referencers) */
624  Relids direct_lateral_relids; /* rels directly laterally referenced */
625  Relids lateral_relids; /* minimum parameterization of rel */
626 
627  /* information about a base rel (not set for join rels!) */
629  Oid reltablespace; /* containing tablespace */
630  RTEKind rtekind; /* RELATION, SUBQUERY, FUNCTION, etc */
631  AttrNumber min_attr; /* smallest attrno of rel (often <0) */
632  AttrNumber max_attr; /* largest attrno of rel */
633  Relids *attr_needed; /* array indexed [min_attr .. max_attr] */
634  int32 *attr_widths; /* array indexed [min_attr .. max_attr] */
635  List *lateral_vars; /* LATERAL Vars and PHVs referenced by rel */
636  Relids lateral_referencers; /* rels that reference me laterally */
637  List *indexlist; /* list of IndexOptInfo */
638  List *statlist; /* list of StatisticExtInfo */
639  BlockNumber pages; /* size estimates derived from pg_class */
640  double tuples;
641  double allvisfrac;
642  PlannerInfo *subroot; /* if subquery */
643  List *subplan_params; /* if subquery */
644  int rel_parallel_workers; /* wanted number of parallel workers */
645 
646  /* Information about foreign tables and foreign joins */
647  Oid serverid; /* identifies server for the table or join */
648  Oid userid; /* identifies user to check access as */
649  bool useridiscurrent; /* join is only valid for current user */
650  /* use "struct FdwRoutine" to avoid including fdwapi.h here */
652  void *fdw_private;
653 
654  /* cache space for remembering if we have proven this relation unique */
655  List *unique_for_rels; /* known unique for these other relid
656  * set(s) */
657  List *non_unique_for_rels; /* known not unique for these set(s) */
658 
659  /* used by various scans and joins: */
660  List *baserestrictinfo; /* RestrictInfo structures (if base rel) */
661  QualCost baserestrictcost; /* cost of evaluating the above */
662  Index baserestrict_min_security; /* min security_level found in
663  * baserestrictinfo */
664  List *joininfo; /* RestrictInfo structures for join clauses
665  * involving this rel */
666  bool has_eclass_joins; /* T means joininfo is incomplete */
667 
668  /* used by "other" relations */
669  Relids top_parent_relids; /* Relids of topmost parents */
670 
671  /* used for partitioned relations */
672  PartitionScheme part_scheme; /* Partitioning scheme. */
673  int nparts; /* number of partitions */
674  struct PartitionBoundInfoData *boundinfo; /* Partition bounds */
675  List *partition_qual; /* partition constraint */
676  struct RelOptInfo **part_rels; /* Array of RelOptInfos of partitions,
677  * stored in the same order of bounds */
678  List **partexprs; /* Non-nullable partition key expressions. */
679  List **nullable_partexprs; /* Nullable partition key expressions. */
680  List *partitioned_child_rels; /* List of RT indexes. */
681 } RelOptInfo;
682 
683 /*
684  * Is given relation partitioned?
685  *
686  * It's not enough to test whether rel->part_scheme is set, because it might
687  * be that the basic partitioning properties of the input relations matched
688  * but the partition bounds did not.
689  *
690  * We treat dummy relations as unpartitioned. We could alternatively
691  * treat them as partitioned, but it's not clear whether that's a useful thing
692  * to do.
693  */
694 #define IS_PARTITIONED_REL(rel) \
695  ((rel)->part_scheme && (rel)->boundinfo && (rel)->nparts > 0 && \
696  (rel)->part_rels && !(IS_DUMMY_REL(rel)))
697 
698 /*
699  * Convenience macro to make sure that a partitioned relation has all the
700  * required members set.
701  */
702 #define REL_HAS_ALL_PART_PROPS(rel) \
703  ((rel)->part_scheme && (rel)->boundinfo && (rel)->nparts > 0 && \
704  (rel)->part_rels && (rel)->partexprs && (rel)->nullable_partexprs)
705 
706 /*
707  * IndexOptInfo
708  * Per-index information for planning/optimization
709  *
710  * indexkeys[], indexcollations[] each have ncolumns entries.
711  * opfamily[], and opcintype[] each have nkeycolumns entries. They do
712  * not contain any information about included attributes.
713  *
714  * sortopfamily[], reverse_sort[], and nulls_first[] have
715  * nkeycolumns entries, if the index is ordered; but if it is unordered,
716  * those pointers are NULL.
717  *
718  * Zeroes in the indexkeys[] array indicate index columns that are
719  * expressions; there is one element in indexprs for each such column.
720  *
721  * For an ordered index, reverse_sort[] and nulls_first[] describe the
722  * sort ordering of a forward indexscan; we can also consider a backward
723  * indexscan, which will generate the reverse ordering.
724  *
725  * The indexprs and indpred expressions have been run through
726  * prepqual.c and eval_const_expressions() for ease of matching to
727  * WHERE clauses. indpred is in implicit-AND form.
728  *
729  * indextlist is a TargetEntry list representing the index columns.
730  * It provides an equivalent base-relation Var for each simple column,
731  * and links to the matching indexprs element for each expression column.
732  *
733  * While most of these fields are filled when the IndexOptInfo is created
734  * (by plancat.c), indrestrictinfo and predOK are set later, in
735  * check_index_predicates().
736  */
737 typedef struct IndexOptInfo
738 {
740 
741  Oid indexoid; /* OID of the index relation */
742  Oid reltablespace; /* tablespace of index (not table) */
743  RelOptInfo *rel; /* back-link to index's table */
744 
745  /* index-size statistics (from pg_class and elsewhere) */
746  BlockNumber pages; /* number of disk pages in index */
747  double tuples; /* number of index tuples in index */
748  int tree_height; /* index tree height, or -1 if unknown */
749 
750  /* index descriptor information */
751  int ncolumns; /* number of columns in index */
752  int nkeycolumns; /* number of key columns in index */
753  int *indexkeys; /* column numbers of index's attributes both
754  * key and included columns, or 0 */
755  Oid *indexcollations; /* OIDs of collations of index columns */
756  Oid *opfamily; /* OIDs of operator families for columns */
757  Oid *opcintype; /* OIDs of opclass declared input data types */
758  Oid *sortopfamily; /* OIDs of btree opfamilies, if orderable */
759  bool *reverse_sort; /* is sort order descending? */
760  bool *nulls_first; /* do NULLs come first in the sort order? */
761  bool *canreturn; /* which index cols can be returned in an
762  * index-only scan? */
763  Oid relam; /* OID of the access method (in pg_am) */
764 
765  List *indexprs; /* expressions for non-simple index columns */
766  List *indpred; /* predicate if a partial index, else NIL */
767 
768  List *indextlist; /* targetlist representing index columns */
769 
770  List *indrestrictinfo; /* parent relation's baserestrictinfo
771  * list, less any conditions implied by
772  * the index's predicate (unless it's a
773  * target rel, see comments in
774  * check_index_predicates()) */
775 
776  bool predOK; /* true if index predicate matches query */
777  bool unique; /* true if a unique index */
778  bool immediate; /* is uniqueness enforced immediately? */
779  bool hypothetical; /* true if index doesn't really exist */
780 
781  /* Remaining fields are copied from the index AM's API struct: */
782  bool amcanorderbyop; /* does AM support order by operator result? */
783  bool amoptionalkey; /* can query omit key for the first column? */
784  bool amsearcharray; /* can AM handle ScalarArrayOpExpr quals? */
785  bool amsearchnulls; /* can AM search for NULL/NOT NULL entries? */
786  bool amhasgettuple; /* does AM have amgettuple interface? */
787  bool amhasgetbitmap; /* does AM have amgetbitmap interface? */
788  bool amcanparallel; /* does AM support parallel scan? */
789  /* Rather than include amapi.h here, we declare amcostestimate like this */
790  void (*amcostestimate) (); /* AM's cost estimator */
791 } IndexOptInfo;
792 
793 /*
794  * ForeignKeyOptInfo
795  * Per-foreign-key information for planning/optimization
796  *
797  * The per-FK-column arrays can be fixed-size because we allow at most
798  * INDEX_MAX_KEYS columns in a foreign key constraint. Each array has
799  * nkeys valid entries.
800  */
801 typedef struct ForeignKeyOptInfo
802 {
804 
805  /* Basic data about the foreign key (fetched from catalogs): */
806  Index con_relid; /* RT index of the referencing table */
807  Index ref_relid; /* RT index of the referenced table */
808  int nkeys; /* number of columns in the foreign key */
809  AttrNumber conkey[INDEX_MAX_KEYS]; /* cols in referencing table */
810  AttrNumber confkey[INDEX_MAX_KEYS]; /* cols in referenced table */
811  Oid conpfeqop[INDEX_MAX_KEYS]; /* PK = FK operator OIDs */
812 
813  /* Derived info about whether FK's equality conditions match the query: */
814  int nmatched_ec; /* # of FK cols matched by ECs */
815  int nmatched_rcols; /* # of FK cols matched by non-EC rinfos */
816  int nmatched_ri; /* total # of non-EC rinfos matched to FK */
817  /* Pointer to eclass matching each column's condition, if there is one */
819  /* List of non-EC RestrictInfos matching each column's condition */
822 
823 /*
824  * StatisticExtInfo
825  * Information about extended statistics for planning/optimization
826  *
827  * Each pg_statistic_ext row is represented by one or more nodes of this
828  * type, or even zero if ANALYZE has not computed them.
829  */
830 typedef struct StatisticExtInfo
831 {
833 
834  Oid statOid; /* OID of the statistics row */
835  RelOptInfo *rel; /* back-link to statistic's table */
836  char kind; /* statistic kind of this entry */
837  Bitmapset *keys; /* attnums of the columns covered */
839 
840 /*
841  * EquivalenceClasses
842  *
843  * Whenever we can determine that a mergejoinable equality clause A = B is
844  * not delayed by any outer join, we create an EquivalenceClass containing
845  * the expressions A and B to record this knowledge. If we later find another
846  * equivalence B = C, we add C to the existing EquivalenceClass; this may
847  * require merging two existing EquivalenceClasses. At the end of the qual
848  * distribution process, we have sets of values that are known all transitively
849  * equal to each other, where "equal" is according to the rules of the btree
850  * operator family(s) shown in ec_opfamilies, as well as the collation shown
851  * by ec_collation. (We restrict an EC to contain only equalities whose
852  * operators belong to the same set of opfamilies. This could probably be
853  * relaxed, but for now it's not worth the trouble, since nearly all equality
854  * operators belong to only one btree opclass anyway. Similarly, we suppose
855  * that all or none of the input datatypes are collatable, so that a single
856  * collation value is sufficient.)
857  *
858  * We also use EquivalenceClasses as the base structure for PathKeys, letting
859  * us represent knowledge about different sort orderings being equivalent.
860  * Since every PathKey must reference an EquivalenceClass, we will end up
861  * with single-member EquivalenceClasses whenever a sort key expression has
862  * not been equivalenced to anything else. It is also possible that such an
863  * EquivalenceClass will contain a volatile expression ("ORDER BY random()"),
864  * which is a case that can't arise otherwise since clauses containing
865  * volatile functions are never considered mergejoinable. We mark such
866  * EquivalenceClasses specially to prevent them from being merged with
867  * ordinary EquivalenceClasses. Also, for volatile expressions we have
868  * to be careful to match the EquivalenceClass to the correct targetlist
869  * entry: consider SELECT random() AS a, random() AS b ... ORDER BY b,a.
870  * So we record the SortGroupRef of the originating sort clause.
871  *
872  * We allow equality clauses appearing below the nullable side of an outer join
873  * to form EquivalenceClasses, but these have a slightly different meaning:
874  * the included values might be all NULL rather than all the same non-null
875  * values. See src/backend/optimizer/README for more on that point.
876  *
877  * NB: if ec_merged isn't NULL, this class has been merged into another, and
878  * should be ignored in favor of using the pointed-to class.
879  */
880 typedef struct EquivalenceClass
881 {
883 
884  List *ec_opfamilies; /* btree operator family OIDs */
885  Oid ec_collation; /* collation, if datatypes are collatable */
886  List *ec_members; /* list of EquivalenceMembers */
887  List *ec_sources; /* list of generating RestrictInfos */
888  List *ec_derives; /* list of derived RestrictInfos */
889  Relids ec_relids; /* all relids appearing in ec_members, except
890  * for child members (see below) */
891  bool ec_has_const; /* any pseudoconstants in ec_members? */
892  bool ec_has_volatile; /* the (sole) member is a volatile expr */
893  bool ec_below_outer_join; /* equivalence applies below an OJ */
894  bool ec_broken; /* failed to generate needed clauses? */
895  Index ec_sortref; /* originating sortclause label, or 0 */
896  Index ec_min_security; /* minimum security_level in ec_sources */
897  Index ec_max_security; /* maximum security_level in ec_sources */
898  struct EquivalenceClass *ec_merged; /* set if merged into another EC */
900 
901 /*
902  * If an EC contains a const and isn't below-outer-join, any PathKey depending
903  * on it must be redundant, since there's only one possible value of the key.
904  */
905 #define EC_MUST_BE_REDUNDANT(eclass) \
906  ((eclass)->ec_has_const && !(eclass)->ec_below_outer_join)
907 
908 /*
909  * EquivalenceMember - one member expression of an EquivalenceClass
910  *
911  * em_is_child signifies that this element was built by transposing a member
912  * for an appendrel parent relation to represent the corresponding expression
913  * for an appendrel child. These members are used for determining the
914  * pathkeys of scans on the child relation and for explicitly sorting the
915  * child when necessary to build a MergeAppend path for the whole appendrel
916  * tree. An em_is_child member has no impact on the properties of the EC as a
917  * whole; in particular the EC's ec_relids field does NOT include the child
918  * relation. An em_is_child member should never be marked em_is_const nor
919  * cause ec_has_const or ec_has_volatile to be set, either. Thus, em_is_child
920  * members are not really full-fledged members of the EC, but just reflections
921  * or doppelgangers of real members. Most operations on EquivalenceClasses
922  * should ignore em_is_child members, and those that don't should test
923  * em_relids to make sure they only consider relevant members.
924  *
925  * em_datatype is usually the same as exprType(em_expr), but can be
926  * different when dealing with a binary-compatible opfamily; in particular
927  * anyarray_ops would never work without this. Use em_datatype when
928  * looking up a specific btree operator to work with this expression.
929  */
930 typedef struct EquivalenceMember
931 {
933 
934  Expr *em_expr; /* the expression represented */
935  Relids em_relids; /* all relids appearing in em_expr */
936  Relids em_nullable_relids; /* nullable by lower outer joins */
937  bool em_is_const; /* expression is pseudoconstant? */
938  bool em_is_child; /* derived version for a child relation? */
939  Oid em_datatype; /* the "nominal type" used by the opfamily */
941 
942 /*
943  * PathKeys
944  *
945  * The sort ordering of a path is represented by a list of PathKey nodes.
946  * An empty list implies no known ordering. Otherwise the first item
947  * represents the primary sort key, the second the first secondary sort key,
948  * etc. The value being sorted is represented by linking to an
949  * EquivalenceClass containing that value and including pk_opfamily among its
950  * ec_opfamilies. The EquivalenceClass tells which collation to use, too.
951  * This is a convenient method because it makes it trivial to detect
952  * equivalent and closely-related orderings. (See optimizer/README for more
953  * information.)
954  *
955  * Note: pk_strategy is either BTLessStrategyNumber (for ASC) or
956  * BTGreaterStrategyNumber (for DESC). We assume that all ordering-capable
957  * index types will use btree-compatible strategy numbers.
958  */
959 typedef struct PathKey
960 {
962 
963  EquivalenceClass *pk_eclass; /* the value that is ordered */
964  Oid pk_opfamily; /* btree opfamily defining the ordering */
965  int pk_strategy; /* sort direction (ASC or DESC) */
966  bool pk_nulls_first; /* do NULLs come before normal values? */
967 } PathKey;
968 
969 
970 /*
971  * PathTarget
972  *
973  * This struct contains what we need to know during planning about the
974  * targetlist (output columns) that a Path will compute. Each RelOptInfo
975  * includes a default PathTarget, which its individual Paths may simply
976  * reference. However, in some cases a Path may compute outputs different
977  * from other Paths, and in that case we make a custom PathTarget for it.
978  * For example, an indexscan might return index expressions that would
979  * otherwise need to be explicitly calculated. (Note also that "upper"
980  * relations generally don't have useful default PathTargets.)
981  *
982  * exprs contains bare expressions; they do not have TargetEntry nodes on top,
983  * though those will appear in finished Plans.
984  *
985  * sortgrouprefs[] is an array of the same length as exprs, containing the
986  * corresponding sort/group refnos, or zeroes for expressions not referenced
987  * by sort/group clauses. If sortgrouprefs is NULL (which it generally is in
988  * RelOptInfo.reltarget targets; only upper-level Paths contain this info),
989  * we have not identified sort/group columns in this tlist. This allows us to
990  * deal with sort/group refnos when needed with less expense than including
991  * TargetEntry nodes in the exprs list.
992  */
993 typedef struct PathTarget
994 {
996  List *exprs; /* list of expressions to be computed */
997  Index *sortgrouprefs; /* corresponding sort/group refnos, or 0 */
998  QualCost cost; /* cost of evaluating the expressions */
999  int width; /* estimated avg width of result tuples */
1000 } PathTarget;
1001 
1002 /* Convenience macro to get a sort/group refno from a PathTarget */
1003 #define get_pathtarget_sortgroupref(target, colno) \
1004  ((target)->sortgrouprefs ? (target)->sortgrouprefs[colno] : (Index) 0)
1005 
1006 
1007 /*
1008  * ParamPathInfo
1009  *
1010  * All parameterized paths for a given relation with given required outer rels
1011  * link to a single ParamPathInfo, which stores common information such as
1012  * the estimated rowcount for this parameterization. We do this partly to
1013  * avoid recalculations, but mostly to ensure that the estimated rowcount
1014  * is in fact the same for every such path.
1015  *
1016  * Note: ppi_clauses is only used in ParamPathInfos for base relation paths;
1017  * in join cases it's NIL because the set of relevant clauses varies depending
1018  * on how the join is formed. The relevant clauses will appear in each
1019  * parameterized join path's joinrestrictinfo list, instead.
1020  */
1021 typedef struct ParamPathInfo
1022 {
1024 
1025  Relids ppi_req_outer; /* rels supplying parameters used by path */
1026  double ppi_rows; /* estimated number of result tuples */
1027  List *ppi_clauses; /* join clauses available from outer rels */
1028 } ParamPathInfo;
1029 
1030 
1031 /*
1032  * Type "Path" is used as-is for sequential-scan paths, as well as some other
1033  * simple plan types that we don't need any extra information in the path for.
1034  * For other path types it is the first component of a larger struct.
1035  *
1036  * "pathtype" is the NodeTag of the Plan node we could build from this Path.
1037  * It is partially redundant with the Path's NodeTag, but allows us to use
1038  * the same Path type for multiple Plan types when there is no need to
1039  * distinguish the Plan type during path processing.
1040  *
1041  * "parent" identifies the relation this Path scans, and "pathtarget"
1042  * describes the precise set of output columns the Path would compute.
1043  * In simple cases all Paths for a given rel share the same targetlist,
1044  * which we represent by having path->pathtarget equal to parent->reltarget.
1045  *
1046  * "param_info", if not NULL, links to a ParamPathInfo that identifies outer
1047  * relation(s) that provide parameter values to each scan of this path.
1048  * That means this path can only be joined to those rels by means of nestloop
1049  * joins with this path on the inside. Also note that a parameterized path
1050  * is responsible for testing all "movable" joinclauses involving this rel
1051  * and the specified outer rel(s).
1052  *
1053  * "rows" is the same as parent->rows in simple paths, but in parameterized
1054  * paths and UniquePaths it can be less than parent->rows, reflecting the
1055  * fact that we've filtered by extra join conditions or removed duplicates.
1056  *
1057  * "pathkeys" is a List of PathKey nodes (see above), describing the sort
1058  * ordering of the path's output rows.
1059  */
1060 typedef struct Path
1061 {
1063 
1064  NodeTag pathtype; /* tag identifying scan/join method */
1065 
1066  RelOptInfo *parent; /* the relation this path can build */
1067  PathTarget *pathtarget; /* list of Vars/Exprs, cost, width */
1068 
1069  ParamPathInfo *param_info; /* parameterization info, or NULL if none */
1070 
1071  bool parallel_aware; /* engage parallel-aware logic? */
1072  bool parallel_safe; /* OK to use as part of parallel plan? */
1073  int parallel_workers; /* desired # of workers; 0 = not parallel */
1074 
1075  /* estimated size/costs for path (see costsize.c for more info) */
1076  double rows; /* estimated number of result tuples */
1077  Cost startup_cost; /* cost expended before fetching any tuples */
1078  Cost total_cost; /* total cost (assuming all tuples fetched) */
1079 
1080  List *pathkeys; /* sort ordering of path's output */
1081  /* pathkeys is a List of PathKey nodes; see above */
1082 } Path;
1083 
1084 /* Macro for extracting a path's parameterization relids; beware double eval */
1085 #define PATH_REQ_OUTER(path) \
1086  ((path)->param_info ? (path)->param_info->ppi_req_outer : (Relids) NULL)
1087 
1088 /*----------
1089  * IndexPath represents an index scan over a single index.
1090  *
1091  * This struct is used for both regular indexscans and index-only scans;
1092  * path.pathtype is T_IndexScan or T_IndexOnlyScan to show which is meant.
1093  *
1094  * 'indexinfo' is the index to be scanned.
1095  *
1096  * 'indexclauses' is a list of index qualification clauses, with implicit
1097  * AND semantics across the list. Each clause is a RestrictInfo node from
1098  * the query's WHERE or JOIN conditions. An empty list implies a full
1099  * index scan.
1100  *
1101  * 'indexquals' has the same structure as 'indexclauses', but it contains
1102  * the actual index qual conditions that can be used with the index.
1103  * In simple cases this is identical to 'indexclauses', but when special
1104  * indexable operators appear in 'indexclauses', they are replaced by the
1105  * derived indexscannable conditions in 'indexquals'.
1106  *
1107  * 'indexqualcols' is an integer list of index column numbers (zero-based)
1108  * of the same length as 'indexquals', showing which index column each qual
1109  * is meant to be used with. 'indexquals' is required to be ordered by
1110  * index column, so 'indexqualcols' must form a nondecreasing sequence.
1111  * (The order of multiple quals for the same index column is unspecified.)
1112  *
1113  * 'indexorderbys', if not NIL, is a list of ORDER BY expressions that have
1114  * been found to be usable as ordering operators for an amcanorderbyop index.
1115  * The list must match the path's pathkeys, ie, one expression per pathkey
1116  * in the same order. These are not RestrictInfos, just bare expressions,
1117  * since they generally won't yield booleans. Also, unlike the case for
1118  * quals, it's guaranteed that each expression has the index key on the left
1119  * side of the operator.
1120  *
1121  * 'indexorderbycols' is an integer list of index column numbers (zero-based)
1122  * of the same length as 'indexorderbys', showing which index column each
1123  * ORDER BY expression is meant to be used with. (There is no restriction
1124  * on which index column each ORDER BY can be used with.)
1125  *
1126  * 'indexscandir' is one of:
1127  * ForwardScanDirection: forward scan of an ordered index
1128  * BackwardScanDirection: backward scan of an ordered index
1129  * NoMovementScanDirection: scan of an unordered index, or don't care
1130  * (The executor doesn't care whether it gets ForwardScanDirection or
1131  * NoMovementScanDirection for an indexscan, but the planner wants to
1132  * distinguish ordered from unordered indexes for building pathkeys.)
1133  *
1134  * 'indextotalcost' and 'indexselectivity' are saved in the IndexPath so that
1135  * we need not recompute them when considering using the same index in a
1136  * bitmap index/heap scan (see BitmapHeapPath). The costs of the IndexPath
1137  * itself represent the costs of an IndexScan or IndexOnlyScan plan type.
1138  *----------
1139  */
1140 typedef struct IndexPath
1141 {
1152 } IndexPath;
1153 
1154 /*
1155  * BitmapHeapPath represents one or more indexscans that generate TID bitmaps
1156  * instead of directly accessing the heap, followed by AND/OR combinations
1157  * to produce a single bitmap, followed by a heap scan that uses the bitmap.
1158  * Note that the output is always considered unordered, since it will come
1159  * out in physical heap order no matter what the underlying indexes did.
1160  *
1161  * The individual indexscans are represented by IndexPath nodes, and any
1162  * logic on top of them is represented by a tree of BitmapAndPath and
1163  * BitmapOrPath nodes. Notice that we can use the same IndexPath node both
1164  * to represent a regular (or index-only) index scan plan, and as the child
1165  * of a BitmapHeapPath that represents scanning the same index using a
1166  * BitmapIndexScan. The startup_cost and total_cost figures of an IndexPath
1167  * always represent the costs to use it as a regular (or index-only)
1168  * IndexScan. The costs of a BitmapIndexScan can be computed using the
1169  * IndexPath's indextotalcost and indexselectivity.
1170  */
1171 typedef struct BitmapHeapPath
1172 {
1174  Path *bitmapqual; /* IndexPath, BitmapAndPath, BitmapOrPath */
1175 } BitmapHeapPath;
1176 
1177 /*
1178  * BitmapAndPath represents a BitmapAnd plan node; it can only appear as
1179  * part of the substructure of a BitmapHeapPath. The Path structure is
1180  * a bit more heavyweight than we really need for this, but for simplicity
1181  * we make it a derivative of Path anyway.
1182  */
1183 typedef struct BitmapAndPath
1184 {
1186  List *bitmapquals; /* IndexPaths and BitmapOrPaths */
1188 } BitmapAndPath;
1189 
1190 /*
1191  * BitmapOrPath represents a BitmapOr plan node; it can only appear as
1192  * part of the substructure of a BitmapHeapPath. The Path structure is
1193  * a bit more heavyweight than we really need for this, but for simplicity
1194  * we make it a derivative of Path anyway.
1195  */
1196 typedef struct BitmapOrPath
1197 {
1199  List *bitmapquals; /* IndexPaths and BitmapAndPaths */
1201 } BitmapOrPath;
1202 
1203 /*
1204  * TidPath represents a scan by TID
1205  *
1206  * tidquals is an implicitly OR'ed list of qual expressions of the form
1207  * "CTID = pseudoconstant" or "CTID = ANY(pseudoconstant_array)".
1208  * Note they are bare expressions, not RestrictInfos.
1209  */
1210 typedef struct TidPath
1211 {
1213  List *tidquals; /* qual(s) involving CTID = something */
1214 } TidPath;
1215 
1216 /*
1217  * SubqueryScanPath represents a scan of an unflattened subquery-in-FROM
1218  *
1219  * Note that the subpath comes from a different planning domain; for example
1220  * RTE indexes within it mean something different from those known to the
1221  * SubqueryScanPath. path.parent->subroot is the planning context needed to
1222  * interpret the subpath.
1223  */
1224 typedef struct SubqueryScanPath
1225 {
1227  Path *subpath; /* path representing subquery execution */
1229 
1230 /*
1231  * ForeignPath represents a potential scan of a foreign table, foreign join
1232  * or foreign upper-relation.
1233  *
1234  * fdw_private stores FDW private data about the scan. While fdw_private is
1235  * not actually touched by the core code during normal operations, it's
1236  * generally a good idea to use a representation that can be dumped by
1237  * nodeToString(), so that you can examine the structure during debugging
1238  * with tools like pprint().
1239  */
1240 typedef struct ForeignPath
1241 {
1245 } ForeignPath;
1246 
1247 /*
1248  * CustomPath represents a table scan done by some out-of-core extension.
1249  *
1250  * We provide a set of hooks here - which the provider must take care to set
1251  * up correctly - to allow extensions to supply their own methods of scanning
1252  * a relation. For example, a provider might provide GPU acceleration, a
1253  * cache-based scan, or some other kind of logic we haven't dreamed up yet.
1254  *
1255  * CustomPaths can be injected into the planning process for a relation by
1256  * set_rel_pathlist_hook functions.
1257  *
1258  * Core code must avoid assuming that the CustomPath is only as large as
1259  * the structure declared here; providers are allowed to make it the first
1260  * element in a larger structure. (Since the planner never copies Paths,
1261  * this doesn't add any complication.) However, for consistency with the
1262  * FDW case, we provide a "custom_private" field in CustomPath; providers
1263  * may prefer to use that rather than define another struct type.
1264  */
1265 
1266 struct CustomPathMethods;
1267 
1268 typedef struct CustomPath
1269 {
1271  uint32 flags; /* mask of CUSTOMPATH_* flags, see
1272  * nodes/extensible.h */
1273  List *custom_paths; /* list of child Path nodes, if any */
1276 } CustomPath;
1277 
1278 /*
1279  * AppendPath represents an Append plan, ie, successive execution of
1280  * several member plans.
1281  *
1282  * For partial Append, 'subpaths' contains non-partial subpaths followed by
1283  * partial subpaths.
1284  *
1285  * Note: it is possible for "subpaths" to contain only one, or even no,
1286  * elements. These cases are optimized during create_append_plan.
1287  * In particular, an AppendPath with no subpaths is a "dummy" path that
1288  * is created to represent the case that a relation is provably empty.
1289  */
1290 typedef struct AppendPath
1291 {
1293  /* RT indexes of non-leaf tables in a partition tree */
1295  List *subpaths; /* list of component Paths */
1296 
1297  /* Index of first partial path in subpaths */
1299 } AppendPath;
1300 
1301 #define IS_DUMMY_PATH(p) \
1302  (IsA((p), AppendPath) && ((AppendPath *) (p))->subpaths == NIL)
1303 
1304 /* A relation that's been proven empty will have one path that is dummy */
1305 #define IS_DUMMY_REL(r) \
1306  ((r)->cheapest_total_path != NULL && \
1307  IS_DUMMY_PATH((r)->cheapest_total_path))
1308 
1309 /*
1310  * MergeAppendPath represents a MergeAppend plan, ie, the merging of sorted
1311  * results from several member plans to produce similarly-sorted output.
1312  */
1313 typedef struct MergeAppendPath
1314 {
1316  /* RT indexes of non-leaf tables in a partition tree */
1318  List *subpaths; /* list of component Paths */
1319  double limit_tuples; /* hard limit on output tuples, or -1 */
1320 } MergeAppendPath;
1321 
1322 /*
1323  * ResultPath represents use of a Result plan node to compute a variable-free
1324  * targetlist with no underlying tables (a "SELECT expressions" query).
1325  * The query could have a WHERE clause, too, represented by "quals".
1326  *
1327  * Note that quals is a list of bare clauses, not RestrictInfos.
1328  */
1329 typedef struct ResultPath
1330 {
1333 } ResultPath;
1334 
1335 /*
1336  * MaterialPath represents use of a Material plan node, i.e., caching of
1337  * the output of its subpath. This is used when the subpath is expensive
1338  * and needs to be scanned repeatedly, or when we need mark/restore ability
1339  * and the subpath doesn't have it.
1340  */
1341 typedef struct MaterialPath
1342 {
1345 } MaterialPath;
1346 
1347 /*
1348  * UniquePath represents elimination of distinct rows from the output of
1349  * its subpath.
1350  *
1351  * This can represent significantly different plans: either hash-based or
1352  * sort-based implementation, or a no-op if the input path can be proven
1353  * distinct already. The decision is sufficiently localized that it's not
1354  * worth having separate Path node types. (Note: in the no-op case, we could
1355  * eliminate the UniquePath node entirely and just return the subpath; but
1356  * it's convenient to have a UniquePath in the path tree to signal upper-level
1357  * routines that the input is known distinct.)
1358  */
1359 typedef enum
1360 {
1361  UNIQUE_PATH_NOOP, /* input is known unique already */
1362  UNIQUE_PATH_HASH, /* use hashing */
1363  UNIQUE_PATH_SORT /* use sorting */
1365 
1366 typedef struct UniquePath
1367 {
1371  List *in_operators; /* equality operators of the IN clause */
1372  List *uniq_exprs; /* expressions to be made unique */
1373 } UniquePath;
1374 
1375 /*
1376  * GatherPath runs several copies of a plan in parallel and collects the
1377  * results. The parallel leader may also execute the plan, unless the
1378  * single_copy flag is set.
1379  */
1380 typedef struct GatherPath
1381 {
1383  Path *subpath; /* path for each worker */
1384  bool single_copy; /* don't execute path more than once */
1385  int num_workers; /* number of workers sought to help */
1386 } GatherPath;
1387 
1388 /*
1389  * GatherMergePath runs several copies of a plan in parallel and collects
1390  * the results, preserving their common sort order. For gather merge, the
1391  * parallel leader always executes the plan too, so we don't need single_copy.
1392  */
1393 typedef struct GatherMergePath
1394 {
1396  Path *subpath; /* path for each worker */
1397  int num_workers; /* number of workers sought to help */
1398 } GatherMergePath;
1399 
1400 
1401 /*
1402  * All join-type paths share these fields.
1403  */
1404 
1405 typedef struct JoinPath
1406 {
1408 
1410 
1411  bool inner_unique; /* each outer tuple provably matches no more
1412  * than one inner tuple */
1413 
1414  Path *outerjoinpath; /* path for the outer side of the join */
1415  Path *innerjoinpath; /* path for the inner side of the join */
1416 
1417  List *joinrestrictinfo; /* RestrictInfos to apply to join */
1418 
1419  /*
1420  * See the notes for RelOptInfo and ParamPathInfo to understand why
1421  * joinrestrictinfo is needed in JoinPath, and can't be merged into the
1422  * parent RelOptInfo.
1423  */
1424 } JoinPath;
1425 
1426 /*
1427  * A nested-loop path needs no special fields.
1428  */
1429 
1431 
1432 /*
1433  * A mergejoin path has these fields.
1434  *
1435  * Unlike other path types, a MergePath node doesn't represent just a single
1436  * run-time plan node: it can represent up to four. Aside from the MergeJoin
1437  * node itself, there can be a Sort node for the outer input, a Sort node
1438  * for the inner input, and/or a Material node for the inner input. We could
1439  * represent these nodes by separate path nodes, but considering how many
1440  * different merge paths are investigated during a complex join problem,
1441  * it seems better to avoid unnecessary palloc overhead.
1442  *
1443  * path_mergeclauses lists the clauses (in the form of RestrictInfos)
1444  * that will be used in the merge.
1445  *
1446  * Note that the mergeclauses are a subset of the parent relation's
1447  * restriction-clause list. Any join clauses that are not mergejoinable
1448  * appear only in the parent's restrict list, and must be checked by a
1449  * qpqual at execution time.
1450  *
1451  * outersortkeys (resp. innersortkeys) is NIL if the outer path
1452  * (resp. inner path) is already ordered appropriately for the
1453  * mergejoin. If it is not NIL then it is a PathKeys list describing
1454  * the ordering that must be created by an explicit Sort node.
1455  *
1456  * skip_mark_restore is true if the executor need not do mark/restore calls.
1457  * Mark/restore overhead is usually required, but can be skipped if we know
1458  * that the executor need find only one match per outer tuple, and that the
1459  * mergeclauses are sufficient to identify a match. In such cases the
1460  * executor can immediately advance the outer relation after processing a
1461  * match, and therefore it need never back up the inner relation.
1462  *
1463  * materialize_inner is true if a Material node should be placed atop the
1464  * inner input. This may appear with or without an inner Sort step.
1465  */
1466 
1467 typedef struct MergePath
1468 {
1470  List *path_mergeclauses; /* join clauses to be used for merge */
1471  List *outersortkeys; /* keys for explicit sort, if any */
1472  List *innersortkeys; /* keys for explicit sort, if any */
1473  bool skip_mark_restore; /* can executor skip mark/restore? */
1474  bool materialize_inner; /* add Materialize to inner? */
1475 } MergePath;
1476 
1477 /*
1478  * A hashjoin path has these fields.
1479  *
1480  * The remarks above for mergeclauses apply for hashclauses as well.
1481  *
1482  * Hashjoin does not care what order its inputs appear in, so we have
1483  * no need for sortkeys.
1484  */
1485 
1486 typedef struct HashPath
1487 {
1489  List *path_hashclauses; /* join clauses used for hashing */
1490  int num_batches; /* number of batches expected */
1491  double inner_rows_total; /* total inner rows expected */
1492 } HashPath;
1493 
1494 /*
1495  * ProjectionPath represents a projection (that is, targetlist computation)
1496  *
1497  * Nominally, this path node represents using a Result plan node to do a
1498  * projection step. However, if the input plan node supports projection,
1499  * we can just modify its output targetlist to do the required calculations
1500  * directly, and not need a Result. In some places in the planner we can just
1501  * jam the desired PathTarget into the input path node (and adjust its cost
1502  * accordingly), so we don't need a ProjectionPath. But in other places
1503  * it's necessary to not modify the input path node, so we need a separate
1504  * ProjectionPath node, which is marked dummy to indicate that we intend to
1505  * assign the work to the input plan node. The estimated cost for the
1506  * ProjectionPath node will account for whether a Result will be used or not.
1507  */
1508 typedef struct ProjectionPath
1509 {
1511  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1512  bool dummypp; /* true if no separate Result is needed */
1513 } ProjectionPath;
1514 
1515 /*
1516  * ProjectSetPath represents evaluation of a targetlist that includes
1517  * set-returning function(s), which will need to be implemented by a
1518  * ProjectSet plan node.
1519  */
1520 typedef struct ProjectSetPath
1521 {
1523  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1524 } ProjectSetPath;
1525 
1526 /*
1527  * SortPath represents an explicit sort step
1528  *
1529  * The sort keys are, by definition, the same as path.pathkeys.
1530  *
1531  * Note: the Sort plan node cannot project, so path.pathtarget must be the
1532  * same as the input's pathtarget.
1533  */
1534 typedef struct SortPath
1535 {
1537  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1538 } SortPath;
1539 
1540 /*
1541  * GroupPath represents grouping (of presorted input)
1542  *
1543  * groupClause represents the columns to be grouped on; the input path
1544  * must be at least that well sorted.
1545  *
1546  * We can also apply a qual to the grouped rows (equivalent of HAVING)
1547  */
1548 typedef struct GroupPath
1549 {
1551  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1552  List *groupClause; /* a list of SortGroupClause's */
1553  List *qual; /* quals (HAVING quals), if any */
1554 } GroupPath;
1555 
1556 /*
1557  * UpperUniquePath represents adjacent-duplicate removal (in presorted input)
1558  *
1559  * The columns to be compared are the first numkeys columns of the path's
1560  * pathkeys. The input is presumed already sorted that way.
1561  */
1562 typedef struct UpperUniquePath
1563 {
1565  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1566  int numkeys; /* number of pathkey columns to compare */
1567 } UpperUniquePath;
1568 
1569 /*
1570  * AggPath represents generic computation of aggregate functions
1571  *
1572  * This may involve plain grouping (but not grouping sets), using either
1573  * sorted or hashed grouping; for the AGG_SORTED case, the input must be
1574  * appropriately presorted.
1575  */
1576 typedef struct AggPath
1577 {
1579  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1580  AggStrategy aggstrategy; /* basic strategy, see nodes.h */
1581  AggSplit aggsplit; /* agg-splitting mode, see nodes.h */
1582  double numGroups; /* estimated number of groups in input */
1583  List *groupClause; /* a list of SortGroupClause's */
1584  List *qual; /* quals (HAVING quals), if any */
1585 } AggPath;
1586 
1587 /*
1588  * Various annotations used for grouping sets in the planner.
1589  */
1590 
1591 typedef struct GroupingSetData
1592 {
1594  List *set; /* grouping set as list of sortgrouprefs */
1595  double numGroups; /* est. number of result groups */
1596 } GroupingSetData;
1597 
1598 typedef struct RollupData
1599 {
1601  List *groupClause; /* applicable subset of parse->groupClause */
1602  List *gsets; /* lists of integer indexes into groupClause */
1603  List *gsets_data; /* list of GroupingSetData */
1604  double numGroups; /* est. number of result groups */
1605  bool hashable; /* can be hashed */
1606  bool is_hashed; /* to be implemented as a hashagg */
1607 } RollupData;
1608 
1609 /*
1610  * GroupingSetsPath represents a GROUPING SETS aggregation
1611  */
1612 
1613 typedef struct GroupingSetsPath
1614 {
1616  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1617  AggStrategy aggstrategy; /* basic strategy */
1618  List *rollups; /* list of RollupData */
1619  List *qual; /* quals (HAVING quals), if any */
1621 
1622 /*
1623  * MinMaxAggPath represents computation of MIN/MAX aggregates from indexes
1624  */
1625 typedef struct MinMaxAggPath
1626 {
1628  List *mmaggregates; /* list of MinMaxAggInfo */
1629  List *quals; /* HAVING quals, if any */
1630 } MinMaxAggPath;
1631 
1632 /*
1633  * WindowAggPath represents generic computation of window functions
1634  *
1635  * Note: winpathkeys is separate from path.pathkeys because the actual sort
1636  * order might be an extension of winpathkeys; but createplan.c needs to
1637  * know exactly how many pathkeys match the window clause.
1638  */
1639 typedef struct WindowAggPath
1640 {
1642  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1643  WindowClause *winclause; /* WindowClause we'll be using */
1644  List *winpathkeys; /* PathKeys for PARTITION keys + ORDER keys */
1645 } WindowAggPath;
1646 
1647 /*
1648  * SetOpPath represents a set-operation, that is INTERSECT or EXCEPT
1649  */
1650 typedef struct SetOpPath
1651 {
1653  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1654  SetOpCmd cmd; /* what to do, see nodes.h */
1655  SetOpStrategy strategy; /* how to do it, see nodes.h */
1656  List *distinctList; /* SortGroupClauses identifying target cols */
1657  AttrNumber flagColIdx; /* where is the flag column, if any */
1658  int firstFlag; /* flag value for first input relation */
1659  double numGroups; /* estimated number of groups in input */
1660 } SetOpPath;
1661 
1662 /*
1663  * RecursiveUnionPath represents a recursive UNION node
1664  */
1665 typedef struct RecursiveUnionPath
1666 {
1668  Path *leftpath; /* paths representing input sources */
1670  List *distinctList; /* SortGroupClauses identifying target cols */
1671  int wtParam; /* ID of Param representing work table */
1672  double numGroups; /* estimated number of groups in input */
1674 
1675 /*
1676  * LockRowsPath represents acquiring row locks for SELECT FOR UPDATE/SHARE
1677  */
1678 typedef struct LockRowsPath
1679 {
1681  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1682  List *rowMarks; /* a list of PlanRowMark's */
1683  int epqParam; /* ID of Param for EvalPlanQual re-eval */
1684 } LockRowsPath;
1685 
1686 /*
1687  * ModifyTablePath represents performing INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE modifications
1688  *
1689  * We represent most things that will be in the ModifyTable plan node
1690  * literally, except we have child Path(s) not Plan(s). But analysis of the
1691  * OnConflictExpr is deferred to createplan.c, as is collection of FDW data.
1692  */
1693 typedef struct ModifyTablePath
1694 {
1696  CmdType operation; /* INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE */
1697  bool canSetTag; /* do we set the command tag/es_processed? */
1698  Index nominalRelation; /* Parent RT index for use of EXPLAIN */
1699  /* RT indexes of non-leaf tables in a partition tree */
1701  bool partColsUpdated; /* some part key in hierarchy updated */
1702  List *resultRelations; /* integer list of RT indexes */
1703  List *subpaths; /* Path(s) producing source data */
1704  List *subroots; /* per-target-table PlannerInfos */
1705  List *withCheckOptionLists; /* per-target-table WCO lists */
1706  List *returningLists; /* per-target-table RETURNING tlists */
1707  List *rowMarks; /* PlanRowMarks (non-locking only) */
1708  OnConflictExpr *onconflict; /* ON CONFLICT clause, or NULL */
1709  int epqParam; /* ID of Param for EvalPlanQual re-eval */
1710 } ModifyTablePath;
1711 
1712 /*
1713  * LimitPath represents applying LIMIT/OFFSET restrictions
1714  */
1715 typedef struct LimitPath
1716 {
1718  Path *subpath; /* path representing input source */
1719  Node *limitOffset; /* OFFSET parameter, or NULL if none */
1720  Node *limitCount; /* COUNT parameter, or NULL if none */
1721 } LimitPath;
1722 
1723 
1724 /*
1725  * Restriction clause info.
1726  *
1727  * We create one of these for each AND sub-clause of a restriction condition
1728  * (WHERE or JOIN/ON clause). Since the restriction clauses are logically
1729  * ANDed, we can use any one of them or any subset of them to filter out
1730  * tuples, without having to evaluate the rest. The RestrictInfo node itself
1731  * stores data used by the optimizer while choosing the best query plan.
1732  *
1733  * If a restriction clause references a single base relation, it will appear
1734  * in the baserestrictinfo list of the RelOptInfo for that base rel.
1735  *
1736  * If a restriction clause references more than one base rel, it will
1737  * appear in the joininfo list of every RelOptInfo that describes a strict
1738  * subset of the base rels mentioned in the clause. The joininfo lists are
1739  * used to drive join tree building by selecting plausible join candidates.
1740  * The clause cannot actually be applied until we have built a join rel
1741  * containing all the base rels it references, however.
1742  *
1743  * When we construct a join rel that includes all the base rels referenced
1744  * in a multi-relation restriction clause, we place that clause into the
1745  * joinrestrictinfo lists of paths for the join rel, if neither left nor
1746  * right sub-path includes all base rels referenced in the clause. The clause
1747  * will be applied at that join level, and will not propagate any further up
1748  * the join tree. (Note: the "predicate migration" code was once intended to
1749  * push restriction clauses up and down the plan tree based on evaluation
1750  * costs, but it's dead code and is unlikely to be resurrected in the
1751  * foreseeable future.)
1752  *
1753  * Note that in the presence of more than two rels, a multi-rel restriction
1754  * might reach different heights in the join tree depending on the join
1755  * sequence we use. So, these clauses cannot be associated directly with
1756  * the join RelOptInfo, but must be kept track of on a per-join-path basis.
1757  *
1758  * RestrictInfos that represent equivalence conditions (i.e., mergejoinable
1759  * equalities that are not outerjoin-delayed) are handled a bit differently.
1760  * Initially we attach them to the EquivalenceClasses that are derived from
1761  * them. When we construct a scan or join path, we look through all the
1762  * EquivalenceClasses and generate derived RestrictInfos representing the
1763  * minimal set of conditions that need to be checked for this particular scan
1764  * or join to enforce that all members of each EquivalenceClass are in fact
1765  * equal in all rows emitted by the scan or join.
1766  *
1767  * When dealing with outer joins we have to be very careful about pushing qual
1768  * clauses up and down the tree. An outer join's own JOIN/ON conditions must
1769  * be evaluated exactly at that join node, unless they are "degenerate"
1770  * conditions that reference only Vars from the nullable side of the join.
1771  * Quals appearing in WHERE or in a JOIN above the outer join cannot be pushed
1772  * down below the outer join, if they reference any nullable Vars.
1773  * RestrictInfo nodes contain a flag to indicate whether a qual has been
1774  * pushed down to a lower level than its original syntactic placement in the
1775  * join tree would suggest. If an outer join prevents us from pushing a qual
1776  * down to its "natural" semantic level (the level associated with just the
1777  * base rels used in the qual) then we mark the qual with a "required_relids"
1778  * value including more than just the base rels it actually uses. By
1779  * pretending that the qual references all the rels required to form the outer
1780  * join, we prevent it from being evaluated below the outer join's joinrel.
1781  * When we do form the outer join's joinrel, we still need to distinguish
1782  * those quals that are actually in that join's JOIN/ON condition from those
1783  * that appeared elsewhere in the tree and were pushed down to the join rel
1784  * because they used no other rels. That's what the is_pushed_down flag is
1785  * for; it tells us that a qual is not an OUTER JOIN qual for the set of base
1786  * rels listed in required_relids. A clause that originally came from WHERE
1787  * or an INNER JOIN condition will *always* have its is_pushed_down flag set.
1788  * It's possible for an OUTER JOIN clause to be marked is_pushed_down too,
1789  * if we decide that it can be pushed down into the nullable side of the join.
1790  * In that case it acts as a plain filter qual for wherever it gets evaluated.
1791  * (In short, is_pushed_down is only false for non-degenerate outer join
1792  * conditions. Possibly we should rename it to reflect that meaning?)
1793  *
1794  * RestrictInfo nodes also contain an outerjoin_delayed flag, which is true
1795  * if the clause's applicability must be delayed due to any outer joins
1796  * appearing below it (ie, it has to be postponed to some join level higher
1797  * than the set of relations it actually references).
1798  *
1799  * There is also an outer_relids field, which is NULL except for outer join
1800  * clauses; for those, it is the set of relids on the outer side of the
1801  * clause's outer join. (These are rels that the clause cannot be applied to
1802  * in parameterized scans, since pushing it into the join's outer side would
1803  * lead to wrong answers.)
1804  *
1805  * There is also a nullable_relids field, which is the set of rels the clause
1806  * references that can be forced null by some outer join below the clause.
1807  *
1808  * outerjoin_delayed = true is subtly different from nullable_relids != NULL:
1809  * a clause might reference some nullable rels and yet not be
1810  * outerjoin_delayed because it also references all the other rels of the
1811  * outer join(s). A clause that is not outerjoin_delayed can be enforced
1812  * anywhere it is computable.
1813  *
1814  * To handle security-barrier conditions efficiently, we mark RestrictInfo
1815  * nodes with a security_level field, in which higher values identify clauses
1816  * coming from less-trusted sources. The exact semantics are that a clause
1817  * cannot be evaluated before another clause with a lower security_level value
1818  * unless the first clause is leakproof. As with outer-join clauses, this
1819  * creates a reason for clauses to sometimes need to be evaluated higher in
1820  * the join tree than their contents would suggest; and even at a single plan
1821  * node, this rule constrains the order of application of clauses.
1822  *
1823  * In general, the referenced clause might be arbitrarily complex. The
1824  * kinds of clauses we can handle as indexscan quals, mergejoin clauses,
1825  * or hashjoin clauses are limited (e.g., no volatile functions). The code
1826  * for each kind of path is responsible for identifying the restrict clauses
1827  * it can use and ignoring the rest. Clauses not implemented by an indexscan,
1828  * mergejoin, or hashjoin will be placed in the plan qual or joinqual field
1829  * of the finished Plan node, where they will be enforced by general-purpose
1830  * qual-expression-evaluation code. (But we are still entitled to count
1831  * their selectivity when estimating the result tuple count, if we
1832  * can guess what it is...)
1833  *
1834  * When the referenced clause is an OR clause, we generate a modified copy
1835  * in which additional RestrictInfo nodes are inserted below the top-level
1836  * OR/AND structure. This is a convenience for OR indexscan processing:
1837  * indexquals taken from either the top level or an OR subclause will have
1838  * associated RestrictInfo nodes.
1839  *
1840  * The can_join flag is set true if the clause looks potentially useful as
1841  * a merge or hash join clause, that is if it is a binary opclause with
1842  * nonoverlapping sets of relids referenced in the left and right sides.
1843  * (Whether the operator is actually merge or hash joinable isn't checked,
1844  * however.)
1845  *
1846  * The pseudoconstant flag is set true if the clause contains no Vars of
1847  * the current query level and no volatile functions. Such a clause can be
1848  * pulled out and used as a one-time qual in a gating Result node. We keep
1849  * pseudoconstant clauses in the same lists as other RestrictInfos so that
1850  * the regular clause-pushing machinery can assign them to the correct join
1851  * level, but they need to be treated specially for cost and selectivity
1852  * estimates. Note that a pseudoconstant clause can never be an indexqual
1853  * or merge or hash join clause, so it's of no interest to large parts of
1854  * the planner.
1855  *
1856  * When join clauses are generated from EquivalenceClasses, there may be
1857  * several equally valid ways to enforce join equivalence, of which we need
1858  * apply only one. We mark clauses of this kind by setting parent_ec to
1859  * point to the generating EquivalenceClass. Multiple clauses with the same
1860  * parent_ec in the same join are redundant.
1861  */
1862 
1863 typedef struct RestrictInfo
1864 {
1866 
1867  Expr *clause; /* the represented clause of WHERE or JOIN */
1868 
1869  bool is_pushed_down; /* true if clause was pushed down in level */
1870 
1871  bool outerjoin_delayed; /* true if delayed by lower outer join */
1872 
1873  bool can_join; /* see comment above */
1874 
1875  bool pseudoconstant; /* see comment above */
1876 
1877  bool leakproof; /* true if known to contain no leaked Vars */
1878 
1879  Index security_level; /* see comment above */
1880 
1881  /* The set of relids (varnos) actually referenced in the clause: */
1883 
1884  /* The set of relids required to evaluate the clause: */
1886 
1887  /* If an outer-join clause, the outer-side relations, else NULL: */
1889 
1890  /* The relids used in the clause that are nullable by lower outer joins: */
1892 
1893  /* These fields are set for any binary opclause: */
1894  Relids left_relids; /* relids in left side of clause */
1895  Relids right_relids; /* relids in right side of clause */
1896 
1897  /* This field is NULL unless clause is an OR clause: */
1898  Expr *orclause; /* modified clause with RestrictInfos */
1899 
1900  /* This field is NULL unless clause is potentially redundant: */
1901  EquivalenceClass *parent_ec; /* generating EquivalenceClass */
1902 
1903  /* cache space for cost and selectivity */
1904  QualCost eval_cost; /* eval cost of clause; -1 if not yet set */
1905  Selectivity norm_selec; /* selectivity for "normal" (JOIN_INNER)
1906  * semantics; -1 if not yet set; >1 means a
1907  * redundant clause */
1908  Selectivity outer_selec; /* selectivity for outer join semantics; -1 if
1909  * not yet set */
1910 
1911  /* valid if clause is mergejoinable, else NIL */
1912  List *mergeopfamilies; /* opfamilies containing clause operator */
1913 
1914  /* cache space for mergeclause processing; NULL if not yet set */
1915  EquivalenceClass *left_ec; /* EquivalenceClass containing lefthand */
1916  EquivalenceClass *right_ec; /* EquivalenceClass containing righthand */
1917  EquivalenceMember *left_em; /* EquivalenceMember for lefthand */
1918  EquivalenceMember *right_em; /* EquivalenceMember for righthand */
1919  List *scansel_cache; /* list of MergeScanSelCache structs */
1920 
1921  /* transient workspace for use while considering a specific join path */
1922  bool outer_is_left; /* T = outer var on left, F = on right */
1923 
1924  /* valid if clause is hashjoinable, else InvalidOid: */
1925  Oid hashjoinoperator; /* copy of clause operator */
1926 
1927  /* cache space for hashclause processing; -1 if not yet set */
1928  Selectivity left_bucketsize; /* avg bucketsize of left side */
1929  Selectivity right_bucketsize; /* avg bucketsize of right side */
1930  Selectivity left_mcvfreq; /* left side's most common val's freq */
1931  Selectivity right_mcvfreq; /* right side's most common val's freq */
1932 } RestrictInfo;
1933 
1934 /*
1935  * Since mergejoinscansel() is a relatively expensive function, and would
1936  * otherwise be invoked many times while planning a large join tree,
1937  * we go out of our way to cache its results. Each mergejoinable
1938  * RestrictInfo carries a list of the specific sort orderings that have
1939  * been considered for use with it, and the resulting selectivities.
1940  */
1941 typedef struct MergeScanSelCache
1942 {
1943  /* Ordering details (cache lookup key) */
1944  Oid opfamily; /* btree opfamily defining the ordering */
1945  Oid collation; /* collation for the ordering */
1946  int strategy; /* sort direction (ASC or DESC) */
1947  bool nulls_first; /* do NULLs come before normal values? */
1948  /* Results */
1949  Selectivity leftstartsel; /* first-join fraction for clause left side */
1950  Selectivity leftendsel; /* last-join fraction for clause left side */
1951  Selectivity rightstartsel; /* first-join fraction for clause right side */
1952  Selectivity rightendsel; /* last-join fraction for clause right side */
1954 
1955 /*
1956  * Placeholder node for an expression to be evaluated below the top level
1957  * of a plan tree. This is used during planning to represent the contained
1958  * expression. At the end of the planning process it is replaced by either
1959  * the contained expression or a Var referring to a lower-level evaluation of
1960  * the contained expression. Typically the evaluation occurs below an outer
1961  * join, and Var references above the outer join might thereby yield NULL
1962  * instead of the expression value.
1963  *
1964  * Although the planner treats this as an expression node type, it is not
1965  * recognized by the parser or executor, so we declare it here rather than
1966  * in primnodes.h.
1967  */
1968 
1969 typedef struct PlaceHolderVar
1970 {
1972  Expr *phexpr; /* the represented expression */
1973  Relids phrels; /* base relids syntactically within expr src */
1974  Index phid; /* ID for PHV (unique within planner run) */
1975  Index phlevelsup; /* > 0 if PHV belongs to outer query */
1976 } PlaceHolderVar;
1977 
1978 /*
1979  * "Special join" info.
1980  *
1981  * One-sided outer joins constrain the order of joining partially but not
1982  * completely. We flatten such joins into the planner's top-level list of
1983  * relations to join, but record information about each outer join in a
1984  * SpecialJoinInfo struct. These structs are kept in the PlannerInfo node's
1985  * join_info_list.
1986  *
1987  * Similarly, semijoins and antijoins created by flattening IN (subselect)
1988  * and EXISTS(subselect) clauses create partial constraints on join order.
1989  * These are likewise recorded in SpecialJoinInfo structs.
1990  *
1991  * We make SpecialJoinInfos for FULL JOINs even though there is no flexibility
1992  * of planning for them, because this simplifies make_join_rel()'s API.
1993  *
1994  * min_lefthand and min_righthand are the sets of base relids that must be
1995  * available on each side when performing the special join. lhs_strict is
1996  * true if the special join's condition cannot succeed when the LHS variables
1997  * are all NULL (this means that an outer join can commute with upper-level
1998  * outer joins even if it appears in their RHS). We don't bother to set
1999  * lhs_strict for FULL JOINs, however.
2000  *
2001  * It is not valid for either min_lefthand or min_righthand to be empty sets;
2002  * if they were, this would break the logic that enforces join order.
2003  *
2004  * syn_lefthand and syn_righthand are the sets of base relids that are
2005  * syntactically below this special join. (These are needed to help compute
2006  * min_lefthand and min_righthand for higher joins.)
2007  *
2008  * delay_upper_joins is set true if we detect a pushed-down clause that has
2009  * to be evaluated after this join is formed (because it references the RHS).
2010  * Any outer joins that have such a clause and this join in their RHS cannot
2011  * commute with this join, because that would leave noplace to check the
2012  * pushed-down clause. (We don't track this for FULL JOINs, either.)
2013  *
2014  * For a semijoin, we also extract the join operators and their RHS arguments
2015  * and set semi_operators, semi_rhs_exprs, semi_can_btree, and semi_can_hash.
2016  * This is done in support of possibly unique-ifying the RHS, so we don't
2017  * bother unless at least one of semi_can_btree and semi_can_hash can be set
2018  * true. (You might expect that this information would be computed during
2019  * join planning; but it's helpful to have it available during planning of
2020  * parameterized table scans, so we store it in the SpecialJoinInfo structs.)
2021  *
2022  * jointype is never JOIN_RIGHT; a RIGHT JOIN is handled by switching
2023  * the inputs to make it a LEFT JOIN. So the allowed values of jointype
2024  * in a join_info_list member are only LEFT, FULL, SEMI, or ANTI.
2025  *
2026  * For purposes of join selectivity estimation, we create transient
2027  * SpecialJoinInfo structures for regular inner joins; so it is possible
2028  * to have jointype == JOIN_INNER in such a structure, even though this is
2029  * not allowed within join_info_list. We also create transient
2030  * SpecialJoinInfos with jointype == JOIN_INNER for outer joins, since for
2031  * cost estimation purposes it is sometimes useful to know the join size under
2032  * plain innerjoin semantics. Note that lhs_strict, delay_upper_joins, and
2033  * of course the semi_xxx fields are not set meaningfully within such structs.
2034  */
2035 
2036 typedef struct SpecialJoinInfo
2037 {
2039  Relids min_lefthand; /* base relids in minimum LHS for join */
2040  Relids min_righthand; /* base relids in minimum RHS for join */
2041  Relids syn_lefthand; /* base relids syntactically within LHS */
2042  Relids syn_righthand; /* base relids syntactically within RHS */
2043  JoinType jointype; /* always INNER, LEFT, FULL, SEMI, or ANTI */
2044  bool lhs_strict; /* joinclause is strict for some LHS rel */
2045  bool delay_upper_joins; /* can't commute with upper RHS */
2046  /* Remaining fields are set only for JOIN_SEMI jointype: */
2047  bool semi_can_btree; /* true if semi_operators are all btree */
2048  bool semi_can_hash; /* true if semi_operators are all hash */
2049  List *semi_operators; /* OIDs of equality join operators */
2050  List *semi_rhs_exprs; /* righthand-side expressions of these ops */
2051 } SpecialJoinInfo;
2052 
2053 /*
2054  * Append-relation info.
2055  *
2056  * When we expand an inheritable table or a UNION-ALL subselect into an
2057  * "append relation" (essentially, a list of child RTEs), we build an
2058  * AppendRelInfo for each child RTE. The list of AppendRelInfos indicates
2059  * which child RTEs must be included when expanding the parent, and each node
2060  * carries information needed to translate Vars referencing the parent into
2061  * Vars referencing that child.
2062  *
2063  * These structs are kept in the PlannerInfo node's append_rel_list.
2064  * Note that we just throw all the structs into one list, and scan the
2065  * whole list when desiring to expand any one parent. We could have used
2066  * a more complex data structure (eg, one list per parent), but this would
2067  * be harder to update during operations such as pulling up subqueries,
2068  * and not really any easier to scan. Considering that typical queries
2069  * will not have many different append parents, it doesn't seem worthwhile
2070  * to complicate things.
2071  *
2072  * Note: after completion of the planner prep phase, any given RTE is an
2073  * append parent having entries in append_rel_list if and only if its
2074  * "inh" flag is set. We clear "inh" for plain tables that turn out not
2075  * to have inheritance children, and (in an abuse of the original meaning
2076  * of the flag) we set "inh" for subquery RTEs that turn out to be
2077  * flattenable UNION ALL queries. This lets us avoid useless searches
2078  * of append_rel_list.
2079  *
2080  * Note: the data structure assumes that append-rel members are single
2081  * baserels. This is OK for inheritance, but it prevents us from pulling
2082  * up a UNION ALL member subquery if it contains a join. While that could
2083  * be fixed with a more complex data structure, at present there's not much
2084  * point because no improvement in the plan could result.
2085  */
2086 
2087 typedef struct AppendRelInfo
2088 {
2090 
2091  /*
2092  * These fields uniquely identify this append relationship. There can be
2093  * (in fact, always should be) multiple AppendRelInfos for the same
2094  * parent_relid, but never more than one per child_relid, since a given
2095  * RTE cannot be a child of more than one append parent.
2096  */
2097  Index parent_relid; /* RT index of append parent rel */
2098  Index child_relid; /* RT index of append child rel */
2099 
2100  /*
2101  * For an inheritance appendrel, the parent and child are both regular
2102  * relations, and we store their rowtype OIDs here for use in translating
2103  * whole-row Vars. For a UNION-ALL appendrel, the parent and child are
2104  * both subqueries with no named rowtype, and we store InvalidOid here.
2105  */
2106  Oid parent_reltype; /* OID of parent's composite type */
2107  Oid child_reltype; /* OID of child's composite type */
2108 
2109  /*
2110  * The N'th element of this list is a Var or expression representing the
2111  * child column corresponding to the N'th column of the parent. This is
2112  * used to translate Vars referencing the parent rel into references to
2113  * the child. A list element is NULL if it corresponds to a dropped
2114  * column of the parent (this is only possible for inheritance cases, not
2115  * UNION ALL). The list elements are always simple Vars for inheritance
2116  * cases, but can be arbitrary expressions in UNION ALL cases.
2117  *
2118  * Notice we only store entries for user columns (attno > 0). Whole-row
2119  * Vars are special-cased, and system columns (attno < 0) need no special
2120  * translation since their attnos are the same for all tables.
2121  *
2122  * Caution: the Vars have varlevelsup = 0. Be careful to adjust as needed
2123  * when copying into a subquery.
2124  */
2125  List *translated_vars; /* Expressions in the child's Vars */
2126 
2127  /*
2128  * We store the parent table's OID here for inheritance, or InvalidOid for
2129  * UNION ALL. This is only needed to help in generating error messages if
2130  * an attempt is made to reference a dropped parent column.
2131  */
2132  Oid parent_reloid; /* OID of parent relation */
2133 } AppendRelInfo;
2134 
2135 /*
2136  * For each distinct placeholder expression generated during planning, we
2137  * store a PlaceHolderInfo node in the PlannerInfo node's placeholder_list.
2138  * This stores info that is needed centrally rather than in each copy of the
2139  * PlaceHolderVar. The phid fields identify which PlaceHolderInfo goes with
2140  * each PlaceHolderVar. Note that phid is unique throughout a planner run,
2141  * not just within a query level --- this is so that we need not reassign ID's
2142  * when pulling a subquery into its parent.
2143  *
2144  * The idea is to evaluate the expression at (only) the ph_eval_at join level,
2145  * then allow it to bubble up like a Var until the ph_needed join level.
2146  * ph_needed has the same definition as attr_needed for a regular Var.
2147  *
2148  * The PlaceHolderVar's expression might contain LATERAL references to vars
2149  * coming from outside its syntactic scope. If so, those rels are *not*
2150  * included in ph_eval_at, but they are recorded in ph_lateral.
2151  *
2152  * Notice that when ph_eval_at is a join rather than a single baserel, the
2153  * PlaceHolderInfo may create constraints on join order: the ph_eval_at join
2154  * has to be formed below any outer joins that should null the PlaceHolderVar.
2155  *
2156  * We create a PlaceHolderInfo only after determining that the PlaceHolderVar
2157  * is actually referenced in the plan tree, so that unreferenced placeholders
2158  * don't result in unnecessary constraints on join order.
2159  */
2160 
2161 typedef struct PlaceHolderInfo
2162 {
2164 
2165  Index phid; /* ID for PH (unique within planner run) */
2166  PlaceHolderVar *ph_var; /* copy of PlaceHolderVar tree */
2167  Relids ph_eval_at; /* lowest level we can evaluate value at */
2168  Relids ph_lateral; /* relids of contained lateral refs, if any */
2169  Relids ph_needed; /* highest level the value is needed at */
2170  int32 ph_width; /* estimated attribute width */
2171 } PlaceHolderInfo;
2172 
2173 /*
2174  * This struct describes one potentially index-optimizable MIN/MAX aggregate
2175  * function. MinMaxAggPath contains a list of these, and if we accept that
2176  * path, the list is stored into root->minmax_aggs for use during setrefs.c.
2177  */
2178 typedef struct MinMaxAggInfo
2179 {
2181 
2182  Oid aggfnoid; /* pg_proc Oid of the aggregate */
2183  Oid aggsortop; /* Oid of its sort operator */
2184  Expr *target; /* expression we are aggregating on */
2185  PlannerInfo *subroot; /* modified "root" for planning the subquery */
2186  Path *path; /* access path for subquery */
2187  Cost pathcost; /* estimated cost to fetch first row */
2188  Param *param; /* param for subplan's output */
2189 } MinMaxAggInfo;
2190 
2191 /*
2192  * At runtime, PARAM_EXEC slots are used to pass values around from one plan
2193  * node to another. They can be used to pass values down into subqueries (for
2194  * outer references in subqueries), or up out of subqueries (for the results
2195  * of a subplan), or from a NestLoop plan node into its inner relation (when
2196  * the inner scan is parameterized with values from the outer relation).
2197  * The planner is responsible for assigning nonconflicting PARAM_EXEC IDs to
2198  * the PARAM_EXEC Params it generates.
2199  *
2200  * Outer references are managed via root->plan_params, which is a list of
2201  * PlannerParamItems. While planning a subquery, each parent query level's
2202  * plan_params contains the values required from it by the current subquery.
2203  * During create_plan(), we use plan_params to track values that must be
2204  * passed from outer to inner sides of NestLoop plan nodes.
2205  *
2206  * The item a PlannerParamItem represents can be one of three kinds:
2207  *
2208  * A Var: the slot represents a variable of this level that must be passed
2209  * down because subqueries have outer references to it, or must be passed
2210  * from a NestLoop node to its inner scan. The varlevelsup value in the Var
2211  * will always be zero.
2212  *
2213  * A PlaceHolderVar: this works much like the Var case, except that the
2214  * entry is a PlaceHolderVar node with a contained expression. The PHV
2215  * will have phlevelsup = 0, and the contained expression is adjusted
2216  * to match in level.
2217  *
2218  * An Aggref (with an expression tree representing its argument): the slot
2219  * represents an aggregate expression that is an outer reference for some
2220  * subquery. The Aggref itself has agglevelsup = 0, and its argument tree
2221  * is adjusted to match in level.
2222  *
2223  * Note: we detect duplicate Var and PlaceHolderVar parameters and coalesce
2224  * them into one slot, but we do not bother to do that for Aggrefs.
2225  * The scope of duplicate-elimination only extends across the set of
2226  * parameters passed from one query level into a single subquery, or for
2227  * nestloop parameters across the set of nestloop parameters used in a single
2228  * query level. So there is no possibility of a PARAM_EXEC slot being used
2229  * for conflicting purposes.
2230  *
2231  * In addition, PARAM_EXEC slots are assigned for Params representing outputs
2232  * from subplans (values that are setParam items for those subplans). These
2233  * IDs need not be tracked via PlannerParamItems, since we do not need any
2234  * duplicate-elimination nor later processing of the represented expressions.
2235  * Instead, we just record the assignment of the slot number by appending to
2236  * root->glob->paramExecTypes.
2237  */
2238 typedef struct PlannerParamItem
2239 {
2241 
2242  Node *item; /* the Var, PlaceHolderVar, or Aggref */
2243  int paramId; /* its assigned PARAM_EXEC slot number */
2245 
2246 /*
2247  * When making cost estimates for a SEMI/ANTI/inner_unique join, there are
2248  * some correction factors that are needed in both nestloop and hash joins
2249  * to account for the fact that the executor can stop scanning inner rows
2250  * as soon as it finds a match to the current outer row. These numbers
2251  * depend only on the selected outer and inner join relations, not on the
2252  * particular paths used for them, so it's worthwhile to calculate them
2253  * just once per relation pair not once per considered path. This struct
2254  * is filled by compute_semi_anti_join_factors and must be passed along
2255  * to the join cost estimation functions.
2256  *
2257  * outer_match_frac is the fraction of the outer tuples that are
2258  * expected to have at least one match.
2259  * match_count is the average number of matches expected for
2260  * outer tuples that have at least one match.
2261  */
2262 typedef struct SemiAntiJoinFactors
2263 {
2267 
2268 /*
2269  * Struct for extra information passed to subroutines of add_paths_to_joinrel
2270  *
2271  * restrictlist contains all of the RestrictInfo nodes for restriction
2272  * clauses that apply to this join
2273  * mergeclause_list is a list of RestrictInfo nodes for available
2274  * mergejoin clauses in this join
2275  * inner_unique is true if each outer tuple provably matches no more
2276  * than one inner tuple
2277  * sjinfo is extra info about special joins for selectivity estimation
2278  * semifactors is as shown above (only valid for SEMI/ANTI/inner_unique joins)
2279  * param_source_rels are OK targets for parameterization of result paths
2280  */
2281 typedef struct JoinPathExtraData
2282 {
2290 
2291 /*
2292  * Various flags indicating what kinds of grouping are possible.
2293  *
2294  * GROUPING_CAN_USE_SORT should be set if it's possible to perform
2295  * sort-based implementations of grouping. When grouping sets are in use,
2296  * this will be true if sorting is potentially usable for any of the grouping
2297  * sets, even if it's not usable for all of them.
2298  *
2299  * GROUPING_CAN_USE_HASH should be set if it's possible to perform
2300  * hash-based implementations of grouping.
2301  *
2302  * GROUPING_CAN_PARTIAL_AGG should be set if the aggregation is of a type
2303  * for which we support partial aggregation (not, for example, grouping sets).
2304  * It says nothing about parallel-safety or the availability of suitable paths.
2305  */
2306 #define GROUPING_CAN_USE_SORT 0x0001
2307 #define GROUPING_CAN_USE_HASH 0x0002
2308 #define GROUPING_CAN_PARTIAL_AGG 0x0004
2309 
2310 /*
2311  * What kind of partitionwise aggregation is in use?
2312  *
2313  * PARTITIONWISE_AGGREGATE_NONE: Not used.
2314  *
2315  * PARTITIONWISE_AGGREGATE_FULL: Aggregate each partition separately, and
2316  * append the results.
2317  *
2318  * PARTITIONWISE_AGGREGATE_PARTIAL: Partially aggregate each partition
2319  * separately, append the results, and then finalize aggregation.
2320  */
2321 typedef enum
2322 {
2327 
2328 /*
2329  * Struct for extra information passed to subroutines of create_grouping_paths
2330  *
2331  * flags indicating what kinds of grouping are possible.
2332  * partial_costs_set is true if the agg_partial_costs and agg_final_costs
2333  * have been initialized.
2334  * agg_partial_costs gives partial aggregation costs.
2335  * agg_final_costs gives finalization costs.
2336  * target_parallel_safe is true if target is parallel safe.
2337  * havingQual gives list of quals to be applied after aggregation.
2338  * targetList gives list of columns to be projected.
2339  * patype is the type of partitionwise aggregation that is being performed.
2340  */
2341 typedef struct
2342 {
2343  /* Data which remains constant once set. */
2344  int flags;
2348 
2349  /* Data which may differ across partitions. */
2355 
2356 /*
2357  * For speed reasons, cost estimation for join paths is performed in two
2358  * phases: the first phase tries to quickly derive a lower bound for the
2359  * join cost, and then we check if that's sufficient to reject the path.
2360  * If not, we come back for a more refined cost estimate. The first phase
2361  * fills a JoinCostWorkspace struct with its preliminary cost estimates
2362  * and possibly additional intermediate values. The second phase takes
2363  * these values as inputs to avoid repeating work.
2364  *
2365  * (Ideally we'd declare this in cost.h, but it's also needed in pathnode.h,
2366  * so seems best to put it here.)
2367  */
2368 typedef struct JoinCostWorkspace
2369 {
2370  /* Preliminary cost estimates --- must not be larger than final ones! */
2371  Cost startup_cost; /* cost expended before fetching any tuples */
2372  Cost total_cost; /* total cost (assuming all tuples fetched) */
2373 
2374  /* Fields below here should be treated as private to costsize.c */
2375  Cost run_cost; /* non-startup cost components */
2376 
2377  /* private for cost_nestloop code */
2378  Cost inner_run_cost; /* also used by cost_mergejoin code */
2380 
2381  /* private for cost_mergejoin code */
2382  double outer_rows;
2383  double inner_rows;
2386 
2387  /* private for cost_hashjoin code */
2392 
2393 #endif /* RELATION_H */
QualCost eval_cost
Definition: relation.h:1904
bool has_eclass_joins
Definition: relation.h:666
struct ModifyTablePath ModifyTablePath
struct Path * cheapest_unique_path
Definition: relation.h:619
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:1600
List * indexorderbycols
Definition: relation.h:1148
signed short int16
Definition: c.h:312
char maxParallelHazard
Definition: relation.h:136
List * group_pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:265
struct MinMaxAggPath MinMaxAggPath
List * rowMarks
Definition: relation.h:257
struct ForeignKeyOptInfo ForeignKeyOptInfo
Relids ph_needed
Definition: relation.h:2169
List * qual
Definition: relation.h:1553
bool semi_can_btree
Definition: relation.h:2047
Definition: fmgr.h:56
Selectivity leftendsel
Definition: relation.h:1950
List * path_mergeclauses
Definition: relation.h:1470
int join_cur_level
Definition: relation.h:229
List * outersortkeys
Definition: relation.h:1471
List * distinctList
Definition: relation.h:1656
List * unique_for_rels
Definition: relation.h:655
JoinPath jpath
Definition: relation.h:1488
struct GroupingSetData GroupingSetData
PathTarget * pathtarget
Definition: relation.h:1067
Query * parse
Definition: relation.h:158
List * statlist
Definition: relation.h:638
List * returningLists
Definition: relation.h:1706
struct PathTarget PathTarget
Index security_level
Definition: relation.h:1879
OnConflictExpr * onconflict
Definition: relation.h:1708
List * groupClause
Definition: relation.h:1601
bool predOK
Definition: relation.h:776
Node * limitOffset
Definition: relation.h:1719
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1565
struct PlaceHolderInfo PlaceHolderInfo
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1142
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:2089
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1537
Relids ph_eval_at
Definition: relation.h:2167
List * plan_params
Definition: relation.h:172
PlaceHolderVar * ph_var
Definition: relation.h:2166
IndexOptInfo * indexinfo
Definition: relation.h:1143
SemiAntiJoinFactors semifactors
Definition: relation.h:2287
Index nominalRelation
Definition: relation.h:1698
Oid * indexcollations
Definition: relation.h:755
bool hasJoinRTEs
Definition: relation.h:303
Path * fdw_outerpath
Definition: relation.h:1243
RelOptKind reloptkind
Definition: relation.h:597
Relids * attr_needed
Definition: relation.h:633
List * custom_paths
Definition: relation.h:1273
List * query_pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:263
int num_batches
Definition: relation.h:1490
List * join_info_list
Definition: relation.h:253
Relids required_relids
Definition: relation.h:1885
SetOpStrategy strategy
Definition: relation.h:1655
Relids min_righthand
Definition: relation.h:2040
AggStrategy aggstrategy
Definition: relation.h:1580
bool materialize_inner
Definition: relation.h:1474
void * join_search_private
Definition: relation.h:320
Selectivity right_mcvfreq
Definition: relation.h:1931
Relids curOuterRels
Definition: relation.h:316
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:832
List * qual
Definition: relation.h:1584
bool leakproof
Definition: relation.h:1877
Index ec_min_security
Definition: relation.h:896
Expr * orclause
Definition: relation.h:1898
Selectivity outer_match_frac
Definition: relation.h:2264
Path * innerjoinpath
Definition: relation.h:1415
struct BitmapOrPath BitmapOrPath
List * indextlist
Definition: relation.h:768
struct AppendPath AppendPath
struct Path * cheapest_startup_path
Definition: relation.h:617
struct LockRowsPath LockRowsPath
Oid userid
Definition: relation.h:648
struct IndexPath IndexPath
struct CustomPath CustomPath
Relids em_nullable_relids
Definition: relation.h:936
int lastPlanNodeId
Definition: relation.h:126
double tuples
Definition: relation.h:640
Oid reltablespace
Definition: relation.h:629
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1653
List * baserestrictinfo
Definition: relation.h:660
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:1062
List * ec_derives
Definition: relation.h:888
struct UniquePath UniquePath
AggClauseCosts agg_partial_costs
Definition: relation.h:2346
List * rowMarks
Definition: relation.h:1707
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:2038
struct SpecialJoinInfo SpecialJoinInfo
Relids clause_relids
Definition: relation.h:1882
Param * param
Definition: relation.h:2188
struct JoinPathExtraData JoinPathExtraData
int parallel_workers
Definition: relation.h:1073
bool pseudoconstant
Definition: relation.h:1875
RelOptKind
Definition: relation.h:558
bool consider_param_startup
Definition: relation.h:607
struct PlannerInfo PlannerInfo
List * resultRelations
Definition: relation.h:111
struct RollupData RollupData
bool is_hashed
Definition: relation.h:1606
ParamPathInfo * param_info
Definition: relation.h:1069
struct EquivalenceMember EquivalenceMember
Index ec_sortref
Definition: relation.h:895
Definition: nodes.h:517
List * part_schemes
Definition: relation.h:270
PartitionwiseAggregateType patype
Definition: relation.h:2353
Oid * sortopfamily
Definition: relation.h:758
struct SubqueryScanPath SubqueryScanPath
List * partial_pathlist
Definition: relation.h:616
Oid reltablespace
Definition: relation.h:742
Relids left_relids
Definition: relation.h:1894
List * join_rel_list
Definition: relation.h:218
bool ec_below_outer_join
Definition: relation.h:893
uint32 flags
Definition: relation.h:1271
bool hasNonSerial
Definition: relation.h:62
uint32 BlockNumber
Definition: block.h:31
EquivalenceClass * right_ec
Definition: relation.h:1916
List * cheapest_parameterized_paths
Definition: relation.h:620
List * minmax_aggs
Definition: relation.h:289
bool single_copy
Definition: relation.h:1384
bool hypothetical
Definition: relation.h:779
Index baserestrict_min_security
Definition: relation.h:662
UniquePathMethod umethod
Definition: relation.h:1370
struct WindowAggPath WindowAggPath
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1344
List * indexclauses
Definition: relation.h:1144
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:595
double Selectivity
Definition: nodes.h:647
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:2163
Index ec_max_security
Definition: relation.h:897
bool hasNonPartial
Definition: relation.h:61
bool useridiscurrent
Definition: relation.h:649
AggSplit aggsplit
Definition: relation.h:1581
bool immediate
Definition: relation.h:778
QualCost transCost
Definition: relation.h:63
List * partitioned_rels
Definition: relation.h:1317
struct ProjectSetPath ProjectSetPath
Selectivity bitmapselectivity
Definition: relation.h:1187
double tuples
Definition: relation.h:747
unsigned int Oid
Definition: postgres_ext.h:31
NodeTag
Definition: nodes.h:26
List * quals
Definition: relation.h:1629
UpperRelationKind
Definition: relation.h:72
List ** nullable_partexprs
Definition: relation.h:679
struct ResultPath ResultPath
AttrNumber * grouping_map
Definition: relation.h:288
List * fkey_list
Definition: relation.h:261
PartitionwiseAggregateType
Definition: relation.h:2321
int tree_height
Definition: relation.h:748
double inner_rows_total
Definition: relation.h:1491
struct GatherMergePath GatherMergePath
bool hasRecursion
Definition: relation.h:309
double numGroups
Definition: relation.h:1582
double numGroups
Definition: relation.h:1659
List * mergeopfamilies
Definition: relation.h:1912
List * translated_vars
Definition: relation.h:2125
SetOpStrategy
Definition: nodes.h:795
Cost inner_rescan_run_cost
Definition: relation.h:2379
Oid parent_reltype
Definition: relation.h:2106
Relids syn_lefthand
Definition: relation.h:2041
List * rowMarks
Definition: relation.h:1682
int pk_strategy
Definition: relation.h:965
List * winpathkeys
Definition: relation.h:1644
struct PlaceHolderVar PlaceHolderVar
double numGroups
Definition: relation.h:1604
Cost startup
Definition: relation.h:46
double allvisfrac
Definition: relation.h:641
Relids outer_relids
Definition: relation.h:1888
signed int int32
Definition: c.h:313
static struct cvec * eclass(struct vars *v, chr c, int cases)
Definition: regc_locale.c:508
List * bitmapquals
Definition: relation.h:1186
Selectivity norm_selec
Definition: relation.h:1905
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1292
List * custom_private
Definition: relation.h:1274
JoinType
Definition: nodes.h:681
struct PlannerGlobal PlannerGlobal
int first_partial_path
Definition: relation.h:1298
WindowClause * winclause
Definition: relation.h:1643
struct RelOptInfo ** simple_rel_array
Definition: relation.h:182
List * bitmapquals
Definition: relation.h:1199
int num_workers
Definition: relation.h:1385
List * rootResultRelations
Definition: relation.h:114
List * multiexpr_params
Definition: relation.h:235
bool unique
Definition: relation.h:777
BlockNumber pages
Definition: relation.h:746
NodeTag pathtype
Definition: relation.h:1064
Relids syn_righthand
Definition: relation.h:2042
List * subpaths
Definition: relation.h:1295
PlannerInfo * subroot
Definition: relation.h:642
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:961
SetOpCmd cmd
Definition: relation.h:1654
bool dependsOnRole
Definition: relation.h:130
struct AggPath AggPath
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:1593
bool consider_startup
Definition: relation.h:606
Definition: dynahash.c:208
struct MaterialPath MaterialPath
Relids lateral_relids
Definition: relation.h:625
Cost per_tuple
Definition: relation.h:47
const struct CustomPathMethods * methods
Definition: relation.h:1275
List * indexquals
Definition: relation.h:1145
int wt_param_id
Definition: relation.h:312
double tuple_fraction
Definition: relation.h:295
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1642
bool skip_mark_restore
Definition: relation.h:1473
RelOptInfo * rel
Definition: relation.h:743
bool amoptionalkey
Definition: relation.h:783
SpecialJoinInfo * sjinfo
Definition: relation.h:2286
List ** partexprs
Definition: relation.h:678
bool parallelModeNeeded
Definition: relation.h:134
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1331
struct AppendRelInfo AppendRelInfo
Relids phrels
Definition: relation.h:1973
Relids all_baserels
Definition: relation.h:199
bool pk_nulls_first
Definition: relation.h:966
Path * path
Definition: relation.h:2186
List * paramExecTypes
Definition: relation.h:120
bool hasDeletedRTEs
Definition: relation.h:305
Expr * phexpr
Definition: relation.h:1972
Relids param_source_rels
Definition: relation.h:2288
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:1023
struct PartitionSchemeData * PartitionScheme
Definition: relation.h:366
double limit_tuples
Definition: relation.h:296
EquivalenceMember * left_em
Definition: relation.h:1917
Cost indextotalcost
Definition: relation.h:1150
Cost startup_cost
Definition: relation.h:1077
List * semi_rhs_exprs
Definition: relation.h:2050
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:995
bool semi_can_hash
Definition: relation.h:2048
bool hasLateralRTEs
Definition: relation.h:304
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1718
struct PlannerParamItem PlannerParamItem
List * joinrestrictinfo
Definition: relation.h:1417
bool parallelModeOK
Definition: relation.h:132
EquivalenceClass * parent_ec
Definition: relation.h:1901
bool partColsUpdated
Definition: relation.h:1701
bool can_join
Definition: relation.h:1873
RTEKind
Definition: parsenodes.h:946
int16 * parttyplen
Definition: relation.h:359
List * subroots
Definition: relation.h:1704
Bitmapset * rewindPlanIDs
Definition: relation.h:105
RelOptInfo * parent
Definition: relation.h:1066
List * uniq_exprs
Definition: relation.h:1372
Path * bitmapqual
Definition: relation.h:1174
bool outerjoin_delayed
Definition: relation.h:1871
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1550
List * ec_sources
Definition: relation.h:887
struct Path * cheapest_total_path
Definition: relation.h:618
Selectivity rightstartsel
Definition: relation.h:1951
List * curOuterParams
Definition: relation.h:317
struct SetOpPath SetOpPath
struct IndexOptInfo IndexOptInfo
Selectivity indexselectivity
Definition: relation.h:1151
List * subplans
Definition: relation.h:101
bool amcanorderbyop
Definition: relation.h:782
List * joininfo
Definition: relation.h:664
struct GroupPath GroupPath
Relids ec_relids
Definition: relation.h:889
PlannerGlobal * glob
Definition: relation.h:160
bool outer_is_left
Definition: relation.h:1922
bool partColsUpdated
Definition: relation.h:323
struct FdwRoutine * fdwroutine
Definition: relation.h:651
List * left_join_clauses
Definition: relation.h:242
int nparts
Definition: relation.h:673
ScanDirection
Definition: sdir.h:22
List * full_join_clauses
Definition: relation.h:250
struct GroupingSetsPath GroupingSetsPath
List * subpaths
Definition: relation.h:1703
List * groupClause
Definition: relation.h:1583
Index * sortgrouprefs
Definition: relation.h:997
List * mergeclause_list
Definition: relation.h:2284
unsigned int uint32
Definition: c.h:325
AttrNumber flagColIdx
Definition: relation.h:1657
Relids relids
Definition: relation.h:600
AggStrategy aggstrategy
Definition: relation.h:1617
Selectivity outer_selec
Definition: relation.h:1908
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1383
struct TidPath TidPath
double total_table_pages
Definition: relation.h:293
struct LimitPath LimitPath
Selectivity bitmapselectivity
Definition: relation.h:1200
struct RecursiveUnionPath RecursiveUnionPath
RelOptInfo * rel
Definition: relation.h:835
int simple_rel_array_size
Definition: relation.h:183
int ncolumns
Definition: relation.h:751
bool amhasgetbitmap
Definition: relation.h:787
List * canon_pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:240
List * non_unique_for_rels
Definition: relation.h:657
List * ppilist
Definition: relation.h:615
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1270
Index relid
Definition: relation.h:628
Bitmapset * Relids
Definition: relation.h:29
List * sort_pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:268
RangeTblEntry ** simple_rte_array
Definition: relation.h:191
struct PlannerInfo * parent_root
Definition: relation.h:164
EquivalenceMember * right_em
Definition: relation.h:1918
Relids lateral_referencers
Definition: relation.h:636
Expr * clause
Definition: relation.h:1867
int numOrderedAggs
Definition: relation.h:60
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1681
Oid serverid
Definition: relation.h:647
List * ec_opfamilies
Definition: relation.h:884
List * exprs
Definition: relation.h:996
struct ParamPathInfo ParamPathInfo
struct Path Path
List * window_pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:266
List * indrestrictinfo
Definition: relation.h:770
Relids direct_lateral_relids
Definition: relation.h:624
FmgrInfo * partsupfunc
Definition: relation.h:363
Path * outerjoinpath
Definition: relation.h:1414
List * invalItems
Definition: relation.h:118
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:156
struct MinMaxAggInfo MinMaxAggInfo
Relids nullable_relids
Definition: relation.h:1891
double inner_rows_total
Definition: relation.h:2390
bool delay_upper_joins
Definition: relation.h:2045
struct QualCost QualCost
List * indexorderbys
Definition: relation.h:1147
int rel_parallel_workers
Definition: relation.h:644
List * groupClause
Definition: relation.h:1552
List * append_rel_list
Definition: relation.h:255
Index lastPHId
Definition: relation.h:122
List * cte_plan_ids
Definition: relation.h:233
List * mmaggregates
Definition: relation.h:1628
Relids ph_lateral
Definition: relation.h:2168
List * partitioned_rels
Definition: relation.h:1700
Relids em_relids
Definition: relation.h:935
struct PartitionBoundInfoData * boundinfo
Definition: relation.h:674
List * tidquals
Definition: relation.h:1213
List * restrictlist
Definition: relation.h:2283
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1551
unsigned int Index
Definition: c.h:442
struct ForeignPath ForeignPath
RTEKind rtekind
Definition: relation.h:630
List * indexlist
Definition: relation.h:637
List * init_plans
Definition: relation.h:231
List * in_operators
Definition: relation.h:1371
struct SemiAntiJoinFactors SemiAntiJoinFactors
struct MergeScanSelCache MergeScanSelCache
struct RestrictInfo RestrictInfo
double rows
Definition: relation.h:603
bool hasPseudoConstantQuals
Definition: relation.h:307
bool amhasgettuple
Definition: relation.h:786
Cost finalCost
Definition: relation.h:64
List * distinct_pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:267
bool is_pushed_down
Definition: relation.h:1869
void * fdw_private
Definition: relation.h:652
Cost total_cost
Definition: relation.h:1078
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:739
Selectivity left_bucketsize
Definition: relation.h:1928
int firstFlag
Definition: relation.h:1658
double outer_skip_rows
Definition: relation.h:2384
List * pathkeys
Definition: relation.h:1080
struct GatherPath GatherPath
List * nonleafResultRelations
Definition: relation.h:113
Relids right_relids
Definition: relation.h:1895
BlockNumber pages
Definition: relation.h:639
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1407
ParamListInfo boundParams
Definition: relation.h:99
struct AggClauseCosts AggClauseCosts
Expr * target
Definition: relation.h:2184
List * eq_classes
Definition: relation.h:238
List ** join_rel_level
Definition: relation.h:228
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:97
JoinPath NestPath
Definition: relation.h:1430
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1523
double rows
Definition: relation.h:1076
bool parallel_safe
Definition: relation.h:1072
List * lateral_vars
Definition: relation.h:635
bool hasInheritedTarget
Definition: relation.h:301
List * quals
Definition: relation.h:1332
JoinType jointype
Definition: relation.h:2043
EquivalenceClass * pk_eclass
Definition: relation.h:963
Bitmapset * outer_params
Definition: relation.h:173
Selectivity left_mcvfreq
Definition: relation.h:1930
List * ppi_clauses
Definition: relation.h:1027
struct RelOptInfo ** part_rels
Definition: relation.h:676
struct Path * non_recursive_path
Definition: relation.h:313
#define INDEX_MAX_KEYS
size_t Size
Definition: c.h:433
Oid hashjoinoperator
Definition: relation.h:1925
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:1865
QualCost cost
Definition: relation.h:998
AggSplit
Definition: nodes.h:765
bool ec_has_volatile
Definition: relation.h:892
List * relationOids
Definition: relation.h:116
struct HashPath HashPath
List * subroots
Definition: relation.h:103
bool amsearcharray
Definition: relation.h:784
struct HTAB * join_rel_hash
Definition: relation.h:219
CostSelector
Definition: relation.h:35
struct JoinPath JoinPath
bool inner_unique
Definition: relation.h:1411
Index qual_security_level
Definition: relation.h:298
bool consider_parallel
Definition: relation.h:608
int nkeycolumns
Definition: relation.h:752
List * innersortkeys
Definition: relation.h:1472
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1579
Oid * opcintype
Definition: relation.h:757
struct EquivalenceClass EquivalenceClass
List * partitioned_rels
Definition: relation.h:1294
struct PartitionSchemeData PartitionSchemeData
Index query_level
Definition: relation.h:162
Oid pk_opfamily
Definition: relation.h:964
struct JoinCostWorkspace JoinCostWorkspace
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1396
struct SortPath SortPath
double ppi_rows
Definition: relation.h:1026
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1717
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1212
Oid child_reltype
Definition: relation.h:2107
Oid * opfamily
Definition: relation.h:756
List * withCheckOptionLists
Definition: relation.h:1705
List * indexqualcols
Definition: relation.h:1146
List * finalrtable
Definition: relation.h:107
int width
Definition: relation.h:999
List * partitioned_child_rels
Definition: relation.h:680
AggStrategy
Definition: nodes.h:743
Bitmapset * keys
Definition: relation.h:837
Index phlevelsup
Definition: relation.h:1975
Index lastRowMarkId
Definition: relation.h:124
AttrNumber max_attr
Definition: relation.h:632
Selectivity match_count
Definition: relation.h:2265
Selectivity right_bucketsize
Definition: relation.h:1929
EquivalenceClass * left_ec
Definition: relation.h:1915
Relids nullable_baserels
Definition: relation.h:207
struct MergeAppendPath MergeAppendPath
List * fdw_private
Definition: relation.h:1244
SetOpCmd
Definition: nodes.h:787
JoinType jointype
Definition: relation.h:1409
List * semi_operators
Definition: relation.h:2049
ScanDirection indexscandir
Definition: relation.h:1149
CmdType operation
Definition: relation.h:1696
List * placeholder_list
Definition: relation.h:259
List * resultRelations
Definition: relation.h:1702
struct StatisticExtInfo StatisticExtInfo
Size transitionSpace
Definition: relation.h:65
double numGroups
Definition: relation.h:1595
bool hashable
Definition: relation.h:1605
struct BitmapHeapPath BitmapHeapPath
bool hasHavingQual
Definition: relation.h:306
struct PathKey PathKey
JoinPath jpath
Definition: relation.h:1469
PartitionScheme part_scheme
Definition: relation.h:672
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:882
bool parallel_aware
Definition: relation.h:1071
int * indexkeys
Definition: relation.h:753
List * path_hashclauses
Definition: relation.h:1489
struct ProjectionPath ProjectionPath
UniquePathMethod
Definition: relation.h:1359
struct UpperUniquePath UpperUniquePath
List * initial_rels
Definition: relation.h:273
List * pathlist
Definition: relation.h:614
List * subpaths
Definition: relation.h:1318
Relids ppi_req_outer
Definition: relation.h:1025
MemoryContext planner_cxt
Definition: relation.h:291
struct MergePath MergePath
List * right_join_clauses
Definition: relation.h:246
Oid indexoid
Definition: relation.h:741
Index child_relid
Definition: relation.h:2098
bool * canreturn
Definition: relation.h:761
bool amsearchnulls
Definition: relation.h:785
Oid parent_reloid
Definition: relation.h:2132
List * partition_qual
Definition: relation.h:675
bool * nulls_first
Definition: relation.h:760
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1511
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1382
Index parent_relid
Definition: relation.h:2097
bool * reverse_sort
Definition: relation.h:759
double inner_skip_rows
Definition: relation.h:2385
List * processed_tlist
Definition: relation.h:285
List * indpred
Definition: relation.h:766
int32 * attr_widths
Definition: relation.h:634
AggClauseCosts agg_final_costs
Definition: relation.h:2347
Node * limitCount
Definition: relation.h:1720
List * finalrowmarks
Definition: relation.h:109
Definition: pg_list.h:45
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1536
struct PathTarget * reltarget
Definition: relation.h:611
Relids min_lefthand
Definition: relation.h:2039
int16 AttrNumber
Definition: attnum.h:21
QualCost baserestrictcost
Definition: relation.h:661
List * subplan_params
Definition: relation.h:643
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1652
NodeTag type
Definition: relation.h:2180
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1368
CmdType
Definition: nodes.h:657
List * gsets_data
Definition: relation.h:1603
Path path
Definition: relation.h:1578
struct RelOptInfo RelOptInfo
double limit_tuples
Definition: relation.h:1319
struct EquivalenceClass * ec_merged
Definition: relation.h:898
Selectivity rightendsel
Definition: relation.h:1952
bool amcanparallel
Definition: relation.h:788
double Cost
Definition: nodes.h:648
List * scansel_cache
Definition: relation.h:1919
Selectivity leftstartsel
Definition: relation.h:1949
List * ec_members
Definition: relation.h:886
List * indexprs
Definition: relation.h:765
Relids top_parent_relids
Definition: relation.h:669
bool transientPlan
Definition: relation.h:128
List * gsets
Definition: relation.h:1602
Path * subpath
Definition: relation.h:1369
PlannerInfo * subroot
Definition: relation.h:2185
bool target_parallel_safe
Definition: relation.h:2350
struct BitmapAndPath BitmapAndPath
AttrNumber min_attr
Definition: relation.h:631