PostgreSQL Source Code  git master
help.c File Reference
#include "postgres_fe.h"
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include "common.h"
#include "common/logging.h"
#include "common/username.h"
#include "help.h"
#include "input.h"
#include "settings.h"
#include "sql_help.h"
Include dependency graph for help.c:

Go to the source code of this file.

Macros

#define HELP0(str)   appendPQExpBufferStr(&buf, _(str))
 
#define HELPN(str, ...)   appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, _(str), __VA_ARGS__)
 
#define ON(var)   ((var) ? _("on") : _("off"))
 
#define VALUE_OR_NULL(a)   ((a) ? (a) : "")
 

Functions

void usage (unsigned short int pager)
 
void slashUsage (unsigned short int pager)
 
void helpVariables (unsigned short int pager)
 
void helpSQL (const char *topic, unsigned short int pager)
 
void print_copyright (void)
 

Macro Definition Documentation

◆ HELP0

#define HELP0 (   str)    appendPQExpBufferStr(&buf, _(str))

Definition at line 40 of file help.c.

◆ HELPN

#define HELPN (   str,
  ... 
)    appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, _(str), __VA_ARGS__)

Definition at line 41 of file help.c.

◆ ON

#define ON (   var)    ((var) ? _("on") : _("off"))

Definition at line 42 of file help.c.

◆ VALUE_OR_NULL

#define VALUE_OR_NULL (   a)    ((a) ? (a) : "")

Function Documentation

◆ helpSQL()

void helpSQL ( const char *  topic,
unsigned short int  pager 
)

Definition at line 584 of file help.c.

585 {
586 #define VALUE_OR_NULL(a) ((a) ? (a) : "")
587 
588  if (!topic || strlen(topic) == 0)
589  {
590  /* Print all the available command names */
591  int screen_width;
592  int ncolumns;
593  int nrows;
594  FILE *output;
595  int i;
596  int j;
597 
598  /* Find screen width to determine how many columns will fit */
599 #ifdef TIOCGWINSZ
600  struct winsize screen_size;
601 
602  if (ioctl(fileno(stdout), TIOCGWINSZ, &screen_size) == -1)
603  screen_width = 80; /* ioctl failed, assume 80 */
604  else
605  screen_width = screen_size.ws_col;
606 #else
607  screen_width = 80; /* default assumption */
608 #endif
609 
610  ncolumns = (screen_width - 3) / (QL_MAX_CMD_LEN + 1);
611  ncolumns = Max(ncolumns, 1);
612  nrows = (QL_HELP_COUNT + (ncolumns - 1)) / ncolumns;
613 
614  output = PageOutput(nrows + 1, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
615 
616  fputs(_("Available help:\n"), output);
617 
618  for (i = 0; i < nrows; i++)
619  {
620  fprintf(output, " ");
621  for (j = 0; j < ncolumns - 1; j++)
622  fprintf(output, "%-*s",
623  QL_MAX_CMD_LEN + 1,
624  VALUE_OR_NULL(QL_HELP[i + j * nrows].cmd));
625  if (i + j * nrows < QL_HELP_COUNT)
626  fprintf(output, "%s",
627  VALUE_OR_NULL(QL_HELP[i + j * nrows].cmd));
628  fputc('\n', output);
629  }
630 
632  }
633  else
634  {
635  int i,
636  pass;
637  FILE *output = NULL;
638  size_t len,
639  wordlen,
640  j;
641  int nl_count;
642 
643  /*
644  * len is the amount of the input to compare to the help topic names.
645  * We first try exact match, then first + second words, then first
646  * word only.
647  */
648  len = strlen(topic);
649 
650  for (pass = 1; pass <= 3; pass++)
651  {
652  if (pass > 1) /* Nothing on first pass - try the opening
653  * word(s) */
654  {
655  wordlen = j = 1;
656  while (j < len && topic[j++] != ' ')
657  wordlen++;
658  if (pass == 2 && j < len)
659  {
660  wordlen++;
661  while (j < len && topic[j++] != ' ')
662  wordlen++;
663  }
664  if (wordlen >= len)
665  {
666  /* Failed to shorten input, so try next pass if any */
667  continue;
668  }
669  len = wordlen;
670  }
671 
672  /*
673  * Count newlines for pager. This logic must agree with what the
674  * following loop will do!
675  */
676  nl_count = 0;
677  for (i = 0; QL_HELP[i].cmd; i++)
678  {
679  if (pg_strncasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd, len) == 0 ||
680  strcmp(topic, "*") == 0)
681  {
682  /* magic constant here must match format below! */
683  nl_count += 7 + QL_HELP[i].nl_count;
684 
685  /* If we have an exact match, exit. Fixes \h SELECT */
686  if (pg_strcasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd) == 0)
687  break;
688  }
689  }
690  /* If no matches, don't open the output yet */
691  if (nl_count == 0)
692  continue;
693 
694  if (!output)
695  output = PageOutput(nl_count, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
696 
697  for (i = 0; QL_HELP[i].cmd; i++)
698  {
699  if (pg_strncasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd, len) == 0 ||
700  strcmp(topic, "*") == 0)
701  {
702  PQExpBufferData buffer;
703  char *url;
704 
705  initPQExpBuffer(&buffer);
706  QL_HELP[i].syntaxfunc(&buffer);
707  url = psprintf("https://www.postgresql.org/docs/%s/%s.html",
708  strstr(PG_VERSION, "devel") ? "devel" : PG_MAJORVERSION,
709  QL_HELP[i].docbook_id);
710  /* # of newlines in format must match constant above! */
711  fprintf(output, _("Command: %s\n"
712  "Description: %s\n"
713  "Syntax:\n%s\n\n"
714  "URL: %s\n\n"),
715  QL_HELP[i].cmd,
716  _(QL_HELP[i].help),
717  buffer.data,
718  url);
719  free(url);
720  termPQExpBuffer(&buffer);
721 
722  /* If we have an exact match, exit. Fixes \h SELECT */
723  if (pg_strcasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd) == 0)
724  break;
725  }
726  }
727  break;
728  }
729 
730  /* If we never found anything, report that */
731  if (!output)
732  {
733  output = PageOutput(2, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
734  fprintf(output, _("No help available for \"%s\".\n"
735  "Try \\h with no arguments to see available help.\n"),
736  topic);
737  }
738 
740  }
741 }
#define Max(x, y)
Definition: c.h:980
#define _(x)
Definition: elog.c:89
void ClosePager(FILE *pagerpipe)
Definition: print.c:3096
FILE * PageOutput(int lines, const printTableOpt *topt)
Definition: print.c:3045
#define free(a)
Definition: header.h:65
#define VALUE_OR_NULL(a)
int j
Definition: isn.c:74
int i
Definition: isn.c:73
const void size_t len
static void output(uint64 loop_count)
int pg_strcasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2)
Definition: pgstrcasecmp.c:36
#define fprintf
Definition: port.h:229
int pg_strncasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t n)
Definition: pgstrcasecmp.c:69
void initPQExpBuffer(PQExpBuffer str)
Definition: pqexpbuffer.c:92
void termPQExpBuffer(PQExpBuffer str)
Definition: pqexpbuffer.c:131
char * psprintf(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: psprintf.c:46
PsqlSettings pset
Definition: startup.c:32
printQueryOpt popt
Definition: settings.h:91
printTableOpt topt
Definition: print.h:169

References _, ClosePager(), PQExpBufferData::data, fprintf, free, generate_unaccent_rules::help, i, initPQExpBuffer(), j, len, Max, output(), PageOutput(), pg_strcasecmp(), pg_strncasecmp(), _psqlSettings::popt, pset, psprintf(), generate_unaccent_rules::stdout, termPQExpBuffer(), printQueryOpt::topt, and VALUE_OR_NULL.

Referenced by exec_command_help().

◆ helpVariables()

void helpVariables ( unsigned short int  pager)

Definition at line 378 of file help.c.

379 {
381  int nlcount;
382  FILE *output;
383 
384  /*
385  * To avoid counting the output lines manually, build the output in "buf"
386  * and then count them.
387  */
389 
390  HELP0("List of specially treated variables\n\n");
391 
392  HELP0("psql variables:\n");
393  HELP0("Usage:\n");
394  HELP0(" psql --set=NAME=VALUE\n or \\set NAME VALUE inside psql\n\n");
395 
396  HELP0(" AUTOCOMMIT\n"
397  " if set, successful SQL commands are automatically committed\n");
398  HELP0(" COMP_KEYWORD_CASE\n"
399  " determines the case used to complete SQL key words\n"
400  " [lower, upper, preserve-lower, preserve-upper]\n");
401  HELP0(" DBNAME\n"
402  " the currently connected database name\n");
403  HELP0(" ECHO\n"
404  " controls what input is written to standard output\n"
405  " [all, errors, none, queries]\n");
406  HELP0(" ECHO_HIDDEN\n"
407  " if set, display internal queries executed by backslash commands;\n"
408  " if set to \"noexec\", just show them without execution\n");
409  HELP0(" ENCODING\n"
410  " current client character set encoding\n");
411  HELP0(" ERROR\n"
412  " true if last query failed, else false\n");
413  HELP0(" FETCH_COUNT\n"
414  " the number of result rows to fetch and display at a time (0 = unlimited)\n");
415  HELP0(" HIDE_TABLEAM\n"
416  " if set, table access methods are not displayed\n");
417  HELP0(" HIDE_TOAST_COMPRESSION\n"
418  " if set, compression methods are not displayed\n");
419  HELP0(" HISTCONTROL\n"
420  " controls command history [ignorespace, ignoredups, ignoreboth]\n");
421  HELP0(" HISTFILE\n"
422  " file name used to store the command history\n");
423  HELP0(" HISTSIZE\n"
424  " maximum number of commands to store in the command history\n");
425  HELP0(" HOST\n"
426  " the currently connected database server host\n");
427  HELP0(" IGNOREEOF\n"
428  " number of EOFs needed to terminate an interactive session\n");
429  HELP0(" LASTOID\n"
430  " value of the last affected OID\n");
431  HELP0(" LAST_ERROR_MESSAGE\n"
432  " LAST_ERROR_SQLSTATE\n"
433  " message and SQLSTATE of last error, or empty string and \"00000\" if none\n");
434  HELP0(" ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK\n"
435  " if set, an error doesn't stop a transaction (uses implicit savepoints)\n");
436  HELP0(" ON_ERROR_STOP\n"
437  " stop batch execution after error\n");
438  HELP0(" PORT\n"
439  " server port of the current connection\n");
440  HELP0(" PROMPT1\n"
441  " specifies the standard psql prompt\n");
442  HELP0(" PROMPT2\n"
443  " specifies the prompt used when a statement continues from a previous line\n");
444  HELP0(" PROMPT3\n"
445  " specifies the prompt used during COPY ... FROM STDIN\n");
446  HELP0(" QUIET\n"
447  " run quietly (same as -q option)\n");
448  HELP0(" ROW_COUNT\n"
449  " number of rows returned or affected by last query, or 0\n");
450  HELP0(" SERVER_VERSION_NAME\n"
451  " SERVER_VERSION_NUM\n"
452  " server's version (in short string or numeric format)\n");
453  HELP0(" SHOW_ALL_RESULTS\n"
454  " show all results of a combined query (\\;) instead of only the last\n");
455  HELP0(" SHOW_CONTEXT\n"
456  " controls display of message context fields [never, errors, always]\n");
457  HELP0(" SINGLELINE\n"
458  " if set, end of line terminates SQL commands (same as -S option)\n");
459  HELP0(" SINGLESTEP\n"
460  " single-step mode (same as -s option)\n");
461  HELP0(" SQLSTATE\n"
462  " SQLSTATE of last query, or \"00000\" if no error\n");
463  HELP0(" USER\n"
464  " the currently connected database user\n");
465  HELP0(" VERBOSITY\n"
466  " controls verbosity of error reports [default, verbose, terse, sqlstate]\n");
467  HELP0(" VERSION\n"
468  " VERSION_NAME\n"
469  " VERSION_NUM\n"
470  " psql's version (in verbose string, short string, or numeric format)\n");
471 
472  HELP0("\nDisplay settings:\n");
473  HELP0("Usage:\n");
474  HELP0(" psql --pset=NAME[=VALUE]\n or \\pset NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n");
475 
476  HELP0(" border\n"
477  " border style (number)\n");
478  HELP0(" columns\n"
479  " target width for the wrapped format\n");
480  HELP0(" expanded (or x)\n"
481  " expanded output [on, off, auto]\n");
482  HELPN(" fieldsep\n"
483  " field separator for unaligned output (default \"%s\")\n",
485  HELP0(" fieldsep_zero\n"
486  " set field separator for unaligned output to a zero byte\n");
487  HELP0(" footer\n"
488  " enable or disable display of the table footer [on, off]\n");
489  HELP0(" format\n"
490  " set output format [unaligned, aligned, wrapped, html, asciidoc, ...]\n");
491  HELP0(" linestyle\n"
492  " set the border line drawing style [ascii, old-ascii, unicode]\n");
493  HELP0(" null\n"
494  " set the string to be printed in place of a null value\n");
495  HELP0(" numericlocale\n"
496  " enable display of a locale-specific character to separate groups of digits\n");
497  HELP0(" pager\n"
498  " control when an external pager is used [yes, no, always]\n");
499  HELP0(" recordsep\n"
500  " record (line) separator for unaligned output\n");
501  HELP0(" recordsep_zero\n"
502  " set record separator for unaligned output to a zero byte\n");
503  HELP0(" tableattr (or T)\n"
504  " specify attributes for table tag in html format, or proportional\n"
505  " column widths for left-aligned data types in latex-longtable format\n");
506  HELP0(" title\n"
507  " set the table title for subsequently printed tables\n");
508  HELP0(" tuples_only\n"
509  " if set, only actual table data is shown\n");
510  HELP0(" unicode_border_linestyle\n"
511  " unicode_column_linestyle\n"
512  " unicode_header_linestyle\n"
513  " set the style of Unicode line drawing [single, double]\n");
514 
515  HELP0("\nEnvironment variables:\n");
516  HELP0("Usage:\n");
517 
518 #ifndef WIN32
519  HELP0(" NAME=VALUE [NAME=VALUE] psql ...\n or \\setenv NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n");
520 #else
521  HELP0(" set NAME=VALUE\n psql ...\n or \\setenv NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n");
522 #endif
523 
524  HELP0(" COLUMNS\n"
525  " number of columns for wrapped format\n");
526  HELP0(" PGAPPNAME\n"
527  " same as the application_name connection parameter\n");
528  HELP0(" PGDATABASE\n"
529  " same as the dbname connection parameter\n");
530  HELP0(" PGHOST\n"
531  " same as the host connection parameter\n");
532  HELP0(" PGPASSFILE\n"
533  " password file name\n");
534  HELP0(" PGPASSWORD\n"
535  " connection password (not recommended)\n");
536  HELP0(" PGPORT\n"
537  " same as the port connection parameter\n");
538  HELP0(" PGUSER\n"
539  " same as the user connection parameter\n");
540  HELP0(" PSQL_EDITOR, EDITOR, VISUAL\n"
541  " editor used by the \\e, \\ef, and \\ev commands\n");
542  HELP0(" PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG\n"
543  " how to specify a line number when invoking the editor\n");
544  HELP0(" PSQL_HISTORY\n"
545  " alternative location for the command history file\n");
546  HELP0(" PSQL_PAGER, PAGER\n"
547  " name of external pager program\n");
548 #ifndef WIN32
549  HELP0(" PSQL_WATCH_PAGER\n"
550  " name of external pager program used for \\watch\n");
551 #endif
552  HELP0(" PSQLRC\n"
553  " alternative location for the user's .psqlrc file\n");
554  HELP0(" SHELL\n"
555  " shell used by the \\! command\n");
556  HELP0(" TMPDIR\n"
557  " directory for temporary files\n");
558 
559  /* Now we can count the lines. */
560  nlcount = 0;
561  for (const char *ptr = buf.data; *ptr; ptr++)
562  {
563  if (*ptr == '\n')
564  nlcount++;
565  }
566 
567  /* And dump the output, with appropriate pagination. */
568  output = PageOutput(nlcount, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
569 
570  fputs(buf.data, output);
571 
573 
575 }
#define HELPN(str,...)
Definition: help.c:41
#define HELP0(str)
Definition: help.c:40
static char * buf
Definition: pg_test_fsync.c:67
#define DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP
Definition: settings.h:15

References buf, ClosePager(), DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP, HELP0, HELPN, initPQExpBuffer(), output(), PageOutput(), _psqlSettings::popt, pset, termPQExpBuffer(), and printQueryOpt::topt.

Referenced by exec_command_slash_command_help(), and parse_psql_options().

◆ print_copyright()

void print_copyright ( void  )

Definition at line 746 of file help.c.

747 {
748  puts("PostgreSQL Database Management System\n"
749  "(formerly known as Postgres, then as Postgres95)\n\n"
750  "Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2022, PostgreSQL Global Development Group\n\n"
751  "Portions Copyright (c) 1994, The Regents of the University of California\n\n"
752  "Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its\n"
753  "documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement\n"
754  "is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this\n"
755  "paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.\n\n"
756  "IN NO EVENT SHALL THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR\n"
757  "DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING\n"
758  "LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS\n"
759  "DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE\n"
760  "POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.\n\n"
761  "THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES,\n"
762  "INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY\n"
763  "AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS\n"
764  "ON AN \"AS IS\" BASIS, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS NO OBLIGATIONS TO\n"
765  "PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.\n");
766 }

Referenced by exec_command_copyright().

◆ slashUsage()

void slashUsage ( unsigned short int  pager)

Definition at line 176 of file help.c.

177 {
179  int nlcount;
180  FILE *output;
181  char *currdb;
182 
183  currdb = PQdb(pset.db);
184 
185  /*
186  * To avoid counting the output lines manually, build the output in "buf"
187  * and then count them.
188  */
190 
191  HELP0("General\n");
192  HELP0(" \\copyright show PostgreSQL usage and distribution terms\n");
193  HELP0(" \\crosstabview [COLUMNS] execute query and display result in crosstab\n");
194  HELP0(" \\errverbose show most recent error message at maximum verbosity\n");
195  HELP0(" \\g [(OPTIONS)] [FILE] execute query (and send result to file or |pipe);\n"
196  " \\g with no arguments is equivalent to a semicolon\n");
197  HELP0(" \\gdesc describe result of query, without executing it\n");
198  HELP0(" \\gexec execute query, then execute each value in its result\n");
199  HELP0(" \\gset [PREFIX] execute query and store result in psql variables\n");
200  HELP0(" \\gx [(OPTIONS)] [FILE] as \\g, but forces expanded output mode\n");
201  HELP0(" \\q quit psql\n");
202  HELP0(" \\watch [SEC] execute query every SEC seconds\n");
203  HELP0("\n");
204 
205  HELP0("Help\n");
206 
207  HELP0(" \\? [commands] show help on backslash commands\n");
208  HELP0(" \\? options show help on psql command-line options\n");
209  HELP0(" \\? variables show help on special variables\n");
210  HELP0(" \\h [NAME] help on syntax of SQL commands, * for all commands\n");
211  HELP0("\n");
212 
213  HELP0("Query Buffer\n");
214  HELP0(" \\e [FILE] [LINE] edit the query buffer (or file) with external editor\n");
215  HELP0(" \\ef [FUNCNAME [LINE]] edit function definition with external editor\n");
216  HELP0(" \\ev [VIEWNAME [LINE]] edit view definition with external editor\n");
217  HELP0(" \\p show the contents of the query buffer\n");
218  HELP0(" \\r reset (clear) the query buffer\n");
219 #ifdef USE_READLINE
220  HELP0(" \\s [FILE] display history or save it to file\n");
221 #endif
222  HELP0(" \\w FILE write query buffer to file\n");
223  HELP0("\n");
224 
225  HELP0("Input/Output\n");
226  HELP0(" \\copy ... perform SQL COPY with data stream to the client host\n");
227  HELP0(" \\echo [-n] [STRING] write string to standard output (-n for no newline)\n");
228  HELP0(" \\i FILE execute commands from file\n");
229  HELP0(" \\ir FILE as \\i, but relative to location of current script\n");
230  HELP0(" \\o [FILE] send all query results to file or |pipe\n");
231  HELP0(" \\qecho [-n] [STRING] write string to \\o output stream (-n for no newline)\n");
232  HELP0(" \\warn [-n] [STRING] write string to standard error (-n for no newline)\n");
233  HELP0("\n");
234 
235  HELP0("Conditional\n");
236  HELP0(" \\if EXPR begin conditional block\n");
237  HELP0(" \\elif EXPR alternative within current conditional block\n");
238  HELP0(" \\else final alternative within current conditional block\n");
239  HELP0(" \\endif end conditional block\n");
240  HELP0("\n");
241 
242  HELP0("Informational\n");
243  HELP0(" (options: S = show system objects, + = additional detail)\n");
244  HELP0(" \\d[S+] list tables, views, and sequences\n");
245  HELP0(" \\d[S+] NAME describe table, view, sequence, or index\n");
246  HELP0(" \\da[S] [PATTERN] list aggregates\n");
247  HELP0(" \\dA[+] [PATTERN] list access methods\n");
248  HELP0(" \\dAc[+] [AMPTRN [TYPEPTRN]] list operator classes\n");
249  HELP0(" \\dAf[+] [AMPTRN [TYPEPTRN]] list operator families\n");
250  HELP0(" \\dAo[+] [AMPTRN [OPFPTRN]] list operators of operator families\n");
251  HELP0(" \\dAp[+] [AMPTRN [OPFPTRN]] list support functions of operator families\n");
252  HELP0(" \\db[+] [PATTERN] list tablespaces\n");
253  HELP0(" \\dc[S+] [PATTERN] list conversions\n");
254  HELP0(" \\dconfig[+] [PATTERN] list configuration parameters\n");
255  HELP0(" \\dC[+] [PATTERN] list casts\n");
256  HELP0(" \\dd[S] [PATTERN] show object descriptions not displayed elsewhere\n");
257  HELP0(" \\dD[S+] [PATTERN] list domains\n");
258  HELP0(" \\ddp [PATTERN] list default privileges\n");
259  HELP0(" \\dE[S+] [PATTERN] list foreign tables\n");
260  HELP0(" \\des[+] [PATTERN] list foreign servers\n");
261  HELP0(" \\det[+] [PATTERN] list foreign tables\n");
262  HELP0(" \\deu[+] [PATTERN] list user mappings\n");
263  HELP0(" \\dew[+] [PATTERN] list foreign-data wrappers\n");
264  HELP0(" \\df[anptw][S+] [FUNCPTRN [TYPEPTRN ...]]\n"
265  " list [only agg/normal/procedure/trigger/window] functions\n");
266  HELP0(" \\dF[+] [PATTERN] list text search configurations\n");
267  HELP0(" \\dFd[+] [PATTERN] list text search dictionaries\n");
268  HELP0(" \\dFp[+] [PATTERN] list text search parsers\n");
269  HELP0(" \\dFt[+] [PATTERN] list text search templates\n");
270  HELP0(" \\dg[S+] [PATTERN] list roles\n");
271  HELP0(" \\di[S+] [PATTERN] list indexes\n");
272  HELP0(" \\dl[+] list large objects, same as \\lo_list\n");
273  HELP0(" \\dL[S+] [PATTERN] list procedural languages\n");
274  HELP0(" \\dm[S+] [PATTERN] list materialized views\n");
275  HELP0(" \\dn[S+] [PATTERN] list schemas\n");
276  HELP0(" \\do[S+] [OPPTRN [TYPEPTRN [TYPEPTRN]]]\n"
277  " list operators\n");
278  HELP0(" \\dO[S+] [PATTERN] list collations\n");
279  HELP0(" \\dp [PATTERN] list table, view, and sequence access privileges\n");
280  HELP0(" \\dP[itn+] [PATTERN] list [only index/table] partitioned relations [n=nested]\n");
281  HELP0(" \\drds [ROLEPTRN [DBPTRN]] list per-database role settings\n");
282  HELP0(" \\dRp[+] [PATTERN] list replication publications\n");
283  HELP0(" \\dRs[+] [PATTERN] list replication subscriptions\n");
284  HELP0(" \\ds[S+] [PATTERN] list sequences\n");
285  HELP0(" \\dt[S+] [PATTERN] list tables\n");
286  HELP0(" \\dT[S+] [PATTERN] list data types\n");
287  HELP0(" \\du[S+] [PATTERN] list roles\n");
288  HELP0(" \\dv[S+] [PATTERN] list views\n");
289  HELP0(" \\dx[+] [PATTERN] list extensions\n");
290  HELP0(" \\dX [PATTERN] list extended statistics\n");
291  HELP0(" \\dy[+] [PATTERN] list event triggers\n");
292  HELP0(" \\l[+] [PATTERN] list databases\n");
293  HELP0(" \\sf[+] FUNCNAME show a function's definition\n");
294  HELP0(" \\sv[+] VIEWNAME show a view's definition\n");
295  HELP0(" \\z [PATTERN] same as \\dp\n");
296  HELP0("\n");
297 
298  HELP0("Large Objects\n");
299  HELP0(" \\lo_export LOBOID FILE write large object to file\n");
300  HELP0(" \\lo_import FILE [COMMENT]\n"
301  " read large object from file\n");
302  HELP0(" \\lo_list[+] list large objects\n");
303  HELP0(" \\lo_unlink LOBOID delete a large object\n");
304  HELP0("\n");
305 
306  HELP0("Formatting\n");
307  HELP0(" \\a toggle between unaligned and aligned output mode\n");
308  HELP0(" \\C [STRING] set table title, or unset if none\n");
309  HELP0(" \\f [STRING] show or set field separator for unaligned query output\n");
310  HELPN(" \\H toggle HTML output mode (currently %s)\n",
312  HELP0(" \\pset [NAME [VALUE]] set table output option\n"
313  " (border|columns|csv_fieldsep|expanded|fieldsep|\n"
314  " fieldsep_zero|footer|format|linestyle|null|\n"
315  " numericlocale|pager|pager_min_lines|recordsep|\n"
316  " recordsep_zero|tableattr|title|tuples_only|\n"
317  " unicode_border_linestyle|unicode_column_linestyle|\n"
318  " unicode_header_linestyle)\n");
319  HELPN(" \\t [on|off] show only rows (currently %s)\n",
321  HELP0(" \\T [STRING] set HTML <table> tag attributes, or unset if none\n");
322  HELPN(" \\x [on|off|auto] toggle expanded output (currently %s)\n",
323  pset.popt.topt.expanded == 2 ? _("auto") : ON(pset.popt.topt.expanded));
324  HELP0("\n");
325 
326  HELP0("Connection\n");
327  if (currdb)
328  HELPN(" \\c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}\n"
329  " connect to new database (currently \"%s\")\n",
330  currdb);
331  else
332  HELP0(" \\c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}\n"
333  " connect to new database (currently no connection)\n");
334  HELP0(" \\conninfo display information about current connection\n");
335  HELP0(" \\encoding [ENCODING] show or set client encoding\n");
336  HELP0(" \\password [USERNAME] securely change the password for a user\n");
337  HELP0("\n");
338 
339  HELP0("Operating System\n");
340  HELP0(" \\cd [DIR] change the current working directory\n");
341  HELP0(" \\getenv PSQLVAR ENVVAR fetch environment variable\n");
342  HELP0(" \\setenv NAME [VALUE] set or unset environment variable\n");
343  HELPN(" \\timing [on|off] toggle timing of commands (currently %s)\n",
344  ON(pset.timing));
345  HELP0(" \\! [COMMAND] execute command in shell or start interactive shell\n");
346  HELP0("\n");
347 
348  HELP0("Variables\n");
349  HELP0(" \\prompt [TEXT] NAME prompt user to set internal variable\n");
350  HELP0(" \\set [NAME [VALUE]] set internal variable, or list all if no parameters\n");
351  HELP0(" \\unset NAME unset (delete) internal variable\n");
352 
353  /* Now we can count the lines. */
354  nlcount = 0;
355  for (const char *ptr = buf.data; *ptr; ptr++)
356  {
357  if (*ptr == '\n')
358  nlcount++;
359  }
360 
361  /* And dump the output, with appropriate pagination. */
362  output = PageOutput(nlcount, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
363 
364  fputs(buf.data, output);
365 
367 
369 }
char * PQdb(const PGconn *conn)
Definition: fe-connect.c:6754
@ PRINT_HTML
Definition: print.h:34
#define ON(var)
Definition: help.c:42
PGconn * db
Definition: settings.h:82
unsigned short int expanded
Definition: print.h:102
bool tuples_only
Definition: print.h:110
enum printFormat format
Definition: print.h:101

References _, buf, ClosePager(), _psqlSettings::db, printTableOpt::expanded, printTableOpt::format, HELP0, HELPN, initPQExpBuffer(), ON, output(), PageOutput(), _psqlSettings::popt, PQdb(), PRINT_HTML, pset, termPQExpBuffer(), _psqlSettings::timing, printQueryOpt::topt, and printTableOpt::tuples_only.

Referenced by exec_command_slash_command_help(), and parse_psql_options().

◆ usage()

void usage ( unsigned short int  pager)

Definition at line 51 of file help.c.

52 {
53  const char *env;
54  const char *user;
55  char *errstr;
57  int nlcount;
58  FILE *output;
59 
60  /* Find default user, in case we need it. */
61  user = getenv("PGUSER");
62  if (!user)
63  {
64  user = get_user_name(&errstr);
65  if (!user)
66  pg_fatal("%s", errstr);
67  }
68 
69  /*
70  * To avoid counting the output lines manually, build the output in "buf"
71  * and then count them.
72  */
74 
75  HELP0("psql is the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.\n\n");
76  HELP0("Usage:\n");
77  HELP0(" psql [OPTION]... [DBNAME [USERNAME]]\n\n");
78 
79  HELP0("General options:\n");
80  /* Display default database */
81  env = getenv("PGDATABASE");
82  if (!env)
83  env = user;
84  HELP0(" -c, --command=COMMAND run only single command (SQL or internal) and exit\n");
85  HELPN(" -d, --dbname=DBNAME database name to connect to (default: \"%s\")\n",
86  env);
87  HELP0(" -f, --file=FILENAME execute commands from file, then exit\n");
88  HELP0(" -l, --list list available databases, then exit\n");
89  HELP0(" -v, --set=, --variable=NAME=VALUE\n"
90  " set psql variable NAME to VALUE\n"
91  " (e.g., -v ON_ERROR_STOP=1)\n");
92  HELP0(" -V, --version output version information, then exit\n");
93  HELP0(" -X, --no-psqlrc do not read startup file (~/.psqlrc)\n");
94  HELP0(" -1 (\"one\"), --single-transaction\n"
95  " execute as a single transaction (if non-interactive)\n");
96  HELP0(" -?, --help[=options] show this help, then exit\n");
97  HELP0(" --help=commands list backslash commands, then exit\n");
98  HELP0(" --help=variables list special variables, then exit\n");
99 
100  HELP0("\nInput and output options:\n");
101  HELP0(" -a, --echo-all echo all input from script\n");
102  HELP0(" -b, --echo-errors echo failed commands\n");
103  HELP0(" -e, --echo-queries echo commands sent to server\n");
104  HELP0(" -E, --echo-hidden display queries that internal commands generate\n");
105  HELP0(" -L, --log-file=FILENAME send session log to file\n");
106  HELP0(" -n, --no-readline disable enhanced command line editing (readline)\n");
107  HELP0(" -o, --output=FILENAME send query results to file (or |pipe)\n");
108  HELP0(" -q, --quiet run quietly (no messages, only query output)\n");
109  HELP0(" -s, --single-step single-step mode (confirm each query)\n");
110  HELP0(" -S, --single-line single-line mode (end of line terminates SQL command)\n");
111 
112  HELP0("\nOutput format options:\n");
113  HELP0(" -A, --no-align unaligned table output mode\n");
114  HELP0(" --csv CSV (Comma-Separated Values) table output mode\n");
115  HELPN(" -F, --field-separator=STRING\n"
116  " field separator for unaligned output (default: \"%s\")\n",
118  HELP0(" -H, --html HTML table output mode\n");
119  HELP0(" -P, --pset=VAR[=ARG] set printing option VAR to ARG (see \\pset command)\n");
120  HELP0(" -R, --record-separator=STRING\n"
121  " record separator for unaligned output (default: newline)\n");
122  HELP0(" -t, --tuples-only print rows only\n");
123  HELP0(" -T, --table-attr=TEXT set HTML table tag attributes (e.g., width, border)\n");
124  HELP0(" -x, --expanded turn on expanded table output\n");
125  HELP0(" -z, --field-separator-zero\n"
126  " set field separator for unaligned output to zero byte\n");
127  HELP0(" -0, --record-separator-zero\n"
128  " set record separator for unaligned output to zero byte\n");
129 
130  HELP0("\nConnection options:\n");
131  /* Display default host */
132  env = getenv("PGHOST");
133  HELPN(" -h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory (default: \"%s\")\n",
134  env ? env : _("local socket"));
135  /* Display default port */
136  env = getenv("PGPORT");
137  HELPN(" -p, --port=PORT database server port (default: \"%s\")\n",
138  env ? env : DEF_PGPORT_STR);
139  /* Display default user */
140  HELPN(" -U, --username=USERNAME database user name (default: \"%s\")\n",
141  user);
142  HELP0(" -w, --no-password never prompt for password\n");
143  HELP0(" -W, --password force password prompt (should happen automatically)\n");
144 
145  HELP0("\nFor more information, type \"\\?\" (for internal commands) or \"\\help\" (for SQL\n"
146  "commands) from within psql, or consult the psql section in the PostgreSQL\n"
147  "documentation.\n\n");
148  HELPN("Report bugs to <%s>.\n", PACKAGE_BUGREPORT);
149  HELPN("%s home page: <%s>\n", PACKAGE_NAME, PACKAGE_URL);
150 
151  /* Now we can count the lines. */
152  nlcount = 0;
153  for (const char *ptr = buf.data; *ptr; ptr++)
154  {
155  if (*ptr == '\n')
156  nlcount++;
157  }
158 
159  /* And dump the output, with appropriate pagination. */
160  output = PageOutput(nlcount, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
161 
162  fputs(buf.data, output);
163 
165 
167 }
#define pg_fatal(...)
static char * user
Definition: pg_regress.c:95
const char * get_user_name(char **errstr)
Definition: username.c:31

References _, buf, ClosePager(), DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP, get_user_name(), HELP0, HELPN, initPQExpBuffer(), output(), PageOutput(), pg_fatal, _psqlSettings::popt, pset, termPQExpBuffer(), printQueryOpt::topt, and user.