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portal.h
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * portal.h
4  * POSTGRES portal definitions.
5  *
6  * A portal is an abstraction which represents the execution state of
7  * a running or runnable query. Portals support both SQL-level CURSORs
8  * and protocol-level portals.
9  *
10  * Scrolling (nonsequential access) and suspension of execution are allowed
11  * only for portals that contain a single SELECT-type query. We do not want
12  * to let the client suspend an update-type query partway through! Because
13  * the query rewriter does not allow arbitrary ON SELECT rewrite rules,
14  * only queries that were originally update-type could produce multiple
15  * plan trees; so the restriction to a single query is not a problem
16  * in practice.
17  *
18  * For SQL cursors, we support three kinds of scroll behavior:
19  *
20  * (1) Neither NO SCROLL nor SCROLL was specified: to remain backward
21  * compatible, we allow backward fetches here, unless it would
22  * impose additional runtime overhead to do so.
23  *
24  * (2) NO SCROLL was specified: don't allow any backward fetches.
25  *
26  * (3) SCROLL was specified: allow all kinds of backward fetches, even
27  * if we need to take a performance hit to do so. (The planner sticks
28  * a Materialize node atop the query plan if needed.)
29  *
30  * Case #1 is converted to #2 or #3 by looking at the query itself and
31  * determining if scrollability can be supported without additional
32  * overhead.
33  *
34  * Protocol-level portals have no nonsequential-fetch API and so the
35  * distinction doesn't matter for them. They are always initialized
36  * to look like NO SCROLL cursors.
37  *
38  *
39  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2017, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
40  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
41  *
42  * src/include/utils/portal.h
43  *
44  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
45  */
46 #ifndef PORTAL_H
47 #define PORTAL_H
48 
49 #include "datatype/timestamp.h"
50 #include "executor/execdesc.h"
51 #include "utils/plancache.h"
52 #include "utils/resowner.h"
53 
54 /*
55  * We have several execution strategies for Portals, depending on what
56  * query or queries are to be executed. (Note: in all cases, a Portal
57  * executes just a single source-SQL query, and thus produces just a
58  * single result from the user's viewpoint. However, the rule rewriter
59  * may expand the single source query to zero or many actual queries.)
60  *
61  * PORTAL_ONE_SELECT: the portal contains one single SELECT query. We run
62  * the Executor incrementally as results are demanded. This strategy also
63  * supports holdable cursors (the Executor results can be dumped into a
64  * tuplestore for access after transaction completion).
65  *
66  * PORTAL_ONE_RETURNING: the portal contains a single INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE
67  * query with a RETURNING clause (plus possibly auxiliary queries added by
68  * rule rewriting). On first execution, we run the portal to completion
69  * and dump the primary query's results into the portal tuplestore; the
70  * results are then returned to the client as demanded. (We can't support
71  * suspension of the query partway through, because the AFTER TRIGGER code
72  * can't cope, and also because we don't want to risk failing to execute
73  * all the auxiliary queries.)
74  *
75  * PORTAL_ONE_MOD_WITH: the portal contains one single SELECT query, but
76  * it has data-modifying CTEs. This is currently treated the same as the
77  * PORTAL_ONE_RETURNING case because of the possibility of needing to fire
78  * triggers. It may act more like PORTAL_ONE_SELECT in future.
79  *
80  * PORTAL_UTIL_SELECT: the portal contains a utility statement that returns
81  * a SELECT-like result (for example, EXPLAIN or SHOW). On first execution,
82  * we run the statement and dump its results into the portal tuplestore;
83  * the results are then returned to the client as demanded.
84  *
85  * PORTAL_MULTI_QUERY: all other cases. Here, we do not support partial
86  * execution: the portal's queries will be run to completion on first call.
87  */
88 typedef enum PortalStrategy
89 {
96 
97 /*
98  * A portal is always in one of these states. It is possible to transit
99  * from ACTIVE back to READY if the query is not run to completion;
100  * otherwise we never back up in status.
101  */
102 typedef enum PortalStatus
103 {
104  PORTAL_NEW, /* freshly created */
105  PORTAL_DEFINED, /* PortalDefineQuery done */
106  PORTAL_READY, /* PortalStart complete, can run it */
107  PORTAL_ACTIVE, /* portal is running (can't delete it) */
108  PORTAL_DONE, /* portal is finished (don't re-run it) */
109  PORTAL_FAILED /* portal got error (can't re-run it) */
110 } PortalStatus;
111 
112 typedef struct PortalData *Portal;
113 
114 typedef struct PortalData
115 {
116  /* Bookkeeping data */
117  const char *name; /* portal's name */
118  const char *prepStmtName; /* source prepared statement (NULL if none) */
119  MemoryContext heap; /* subsidiary memory for portal */
120  ResourceOwner resowner; /* resources owned by portal */
121  void (*cleanup) (Portal portal); /* cleanup hook */
122 
123  /*
124  * State data for remembering which subtransaction(s) the portal was
125  * created or used in. If the portal is held over from a previous
126  * transaction, both subxids are InvalidSubTransactionId. Otherwise,
127  * createSubid is the creating subxact and activeSubid is the last subxact
128  * in which we ran the portal.
129  */
130  SubTransactionId createSubid; /* the creating subxact */
131  SubTransactionId activeSubid; /* the last subxact with activity */
132 
133  /* The query or queries the portal will execute */
134  const char *sourceText; /* text of query (as of 8.4, never NULL) */
135  const char *commandTag; /* command tag for original query */
136  List *stmts; /* list of PlannedStmts */
137  CachedPlan *cplan; /* CachedPlan, if stmts are from one */
138 
139  ParamListInfo portalParams; /* params to pass to query */
140  QueryEnvironment *queryEnv; /* environment for query */
141 
142  /* Features/options */
143  PortalStrategy strategy; /* see above */
144  int cursorOptions; /* DECLARE CURSOR option bits */
145  bool run_once; /* portal will only be run once */
146 
147  /* Status data */
148  PortalStatus status; /* see above */
149  bool portalPinned; /* a pinned portal can't be dropped */
150 
151  /* If not NULL, Executor is active; call ExecutorEnd eventually: */
152  QueryDesc *queryDesc; /* info needed for executor invocation */
153 
154  /* If portal returns tuples, this is their tupdesc: */
155  TupleDesc tupDesc; /* descriptor for result tuples */
156  /* and these are the format codes to use for the columns: */
157  int16 *formats; /* a format code for each column */
158 
159  /*
160  * Where we store tuples for a held cursor or a PORTAL_ONE_RETURNING or
161  * PORTAL_UTIL_SELECT query. (A cursor held past the end of its
162  * transaction no longer has any active executor state.)
163  */
164  Tuplestorestate *holdStore; /* store for holdable cursors */
165  MemoryContext holdContext; /* memory containing holdStore */
166 
167  /*
168  * Snapshot under which tuples in the holdStore were read. We must keep a
169  * reference to this snapshot if there is any possibility that the tuples
170  * contain TOAST references, because releasing the snapshot could allow
171  * recently-dead rows to be vacuumed away, along with any toast data
172  * belonging to them. In the case of a held cursor, we avoid needing to
173  * keep such a snapshot by forcibly detoasting the data.
174  */
175  Snapshot holdSnapshot; /* registered snapshot, or NULL if none */
176 
177  /*
178  * atStart, atEnd and portalPos indicate the current cursor position.
179  * portalPos is zero before the first row, N after fetching N'th row of
180  * query. After we run off the end, portalPos = # of rows in query, and
181  * atEnd is true. Note that atStart implies portalPos == 0, but not the
182  * reverse: we might have backed up only as far as the first row, not to
183  * the start. Also note that various code inspects atStart and atEnd, but
184  * only the portal movement routines should touch portalPos.
185  */
186  bool atStart;
187  bool atEnd;
188  uint64 portalPos;
189 
190  /* Presentation data, primarily used by the pg_cursors system view */
191  TimestampTz creation_time; /* time at which this portal was defined */
192  bool visible; /* include this portal in pg_cursors? */
193 } PortalData;
194 
195 /*
196  * PortalIsValid
197  * True iff portal is valid.
198  */
199 #define PortalIsValid(p) PointerIsValid(p)
200 
201 /*
202  * Access macros for Portal ... use these in preference to field access.
203  */
204 #define PortalGetQueryDesc(portal) ((portal)->queryDesc)
205 #define PortalGetHeapMemory(portal) ((portal)->heap)
206 
207 
208 /* Prototypes for functions in utils/mmgr/portalmem.c */
209 extern void EnablePortalManager(void);
210 extern bool PreCommit_Portals(bool isPrepare);
211 extern void AtAbort_Portals(void);
212 extern void AtCleanup_Portals(void);
213 extern void AtSubCommit_Portals(SubTransactionId mySubid,
214  SubTransactionId parentSubid,
215  ResourceOwner parentXactOwner);
216 extern void AtSubAbort_Portals(SubTransactionId mySubid,
217  SubTransactionId parentSubid,
218  ResourceOwner myXactOwner,
219  ResourceOwner parentXactOwner);
220 extern void AtSubCleanup_Portals(SubTransactionId mySubid);
221 extern Portal CreatePortal(const char *name, bool allowDup, bool dupSilent);
222 extern Portal CreateNewPortal(void);
223 extern void PinPortal(Portal portal);
224 extern void UnpinPortal(Portal portal);
225 extern void MarkPortalActive(Portal portal);
226 extern void MarkPortalDone(Portal portal);
227 extern void MarkPortalFailed(Portal portal);
228 extern void PortalDrop(Portal portal, bool isTopCommit);
229 extern Portal GetPortalByName(const char *name);
230 extern void PortalDefineQuery(Portal portal,
231  const char *prepStmtName,
232  const char *sourceText,
233  const char *commandTag,
234  List *stmts,
235  CachedPlan *cplan);
236 extern PlannedStmt *PortalGetPrimaryStmt(Portal portal);
237 extern void PortalCreateHoldStore(Portal portal);
238 extern void PortalHashTableDeleteAll(void);
239 extern bool ThereAreNoReadyPortals(void);
240 
241 #endif /* PORTAL_H */
signed short int16
Definition: c.h:245
void PortalDefineQuery(Portal portal, const char *prepStmtName, const char *sourceText, const char *commandTag, List *stmts, CachedPlan *cplan)
Definition: portalmem.c:277
MemoryContext heap
Definition: portal.h:119
bool atEnd
Definition: portal.h:187
bool visible
Definition: portal.h:192
void PortalDrop(Portal portal, bool isTopCommit)
Definition: portalmem.c:461
void MarkPortalActive(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:388
Portal CreatePortal(const char *name, bool allowDup, bool dupSilent)
Definition: portalmem.c:174
int64 TimestampTz
Definition: timestamp.h:39
bool PreCommit_Portals(bool isPrepare)
Definition: portalmem.c:630
void AtSubCommit_Portals(SubTransactionId mySubid, SubTransactionId parentSubid, ResourceOwner parentXactOwner)
Definition: portalmem.c:867
CachedPlan * cplan
Definition: portal.h:137
MemoryContext holdContext
Definition: portal.h:165
PlannedStmt * PortalGetPrimaryStmt(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:150
uint32 SubTransactionId
Definition: c.h:395
Portal GetPortalByName(const char *name)
Definition: portalmem.c:129
void AtAbort_Portals(void)
Definition: portalmem.c:746
List * stmts
Definition: portal.h:136
void AtSubCleanup_Portals(SubTransactionId mySubid)
Definition: portalmem.c:1014
bool ThereAreNoReadyPortals(void)
Definition: portalmem.c:1141
bool run_once
Definition: portal.h:145
ParamListInfo portalParams
Definition: portal.h:139
const char * name
Definition: portal.h:117
void UnpinPortal(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:373
const char * commandTag
Definition: portal.h:135
struct PortalData * Portal
Definition: portal.h:112
PortalStrategy
Definition: portal.h:88
bool portalPinned
Definition: portal.h:149
PortalStrategy strategy
Definition: portal.h:143
void EnablePortalManager(void)
Definition: portalmem.c:103
SubTransactionId createSubid
Definition: portal.h:130
void(* cleanup)(Portal portal)
Definition: portal.h:121
TimestampTz creation_time
Definition: portal.h:191
QueryDesc * queryDesc
Definition: portal.h:152
int16 * formats
Definition: portal.h:157
void PortalCreateHoldStore(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:324
void MarkPortalDone(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:407
SubTransactionId activeSubid
Definition: portal.h:131
const char * sourceText
Definition: portal.h:134
TupleDesc tupDesc
Definition: portal.h:155
Portal CreateNewPortal(void)
Definition: portalmem.c:230
struct PortalData PortalData
Snapshot holdSnapshot
Definition: portal.h:175
void PinPortal(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:364
void PortalHashTableDeleteAll(void)
Definition: portalmem.c:591
PortalStatus status
Definition: portal.h:148
const char * name
Definition: encode.c:521
QueryEnvironment * queryEnv
Definition: portal.h:140
ResourceOwner resowner
Definition: portal.h:120
bool atStart
Definition: portal.h:186
Tuplestorestate * holdStore
Definition: portal.h:164
PortalStatus
Definition: portal.h:102
void AtSubAbort_Portals(SubTransactionId mySubid, SubTransactionId parentSubid, ResourceOwner myXactOwner, ResourceOwner parentXactOwner)
Definition: portalmem.c:901
int cursorOptions
Definition: portal.h:144
void MarkPortalFailed(Portal portal)
Definition: portalmem.c:435
Definition: pg_list.h:45
void AtCleanup_Portals(void)
Definition: portalmem.c:818
const char * prepStmtName
Definition: portal.h:118
uint64 portalPos
Definition: portal.h:188