PostgreSQL Source Code  git master
help.c
Go to the documentation of this file.
1 /*
2  * psql - the PostgreSQL interactive terminal
3  *
4  * Copyright (c) 2000-2022, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
5  *
6  * src/bin/psql/help.c
7  */
8 #include "postgres_fe.h"
9 
10 #ifndef WIN32
11 #include <unistd.h> /* for geteuid() */
12 #else
13 #include <win32.h>
14 #endif
15 
16 #ifndef WIN32
17 #include <sys/ioctl.h> /* for ioctl() */
18 #endif
19 
20 #ifdef HAVE_TERMIOS_H
21 #include <termios.h>
22 #endif
23 
24 #include "common.h"
25 #include "common/logging.h"
26 #include "common/username.h"
27 #include "help.h"
28 #include "input.h"
29 #include "settings.h"
30 #include "sql_help.h"
31 
32 /*
33  * PLEASE:
34  * If you change something in this file, also make the same changes
35  * in the DocBook documentation, file ref/psql-ref.sgml. If you don't
36  * know how to do it, please find someone who can help you.
37  */
38 
39 /* Some helper macros to make the code less verbose */
40 #define HELP0(str) appendPQExpBufferStr(&buf, _(str))
41 #define HELPN(str,...) appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, _(str), __VA_ARGS__)
42 #define ON(var) ((var) ? _("on") : _("off"))
43 
44 
45 /*
46  * usage
47  *
48  * print out command line arguments
49  */
50 void
51 usage(unsigned short int pager)
52 {
53  const char *env;
54  const char *user;
55  char *errstr;
57  int nlcount;
58  FILE *output;
59 
60  /* Find default user, in case we need it. */
61  user = getenv("PGUSER");
62  if (!user)
63  {
64  user = get_user_name(&errstr);
65  if (!user)
66  pg_fatal("%s", errstr);
67  }
68 
69  /*
70  * To avoid counting the output lines manually, build the output in "buf"
71  * and then count them.
72  */
74 
75  HELP0("psql is the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.\n\n");
76  HELP0("Usage:\n");
77  HELP0(" psql [OPTION]... [DBNAME [USERNAME]]\n\n");
78 
79  HELP0("General options:\n");
80  /* Display default database */
81  env = getenv("PGDATABASE");
82  if (!env)
83  env = user;
84  HELP0(" -c, --command=COMMAND run only single command (SQL or internal) and exit\n");
85  HELPN(" -d, --dbname=DBNAME database name to connect to (default: \"%s\")\n",
86  env);
87  HELP0(" -f, --file=FILENAME execute commands from file, then exit\n");
88  HELP0(" -l, --list list available databases, then exit\n");
89  HELP0(" -v, --set=, --variable=NAME=VALUE\n"
90  " set psql variable NAME to VALUE\n"
91  " (e.g., -v ON_ERROR_STOP=1)\n");
92  HELP0(" -V, --version output version information, then exit\n");
93  HELP0(" -X, --no-psqlrc do not read startup file (~/.psqlrc)\n");
94  HELP0(" -1 (\"one\"), --single-transaction\n"
95  " execute as a single transaction (if non-interactive)\n");
96  HELP0(" -?, --help[=options] show this help, then exit\n");
97  HELP0(" --help=commands list backslash commands, then exit\n");
98  HELP0(" --help=variables list special variables, then exit\n");
99 
100  HELP0("\nInput and output options:\n");
101  HELP0(" -a, --echo-all echo all input from script\n");
102  HELP0(" -b, --echo-errors echo failed commands\n");
103  HELP0(" -e, --echo-queries echo commands sent to server\n");
104  HELP0(" -E, --echo-hidden display queries that internal commands generate\n");
105  HELP0(" -L, --log-file=FILENAME send session log to file\n");
106  HELP0(" -n, --no-readline disable enhanced command line editing (readline)\n");
107  HELP0(" -o, --output=FILENAME send query results to file (or |pipe)\n");
108  HELP0(" -q, --quiet run quietly (no messages, only query output)\n");
109  HELP0(" -s, --single-step single-step mode (confirm each query)\n");
110  HELP0(" -S, --single-line single-line mode (end of line terminates SQL command)\n");
111 
112  HELP0("\nOutput format options:\n");
113  HELP0(" -A, --no-align unaligned table output mode\n");
114  HELP0(" --csv CSV (Comma-Separated Values) table output mode\n");
115  HELPN(" -F, --field-separator=STRING\n"
116  " field separator for unaligned output (default: \"%s\")\n",
118  HELP0(" -H, --html HTML table output mode\n");
119  HELP0(" -P, --pset=VAR[=ARG] set printing option VAR to ARG (see \\pset command)\n");
120  HELP0(" -R, --record-separator=STRING\n"
121  " record separator for unaligned output (default: newline)\n");
122  HELP0(" -t, --tuples-only print rows only\n");
123  HELP0(" -T, --table-attr=TEXT set HTML table tag attributes (e.g., width, border)\n");
124  HELP0(" -x, --expanded turn on expanded table output\n");
125  HELP0(" -z, --field-separator-zero\n"
126  " set field separator for unaligned output to zero byte\n");
127  HELP0(" -0, --record-separator-zero\n"
128  " set record separator for unaligned output to zero byte\n");
129 
130  HELP0("\nConnection options:\n");
131  /* Display default host */
132  env = getenv("PGHOST");
133  HELPN(" -h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory (default: \"%s\")\n",
134  env ? env : _("local socket"));
135  /* Display default port */
136  env = getenv("PGPORT");
137  HELPN(" -p, --port=PORT database server port (default: \"%s\")\n",
138  env ? env : DEF_PGPORT_STR);
139  /* Display default user */
140  HELPN(" -U, --username=USERNAME database user name (default: \"%s\")\n",
141  user);
142  HELP0(" -w, --no-password never prompt for password\n");
143  HELP0(" -W, --password force password prompt (should happen automatically)\n");
144 
145  HELP0("\nFor more information, type \"\\?\" (for internal commands) or \"\\help\" (for SQL\n"
146  "commands) from within psql, or consult the psql section in the PostgreSQL\n"
147  "documentation.\n\n");
148  HELPN("Report bugs to <%s>.\n", PACKAGE_BUGREPORT);
149  HELPN("%s home page: <%s>\n", PACKAGE_NAME, PACKAGE_URL);
150 
151  /* Now we can count the lines. */
152  nlcount = 0;
153  for (const char *ptr = buf.data; *ptr; ptr++)
154  {
155  if (*ptr == '\n')
156  nlcount++;
157  }
158 
159  /* And dump the output, with appropriate pagination. */
160  output = PageOutput(nlcount, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
161 
162  fputs(buf.data, output);
163 
165 
167 }
168 
169 
170 /*
171  * slashUsage
172  *
173  * print out help for the backslash commands
174  */
175 void
176 slashUsage(unsigned short int pager)
177 {
179  int nlcount;
180  FILE *output;
181  char *currdb;
182 
183  currdb = PQdb(pset.db);
184 
185  /*
186  * To avoid counting the output lines manually, build the output in "buf"
187  * and then count them.
188  */
190 
191  HELP0("General\n");
192  HELP0(" \\bind [PARAM]... set query parameters\n");
193  HELP0(" \\copyright show PostgreSQL usage and distribution terms\n");
194  HELP0(" \\crosstabview [COLUMNS] execute query and display result in crosstab\n");
195  HELP0(" \\errverbose show most recent error message at maximum verbosity\n");
196  HELP0(" \\g [(OPTIONS)] [FILE] execute query (and send result to file or |pipe);\n"
197  " \\g with no arguments is equivalent to a semicolon\n");
198  HELP0(" \\gdesc describe result of query, without executing it\n");
199  HELP0(" \\gexec execute query, then execute each value in its result\n");
200  HELP0(" \\gset [PREFIX] execute query and store result in psql variables\n");
201  HELP0(" \\gx [(OPTIONS)] [FILE] as \\g, but forces expanded output mode\n");
202  HELP0(" \\q quit psql\n");
203  HELP0(" \\watch [SEC] execute query every SEC seconds\n");
204  HELP0("\n");
205 
206  HELP0("Help\n");
207 
208  HELP0(" \\? [commands] show help on backslash commands\n");
209  HELP0(" \\? options show help on psql command-line options\n");
210  HELP0(" \\? variables show help on special variables\n");
211  HELP0(" \\h [NAME] help on syntax of SQL commands, * for all commands\n");
212  HELP0("\n");
213 
214  HELP0("Query Buffer\n");
215  HELP0(" \\e [FILE] [LINE] edit the query buffer (or file) with external editor\n");
216  HELP0(" \\ef [FUNCNAME [LINE]] edit function definition with external editor\n");
217  HELP0(" \\ev [VIEWNAME [LINE]] edit view definition with external editor\n");
218  HELP0(" \\p show the contents of the query buffer\n");
219  HELP0(" \\r reset (clear) the query buffer\n");
220 #ifdef USE_READLINE
221  HELP0(" \\s [FILE] display history or save it to file\n");
222 #endif
223  HELP0(" \\w FILE write query buffer to file\n");
224  HELP0("\n");
225 
226  HELP0("Input/Output\n");
227  HELP0(" \\copy ... perform SQL COPY with data stream to the client host\n");
228  HELP0(" \\echo [-n] [STRING] write string to standard output (-n for no newline)\n");
229  HELP0(" \\i FILE execute commands from file\n");
230  HELP0(" \\ir FILE as \\i, but relative to location of current script\n");
231  HELP0(" \\o [FILE] send all query results to file or |pipe\n");
232  HELP0(" \\qecho [-n] [STRING] write string to \\o output stream (-n for no newline)\n");
233  HELP0(" \\warn [-n] [STRING] write string to standard error (-n for no newline)\n");
234  HELP0("\n");
235 
236  HELP0("Conditional\n");
237  HELP0(" \\if EXPR begin conditional block\n");
238  HELP0(" \\elif EXPR alternative within current conditional block\n");
239  HELP0(" \\else final alternative within current conditional block\n");
240  HELP0(" \\endif end conditional block\n");
241  HELP0("\n");
242 
243  HELP0("Informational\n");
244  HELP0(" (options: S = show system objects, + = additional detail)\n");
245  HELP0(" \\d[S+] list tables, views, and sequences\n");
246  HELP0(" \\d[S+] NAME describe table, view, sequence, or index\n");
247  HELP0(" \\da[S] [PATTERN] list aggregates\n");
248  HELP0(" \\dA[+] [PATTERN] list access methods\n");
249  HELP0(" \\dAc[+] [AMPTRN [TYPEPTRN]] list operator classes\n");
250  HELP0(" \\dAf[+] [AMPTRN [TYPEPTRN]] list operator families\n");
251  HELP0(" \\dAo[+] [AMPTRN [OPFPTRN]] list operators of operator families\n");
252  HELP0(" \\dAp[+] [AMPTRN [OPFPTRN]] list support functions of operator families\n");
253  HELP0(" \\db[+] [PATTERN] list tablespaces\n");
254  HELP0(" \\dc[S+] [PATTERN] list conversions\n");
255  HELP0(" \\dconfig[+] [PATTERN] list configuration parameters\n");
256  HELP0(" \\dC[+] [PATTERN] list casts\n");
257  HELP0(" \\dd[S] [PATTERN] show object descriptions not displayed elsewhere\n");
258  HELP0(" \\dD[S+] [PATTERN] list domains\n");
259  HELP0(" \\ddp [PATTERN] list default privileges\n");
260  HELP0(" \\dE[S+] [PATTERN] list foreign tables\n");
261  HELP0(" \\des[+] [PATTERN] list foreign servers\n");
262  HELP0(" \\det[+] [PATTERN] list foreign tables\n");
263  HELP0(" \\deu[+] [PATTERN] list user mappings\n");
264  HELP0(" \\dew[+] [PATTERN] list foreign-data wrappers\n");
265  HELP0(" \\df[anptw][S+] [FUNCPTRN [TYPEPTRN ...]]\n"
266  " list [only agg/normal/procedure/trigger/window] functions\n");
267  HELP0(" \\dF[+] [PATTERN] list text search configurations\n");
268  HELP0(" \\dFd[+] [PATTERN] list text search dictionaries\n");
269  HELP0(" \\dFp[+] [PATTERN] list text search parsers\n");
270  HELP0(" \\dFt[+] [PATTERN] list text search templates\n");
271  HELP0(" \\dg[S+] [PATTERN] list roles\n");
272  HELP0(" \\di[S+] [PATTERN] list indexes\n");
273  HELP0(" \\dl[+] list large objects, same as \\lo_list\n");
274  HELP0(" \\dL[S+] [PATTERN] list procedural languages\n");
275  HELP0(" \\dm[S+] [PATTERN] list materialized views\n");
276  HELP0(" \\dn[S+] [PATTERN] list schemas\n");
277  HELP0(" \\do[S+] [OPPTRN [TYPEPTRN [TYPEPTRN]]]\n"
278  " list operators\n");
279  HELP0(" \\dO[S+] [PATTERN] list collations\n");
280  HELP0(" \\dp [PATTERN] list table, view, and sequence access privileges\n");
281  HELP0(" \\dP[itn+] [PATTERN] list [only index/table] partitioned relations [n=nested]\n");
282  HELP0(" \\drds [ROLEPTRN [DBPTRN]] list per-database role settings\n");
283  HELP0(" \\dRp[+] [PATTERN] list replication publications\n");
284  HELP0(" \\dRs[+] [PATTERN] list replication subscriptions\n");
285  HELP0(" \\ds[S+] [PATTERN] list sequences\n");
286  HELP0(" \\dt[S+] [PATTERN] list tables\n");
287  HELP0(" \\dT[S+] [PATTERN] list data types\n");
288  HELP0(" \\du[S+] [PATTERN] list roles\n");
289  HELP0(" \\dv[S+] [PATTERN] list views\n");
290  HELP0(" \\dx[+] [PATTERN] list extensions\n");
291  HELP0(" \\dX [PATTERN] list extended statistics\n");
292  HELP0(" \\dy[+] [PATTERN] list event triggers\n");
293  HELP0(" \\l[+] [PATTERN] list databases\n");
294  HELP0(" \\sf[+] FUNCNAME show a function's definition\n");
295  HELP0(" \\sv[+] VIEWNAME show a view's definition\n");
296  HELP0(" \\z [PATTERN] same as \\dp\n");
297  HELP0("\n");
298 
299  HELP0("Large Objects\n");
300  HELP0(" \\lo_export LOBOID FILE write large object to file\n");
301  HELP0(" \\lo_import FILE [COMMENT]\n"
302  " read large object from file\n");
303  HELP0(" \\lo_list[+] list large objects\n");
304  HELP0(" \\lo_unlink LOBOID delete a large object\n");
305  HELP0("\n");
306 
307  HELP0("Formatting\n");
308  HELP0(" \\a toggle between unaligned and aligned output mode\n");
309  HELP0(" \\C [STRING] set table title, or unset if none\n");
310  HELP0(" \\f [STRING] show or set field separator for unaligned query output\n");
311  HELPN(" \\H toggle HTML output mode (currently %s)\n",
313  HELP0(" \\pset [NAME [VALUE]] set table output option\n"
314  " (border|columns|csv_fieldsep|expanded|fieldsep|\n"
315  " fieldsep_zero|footer|format|linestyle|null|\n"
316  " numericlocale|pager|pager_min_lines|recordsep|\n"
317  " recordsep_zero|tableattr|title|tuples_only|\n"
318  " unicode_border_linestyle|unicode_column_linestyle|\n"
319  " unicode_header_linestyle)\n");
320  HELPN(" \\t [on|off] show only rows (currently %s)\n",
322  HELP0(" \\T [STRING] set HTML <table> tag attributes, or unset if none\n");
323  HELPN(" \\x [on|off|auto] toggle expanded output (currently %s)\n",
324  pset.popt.topt.expanded == 2 ? _("auto") : ON(pset.popt.topt.expanded));
325  HELP0("\n");
326 
327  HELP0("Connection\n");
328  if (currdb)
329  HELPN(" \\c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}\n"
330  " connect to new database (currently \"%s\")\n",
331  currdb);
332  else
333  HELP0(" \\c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}\n"
334  " connect to new database (currently no connection)\n");
335  HELP0(" \\conninfo display information about current connection\n");
336  HELP0(" \\encoding [ENCODING] show or set client encoding\n");
337  HELP0(" \\password [USERNAME] securely change the password for a user\n");
338  HELP0("\n");
339 
340  HELP0("Operating System\n");
341  HELP0(" \\cd [DIR] change the current working directory\n");
342  HELP0(" \\getenv PSQLVAR ENVVAR fetch environment variable\n");
343  HELP0(" \\setenv NAME [VALUE] set or unset environment variable\n");
344  HELPN(" \\timing [on|off] toggle timing of commands (currently %s)\n",
345  ON(pset.timing));
346  HELP0(" \\! [COMMAND] execute command in shell or start interactive shell\n");
347  HELP0("\n");
348 
349  HELP0("Variables\n");
350  HELP0(" \\prompt [TEXT] NAME prompt user to set internal variable\n");
351  HELP0(" \\set [NAME [VALUE]] set internal variable, or list all if no parameters\n");
352  HELP0(" \\unset NAME unset (delete) internal variable\n");
353 
354  /* Now we can count the lines. */
355  nlcount = 0;
356  for (const char *ptr = buf.data; *ptr; ptr++)
357  {
358  if (*ptr == '\n')
359  nlcount++;
360  }
361 
362  /* And dump the output, with appropriate pagination. */
363  output = PageOutput(nlcount, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
364 
365  fputs(buf.data, output);
366 
368 
370 }
371 
372 
373 /*
374  * helpVariables
375  *
376  * show list of available variables (options) from command line
377  */
378 void
379 helpVariables(unsigned short int pager)
380 {
382  int nlcount;
383  FILE *output;
384 
385  /*
386  * To avoid counting the output lines manually, build the output in "buf"
387  * and then count them.
388  */
390 
391  HELP0("List of specially treated variables\n\n");
392 
393  HELP0("psql variables:\n");
394  HELP0("Usage:\n");
395  HELP0(" psql --set=NAME=VALUE\n or \\set NAME VALUE inside psql\n\n");
396 
397  HELP0(" AUTOCOMMIT\n"
398  " if set, successful SQL commands are automatically committed\n");
399  HELP0(" COMP_KEYWORD_CASE\n"
400  " determines the case used to complete SQL key words\n"
401  " [lower, upper, preserve-lower, preserve-upper]\n");
402  HELP0(" DBNAME\n"
403  " the currently connected database name\n");
404  HELP0(" ECHO\n"
405  " controls what input is written to standard output\n"
406  " [all, errors, none, queries]\n");
407  HELP0(" ECHO_HIDDEN\n"
408  " if set, display internal queries executed by backslash commands;\n"
409  " if set to \"noexec\", just show them without execution\n");
410  HELP0(" ENCODING\n"
411  " current client character set encoding\n");
412  HELP0(" ERROR\n"
413  " true if last query failed, else false\n");
414  HELP0(" FETCH_COUNT\n"
415  " the number of result rows to fetch and display at a time (0 = unlimited)\n");
416  HELP0(" HIDE_TABLEAM\n"
417  " if set, table access methods are not displayed\n");
418  HELP0(" HIDE_TOAST_COMPRESSION\n"
419  " if set, compression methods are not displayed\n");
420  HELP0(" HISTCONTROL\n"
421  " controls command history [ignorespace, ignoredups, ignoreboth]\n");
422  HELP0(" HISTFILE\n"
423  " file name used to store the command history\n");
424  HELP0(" HISTSIZE\n"
425  " maximum number of commands to store in the command history\n");
426  HELP0(" HOST\n"
427  " the currently connected database server host\n");
428  HELP0(" IGNOREEOF\n"
429  " number of EOFs needed to terminate an interactive session\n");
430  HELP0(" LASTOID\n"
431  " value of the last affected OID\n");
432  HELP0(" LAST_ERROR_MESSAGE\n"
433  " LAST_ERROR_SQLSTATE\n"
434  " message and SQLSTATE of last error, or empty string and \"00000\" if none\n");
435  HELP0(" ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK\n"
436  " if set, an error doesn't stop a transaction (uses implicit savepoints)\n");
437  HELP0(" ON_ERROR_STOP\n"
438  " stop batch execution after error\n");
439  HELP0(" PORT\n"
440  " server port of the current connection\n");
441  HELP0(" PROMPT1\n"
442  " specifies the standard psql prompt\n");
443  HELP0(" PROMPT2\n"
444  " specifies the prompt used when a statement continues from a previous line\n");
445  HELP0(" PROMPT3\n"
446  " specifies the prompt used during COPY ... FROM STDIN\n");
447  HELP0(" QUIET\n"
448  " run quietly (same as -q option)\n");
449  HELP0(" ROW_COUNT\n"
450  " number of rows returned or affected by last query, or 0\n");
451  HELP0(" SERVER_VERSION_NAME\n"
452  " SERVER_VERSION_NUM\n"
453  " server's version (in short string or numeric format)\n");
454  HELP0(" SHOW_ALL_RESULTS\n"
455  " show all results of a combined query (\\;) instead of only the last\n");
456  HELP0(" SHOW_CONTEXT\n"
457  " controls display of message context fields [never, errors, always]\n");
458  HELP0(" SINGLELINE\n"
459  " if set, end of line terminates SQL commands (same as -S option)\n");
460  HELP0(" SINGLESTEP\n"
461  " single-step mode (same as -s option)\n");
462  HELP0(" SQLSTATE\n"
463  " SQLSTATE of last query, or \"00000\" if no error\n");
464  HELP0(" USER\n"
465  " the currently connected database user\n");
466  HELP0(" VERBOSITY\n"
467  " controls verbosity of error reports [default, verbose, terse, sqlstate]\n");
468  HELP0(" VERSION\n"
469  " VERSION_NAME\n"
470  " VERSION_NUM\n"
471  " psql's version (in verbose string, short string, or numeric format)\n");
472 
473  HELP0("\nDisplay settings:\n");
474  HELP0("Usage:\n");
475  HELP0(" psql --pset=NAME[=VALUE]\n or \\pset NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n");
476 
477  HELP0(" border\n"
478  " border style (number)\n");
479  HELP0(" columns\n"
480  " target width for the wrapped format\n");
481  HELP0(" expanded (or x)\n"
482  " expanded output [on, off, auto]\n");
483  HELPN(" fieldsep\n"
484  " field separator for unaligned output (default \"%s\")\n",
486  HELP0(" fieldsep_zero\n"
487  " set field separator for unaligned output to a zero byte\n");
488  HELP0(" footer\n"
489  " enable or disable display of the table footer [on, off]\n");
490  HELP0(" format\n"
491  " set output format [unaligned, aligned, wrapped, html, asciidoc, ...]\n");
492  HELP0(" linestyle\n"
493  " set the border line drawing style [ascii, old-ascii, unicode]\n");
494  HELP0(" null\n"
495  " set the string to be printed in place of a null value\n");
496  HELP0(" numericlocale\n"
497  " enable display of a locale-specific character to separate groups of digits\n");
498  HELP0(" pager\n"
499  " control when an external pager is used [yes, no, always]\n");
500  HELP0(" recordsep\n"
501  " record (line) separator for unaligned output\n");
502  HELP0(" recordsep_zero\n"
503  " set record separator for unaligned output to a zero byte\n");
504  HELP0(" tableattr (or T)\n"
505  " specify attributes for table tag in html format, or proportional\n"
506  " column widths for left-aligned data types in latex-longtable format\n");
507  HELP0(" title\n"
508  " set the table title for subsequently printed tables\n");
509  HELP0(" tuples_only\n"
510  " if set, only actual table data is shown\n");
511  HELP0(" unicode_border_linestyle\n"
512  " unicode_column_linestyle\n"
513  " unicode_header_linestyle\n"
514  " set the style of Unicode line drawing [single, double]\n");
515 
516  HELP0("\nEnvironment variables:\n");
517  HELP0("Usage:\n");
518 
519 #ifndef WIN32
520  HELP0(" NAME=VALUE [NAME=VALUE] psql ...\n or \\setenv NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n");
521 #else
522  HELP0(" set NAME=VALUE\n psql ...\n or \\setenv NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n");
523 #endif
524 
525  HELP0(" COLUMNS\n"
526  " number of columns for wrapped format\n");
527  HELP0(" PGAPPNAME\n"
528  " same as the application_name connection parameter\n");
529  HELP0(" PGDATABASE\n"
530  " same as the dbname connection parameter\n");
531  HELP0(" PGHOST\n"
532  " same as the host connection parameter\n");
533  HELP0(" PGPASSFILE\n"
534  " password file name\n");
535  HELP0(" PGPASSWORD\n"
536  " connection password (not recommended)\n");
537  HELP0(" PGPORT\n"
538  " same as the port connection parameter\n");
539  HELP0(" PGUSER\n"
540  " same as the user connection parameter\n");
541  HELP0(" PSQL_EDITOR, EDITOR, VISUAL\n"
542  " editor used by the \\e, \\ef, and \\ev commands\n");
543  HELP0(" PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG\n"
544  " how to specify a line number when invoking the editor\n");
545  HELP0(" PSQL_HISTORY\n"
546  " alternative location for the command history file\n");
547  HELP0(" PSQL_PAGER, PAGER\n"
548  " name of external pager program\n");
549 #ifndef WIN32
550  HELP0(" PSQL_WATCH_PAGER\n"
551  " name of external pager program used for \\watch\n");
552 #endif
553  HELP0(" PSQLRC\n"
554  " alternative location for the user's .psqlrc file\n");
555  HELP0(" SHELL\n"
556  " shell used by the \\! command\n");
557  HELP0(" TMPDIR\n"
558  " directory for temporary files\n");
559 
560  /* Now we can count the lines. */
561  nlcount = 0;
562  for (const char *ptr = buf.data; *ptr; ptr++)
563  {
564  if (*ptr == '\n')
565  nlcount++;
566  }
567 
568  /* And dump the output, with appropriate pagination. */
569  output = PageOutput(nlcount, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
570 
571  fputs(buf.data, output);
572 
574 
576 }
577 
578 
579 /*
580  * helpSQL -- help with SQL commands
581  *
582  * Note: we assume caller removed any trailing spaces in "topic".
583  */
584 void
585 helpSQL(const char *topic, unsigned short int pager)
586 {
587 #define VALUE_OR_NULL(a) ((a) ? (a) : "")
588 
589  if (!topic || strlen(topic) == 0)
590  {
591  /* Print all the available command names */
592  int screen_width;
593  int ncolumns;
594  int nrows;
595  FILE *output;
596  int i;
597  int j;
598 
599  /* Find screen width to determine how many columns will fit */
600 #ifdef TIOCGWINSZ
601  struct winsize screen_size;
602 
603  if (ioctl(fileno(stdout), TIOCGWINSZ, &screen_size) == -1)
604  screen_width = 80; /* ioctl failed, assume 80 */
605  else
606  screen_width = screen_size.ws_col;
607 #else
608  screen_width = 80; /* default assumption */
609 #endif
610 
611  ncolumns = (screen_width - 3) / (QL_MAX_CMD_LEN + 1);
612  ncolumns = Max(ncolumns, 1);
613  nrows = (QL_HELP_COUNT + (ncolumns - 1)) / ncolumns;
614 
615  output = PageOutput(nrows + 1, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
616 
617  fputs(_("Available help:\n"), output);
618 
619  for (i = 0; i < nrows; i++)
620  {
621  fprintf(output, " ");
622  for (j = 0; j < ncolumns - 1; j++)
623  fprintf(output, "%-*s",
624  QL_MAX_CMD_LEN + 1,
625  VALUE_OR_NULL(QL_HELP[i + j * nrows].cmd));
626  if (i + j * nrows < QL_HELP_COUNT)
627  fprintf(output, "%s",
628  VALUE_OR_NULL(QL_HELP[i + j * nrows].cmd));
629  fputc('\n', output);
630  }
631 
633  }
634  else
635  {
636  int i,
637  pass;
638  FILE *output = NULL;
639  size_t len,
640  wordlen,
641  j;
642  int nl_count;
643 
644  /*
645  * len is the amount of the input to compare to the help topic names.
646  * We first try exact match, then first + second words, then first
647  * word only.
648  */
649  len = strlen(topic);
650 
651  for (pass = 1; pass <= 3; pass++)
652  {
653  if (pass > 1) /* Nothing on first pass - try the opening
654  * word(s) */
655  {
656  wordlen = j = 1;
657  while (j < len && topic[j++] != ' ')
658  wordlen++;
659  if (pass == 2 && j < len)
660  {
661  wordlen++;
662  while (j < len && topic[j++] != ' ')
663  wordlen++;
664  }
665  if (wordlen >= len)
666  {
667  /* Failed to shorten input, so try next pass if any */
668  continue;
669  }
670  len = wordlen;
671  }
672 
673  /*
674  * Count newlines for pager. This logic must agree with what the
675  * following loop will do!
676  */
677  nl_count = 0;
678  for (i = 0; QL_HELP[i].cmd; i++)
679  {
680  if (pg_strncasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd, len) == 0 ||
681  strcmp(topic, "*") == 0)
682  {
683  /* magic constant here must match format below! */
684  nl_count += 7 + QL_HELP[i].nl_count;
685 
686  /* If we have an exact match, exit. Fixes \h SELECT */
687  if (pg_strcasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd) == 0)
688  break;
689  }
690  }
691  /* If no matches, don't open the output yet */
692  if (nl_count == 0)
693  continue;
694 
695  if (!output)
696  output = PageOutput(nl_count, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
697 
698  for (i = 0; QL_HELP[i].cmd; i++)
699  {
700  if (pg_strncasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd, len) == 0 ||
701  strcmp(topic, "*") == 0)
702  {
703  PQExpBufferData buffer;
704  char *url;
705 
706  initPQExpBuffer(&buffer);
707  QL_HELP[i].syntaxfunc(&buffer);
708  url = psprintf("https://www.postgresql.org/docs/%s/%s.html",
709  strstr(PG_VERSION, "devel") ? "devel" : PG_MAJORVERSION,
710  QL_HELP[i].docbook_id);
711  /* # of newlines in format must match constant above! */
712  fprintf(output, _("Command: %s\n"
713  "Description: %s\n"
714  "Syntax:\n%s\n\n"
715  "URL: %s\n\n"),
716  QL_HELP[i].cmd,
717  _(QL_HELP[i].help),
718  buffer.data,
719  url);
720  free(url);
721  termPQExpBuffer(&buffer);
722 
723  /* If we have an exact match, exit. Fixes \h SELECT */
724  if (pg_strcasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd) == 0)
725  break;
726  }
727  }
728  break;
729  }
730 
731  /* If we never found anything, report that */
732  if (!output)
733  {
734  output = PageOutput(2, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
735  fprintf(output, _("No help available for \"%s\".\n"
736  "Try \\h with no arguments to see available help.\n"),
737  topic);
738  }
739 
741  }
742 }
743 
744 
745 
746 void
748 {
749  puts("PostgreSQL Database Management System\n"
750  "(formerly known as Postgres, then as Postgres95)\n\n"
751  "Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2022, PostgreSQL Global Development Group\n\n"
752  "Portions Copyright (c) 1994, The Regents of the University of California\n\n"
753  "Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its\n"
754  "documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement\n"
755  "is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this\n"
756  "paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.\n\n"
757  "IN NO EVENT SHALL THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR\n"
758  "DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING\n"
759  "LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS\n"
760  "DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE\n"
761  "POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.\n\n"
762  "THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES,\n"
763  "INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY\n"
764  "AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS\n"
765  "ON AN \"AS IS\" BASIS, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS NO OBLIGATIONS TO\n"
766  "PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.\n");
767 }
#define Max(x, y)
Definition: c.h:931
#define _(x)
Definition: elog.c:90
char * PQdb(const PGconn *conn)
Definition: fe-connect.c:6589
void ClosePager(FILE *pagerpipe)
Definition: print.c:3140
FILE * PageOutput(int lines, const printTableOpt *topt)
Definition: print.c:3088
@ PRINT_HTML
Definition: print.h:34
#define free(a)
Definition: header.h:65
#define VALUE_OR_NULL(a)
void helpVariables(unsigned short int pager)
Definition: help.c:379
#define HELPN(str,...)
Definition: help.c:41
#define HELP0(str)
Definition: help.c:40
void helpSQL(const char *topic, unsigned short int pager)
Definition: help.c:585
void usage(unsigned short int pager)
Definition: help.c:51
void slashUsage(unsigned short int pager)
Definition: help.c:176
void print_copyright(void)
Definition: help.c:747
#define ON(var)
Definition: help.c:42
int j
Definition: isn.c:74
int i
Definition: isn.c:73
#define pg_fatal(...)
const void size_t len
static char * user
Definition: pg_regress.c:93
static char * buf
Definition: pg_test_fsync.c:67
static void output(uint64 loop_count)
int pg_strcasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2)
Definition: pgstrcasecmp.c:36
#define fprintf
Definition: port.h:242
int pg_strncasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t n)
Definition: pgstrcasecmp.c:69
void initPQExpBuffer(PQExpBuffer str)
Definition: pqexpbuffer.c:90
void termPQExpBuffer(PQExpBuffer str)
Definition: pqexpbuffer.c:129
char * psprintf(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: psprintf.c:46
#define DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP
Definition: settings.h:15
PsqlSettings pset
Definition: startup.c:32
printQueryOpt popt
Definition: settings.h:91
PGconn * db
Definition: settings.h:82
printTableOpt topt
Definition: print.h:180
unsigned short int expanded
Definition: print.h:111
bool tuples_only
Definition: print.h:121
enum printFormat format
Definition: print.h:110
const char * get_user_name(char **errstr)
Definition: username.c:31