PostgreSQL Source Code  git master
help.h File Reference
This graph shows which files directly or indirectly include this file:

Go to the source code of this file.

Functions

void usage (unsigned short int pager)
 
void slashUsage (unsigned short int pager)
 
void helpVariables (unsigned short int pager)
 
void helpSQL (const char *topic, unsigned short int pager)
 
void print_copyright (void)
 

Function Documentation

◆ helpSQL()

void helpSQL ( const char *  topic,
unsigned short int  pager 
)

Definition at line 530 of file help.c.

531 {
532 #define VALUE_OR_NULL(a) ((a) ? (a) : "")
533 
534  if (!topic || strlen(topic) == 0)
535  {
536  /* Print all the available command names */
537  int screen_width;
538  int ncolumns;
539  int nrows;
540  FILE *output;
541  int i;
542  int j;
543 
544  /* Find screen width to determine how many columns will fit */
545 #ifdef TIOCGWINSZ
546  struct winsize screen_size;
547 
548  if (ioctl(fileno(stdout), TIOCGWINSZ, &screen_size) == -1)
549  screen_width = 80; /* ioctl failed, assume 80 */
550  else
551  screen_width = screen_size.ws_col;
552 #else
553  screen_width = 80; /* default assumption */
554 #endif
555 
556  ncolumns = (screen_width - 3) / (QL_MAX_CMD_LEN + 1);
557  ncolumns = Max(ncolumns, 1);
558  nrows = (QL_HELP_COUNT + (ncolumns - 1)) / ncolumns;
559 
560  output = PageOutput(nrows + 1, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
561 
562  fputs(_("Available help:\n"), output);
563 
564  for (i = 0; i < nrows; i++)
565  {
566  fprintf(output, " ");
567  for (j = 0; j < ncolumns - 1; j++)
568  fprintf(output, "%-*s",
569  QL_MAX_CMD_LEN + 1,
570  VALUE_OR_NULL(QL_HELP[i + j * nrows].cmd));
571  if (i + j * nrows < QL_HELP_COUNT)
572  fprintf(output, "%s",
573  VALUE_OR_NULL(QL_HELP[i + j * nrows].cmd));
574  fputc('\n', output);
575  }
576 
578  }
579  else
580  {
581  int i,
582  pass;
583  FILE *output = NULL;
584  size_t len,
585  wordlen,
586  j;
587  int nl_count;
588 
589  /*
590  * len is the amount of the input to compare to the help topic names.
591  * We first try exact match, then first + second words, then first
592  * word only.
593  */
594  len = strlen(topic);
595 
596  for (pass = 1; pass <= 3; pass++)
597  {
598  if (pass > 1) /* Nothing on first pass - try the opening
599  * word(s) */
600  {
601  wordlen = j = 1;
602  while (j < len && topic[j++] != ' ')
603  wordlen++;
604  if (pass == 2 && j < len)
605  {
606  wordlen++;
607  while (j < len && topic[j++] != ' ')
608  wordlen++;
609  }
610  if (wordlen >= len)
611  {
612  /* Failed to shorten input, so try next pass if any */
613  continue;
614  }
615  len = wordlen;
616  }
617 
618  /*
619  * Count newlines for pager. This logic must agree with what the
620  * following loop will do!
621  */
622  nl_count = 0;
623  for (i = 0; QL_HELP[i].cmd; i++)
624  {
625  if (pg_strncasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd, len) == 0 ||
626  strcmp(topic, "*") == 0)
627  {
628  /* magic constant here must match format below! */
629  nl_count += 7 + QL_HELP[i].nl_count;
630 
631  /* If we have an exact match, exit. Fixes \h SELECT */
632  if (pg_strcasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd) == 0)
633  break;
634  }
635  }
636  /* If no matches, don't open the output yet */
637  if (nl_count == 0)
638  continue;
639 
640  if (!output)
641  output = PageOutput(nl_count, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
642 
643  for (i = 0; QL_HELP[i].cmd; i++)
644  {
645  if (pg_strncasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd, len) == 0 ||
646  strcmp(topic, "*") == 0)
647  {
648  PQExpBufferData buffer;
649  char *url;
650 
651  initPQExpBuffer(&buffer);
652  QL_HELP[i].syntaxfunc(&buffer);
653  url = psprintf("https://www.postgresql.org/docs/%s/%s.html",
654  strstr(PG_VERSION, "devel") ? "devel" : PG_MAJORVERSION,
655  QL_HELP[i].docbook_id);
656  /* # of newlines in format must match constant above! */
657  fprintf(output, _("Command: %s\n"
658  "Description: %s\n"
659  "Syntax:\n%s\n\n"
660  "URL: %s\n\n"),
661  QL_HELP[i].cmd,
662  _(QL_HELP[i].help),
663  buffer.data,
664  url);
665  free(url);
666  termPQExpBuffer(&buffer);
667 
668  /* If we have an exact match, exit. Fixes \h SELECT */
669  if (pg_strcasecmp(topic, QL_HELP[i].cmd) == 0)
670  break;
671  }
672  }
673  break;
674  }
675 
676  /* If we never found anything, report that */
677  if (!output)
678  {
679  output = PageOutput(2, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
680  fprintf(output, _("No help available for \"%s\".\n"
681  "Try \\h with no arguments to see available help.\n"),
682  topic);
683  }
684 
686  }
687 }
#define Max(x, y)
Definition: c.h:980
#define _(x)
Definition: elog.c:89
void ClosePager(FILE *pagerpipe)
Definition: print.c:3096
FILE * PageOutput(int lines, const printTableOpt *topt)
Definition: print.c:3045
#define free(a)
Definition: header.h:65
#define VALUE_OR_NULL(a)
int j
Definition: isn.c:74
int i
Definition: isn.c:73
const void size_t len
static void output(uint64 loop_count)
int pg_strcasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2)
Definition: pgstrcasecmp.c:36
#define fprintf
Definition: port.h:229
int pg_strncasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t n)
Definition: pgstrcasecmp.c:69
void initPQExpBuffer(PQExpBuffer str)
Definition: pqexpbuffer.c:92
void termPQExpBuffer(PQExpBuffer str)
Definition: pqexpbuffer.c:131
char * psprintf(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: psprintf.c:46
PsqlSettings pset
Definition: startup.c:32
printQueryOpt popt
Definition: settings.h:91
printTableOpt topt
Definition: print.h:169

References _, ClosePager(), PQExpBufferData::data, fprintf, free, generate_unaccent_rules::help, i, initPQExpBuffer(), j, len, Max, output(), PageOutput(), pg_strcasecmp(), pg_strncasecmp(), _psqlSettings::popt, pset, psprintf(), generate_unaccent_rules::stdout, termPQExpBuffer(), printQueryOpt::topt, and VALUE_OR_NULL.

Referenced by exec_command_help().

◆ helpVariables()

void helpVariables ( unsigned short int  pager)

Definition at line 341 of file help.c.

342 {
343  FILE *output;
344 
345  /*
346  * Keep this line count in sync with the number of lines printed below!
347  * Use "psql --help=variables | wc" to count correctly; but notice that
348  * Windows builds currently print one fewer line than non-Windows builds.
349  * Using the larger number is fine.
350  */
351  output = PageOutput(161, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
352 
353  fprintf(output, _("List of specially treated variables\n\n"));
354 
355  fprintf(output, _("psql variables:\n"));
356  fprintf(output, _("Usage:\n"));
357  fprintf(output, _(" psql --set=NAME=VALUE\n or \\set NAME VALUE inside psql\n\n"));
358 
359  fprintf(output, _(" AUTOCOMMIT\n"
360  " if set, successful SQL commands are automatically committed\n"));
361  fprintf(output, _(" COMP_KEYWORD_CASE\n"
362  " determines the case used to complete SQL key words\n"
363  " [lower, upper, preserve-lower, preserve-upper]\n"));
364  fprintf(output, _(" DBNAME\n"
365  " the currently connected database name\n"));
366  fprintf(output, _(" ECHO\n"
367  " controls what input is written to standard output\n"
368  " [all, errors, none, queries]\n"));
369  fprintf(output, _(" ECHO_HIDDEN\n"
370  " if set, display internal queries executed by backslash commands;\n"
371  " if set to \"noexec\", just show them without execution\n"));
372  fprintf(output, _(" ENCODING\n"
373  " current client character set encoding\n"));
374  fprintf(output, _(" ERROR\n"
375  " true if last query failed, else false\n"));
376  fprintf(output, _(" FETCH_COUNT\n"
377  " the number of result rows to fetch and display at a time (0 = unlimited)\n"));
378  fprintf(output, _(" HIDE_TABLEAM\n"
379  " if set, table access methods are not displayed\n"));
380  fprintf(output, _(" HIDE_TOAST_COMPRESSION\n"
381  " if set, compression methods are not displayed\n"));
382  fprintf(output, _(" HISTCONTROL\n"
383  " controls command history [ignorespace, ignoredups, ignoreboth]\n"));
384  fprintf(output, _(" HISTFILE\n"
385  " file name used to store the command history\n"));
386  fprintf(output, _(" HISTSIZE\n"
387  " maximum number of commands to store in the command history\n"));
388  fprintf(output, _(" HOST\n"
389  " the currently connected database server host\n"));
390  fprintf(output, _(" IGNOREEOF\n"
391  " number of EOFs needed to terminate an interactive session\n"));
392  fprintf(output, _(" LASTOID\n"
393  " value of the last affected OID\n"));
394  fprintf(output, _(" LAST_ERROR_MESSAGE\n"
395  " LAST_ERROR_SQLSTATE\n"
396  " message and SQLSTATE of last error, or empty string and \"00000\" if none\n"));
397  fprintf(output, _(" ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK\n"
398  " if set, an error doesn't stop a transaction (uses implicit savepoints)\n"));
399  fprintf(output, _(" ON_ERROR_STOP\n"
400  " stop batch execution after error\n"));
401  fprintf(output, _(" PORT\n"
402  " server port of the current connection\n"));
403  fprintf(output, _(" PROMPT1\n"
404  " specifies the standard psql prompt\n"));
405  fprintf(output, _(" PROMPT2\n"
406  " specifies the prompt used when a statement continues from a previous line\n"));
407  fprintf(output, _(" PROMPT3\n"
408  " specifies the prompt used during COPY ... FROM STDIN\n"));
409  fprintf(output, _(" QUIET\n"
410  " run quietly (same as -q option)\n"));
411  fprintf(output, _(" ROW_COUNT\n"
412  " number of rows returned or affected by last query, or 0\n"));
413  fprintf(output, _(" SERVER_VERSION_NAME\n"
414  " SERVER_VERSION_NUM\n"
415  " server's version (in short string or numeric format)\n"));
416  fprintf(output, _(" SHOW_CONTEXT\n"
417  " controls display of message context fields [never, errors, always]\n"));
418  fprintf(output, _(" SINGLELINE\n"
419  " if set, end of line terminates SQL commands (same as -S option)\n"));
420  fprintf(output, _(" SINGLESTEP\n"
421  " single-step mode (same as -s option)\n"));
422  fprintf(output, _(" SQLSTATE\n"
423  " SQLSTATE of last query, or \"00000\" if no error\n"));
424  fprintf(output, _(" USER\n"
425  " the currently connected database user\n"));
426  fprintf(output, _(" VERBOSITY\n"
427  " controls verbosity of error reports [default, verbose, terse, sqlstate]\n"));
428  fprintf(output, _(" VERSION\n"
429  " VERSION_NAME\n"
430  " VERSION_NUM\n"
431  " psql's version (in verbose string, short string, or numeric format)\n"));
432 
433  fprintf(output, _("\nDisplay settings:\n"));
434  fprintf(output, _("Usage:\n"));
435  fprintf(output, _(" psql --pset=NAME[=VALUE]\n or \\pset NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n"));
436 
437  fprintf(output, _(" border\n"
438  " border style (number)\n"));
439  fprintf(output, _(" columns\n"
440  " target width for the wrapped format\n"));
441  fprintf(output, _(" expanded (or x)\n"
442  " expanded output [on, off, auto]\n"));
443  fprintf(output, _(" fieldsep\n"
444  " field separator for unaligned output (default \"%s\")\n"),
446  fprintf(output, _(" fieldsep_zero\n"
447  " set field separator for unaligned output to a zero byte\n"));
448  fprintf(output, _(" footer\n"
449  " enable or disable display of the table footer [on, off]\n"));
450  fprintf(output, _(" format\n"
451  " set output format [unaligned, aligned, wrapped, html, asciidoc, ...]\n"));
452  fprintf(output, _(" linestyle\n"
453  " set the border line drawing style [ascii, old-ascii, unicode]\n"));
454  fprintf(output, _(" null\n"
455  " set the string to be printed in place of a null value\n"));
456  fprintf(output, _(" numericlocale\n"
457  " enable display of a locale-specific character to separate groups of digits\n"));
458  fprintf(output, _(" pager\n"
459  " control when an external pager is used [yes, no, always]\n"));
460  fprintf(output, _(" recordsep\n"
461  " record (line) separator for unaligned output\n"));
462  fprintf(output, _(" recordsep_zero\n"
463  " set record separator for unaligned output to a zero byte\n"));
464  fprintf(output, _(" tableattr (or T)\n"
465  " specify attributes for table tag in html format, or proportional\n"
466  " column widths for left-aligned data types in latex-longtable format\n"));
467  fprintf(output, _(" title\n"
468  " set the table title for subsequently printed tables\n"));
469  fprintf(output, _(" tuples_only\n"
470  " if set, only actual table data is shown\n"));
471  fprintf(output, _(" unicode_border_linestyle\n"
472  " unicode_column_linestyle\n"
473  " unicode_header_linestyle\n"
474  " set the style of Unicode line drawing [single, double]\n"));
475 
476  fprintf(output, _("\nEnvironment variables:\n"));
477  fprintf(output, _("Usage:\n"));
478 
479 #ifndef WIN32
480  fprintf(output, _(" NAME=VALUE [NAME=VALUE] psql ...\n or \\setenv NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n"));
481 #else
482  fprintf(output, _(" set NAME=VALUE\n psql ...\n or \\setenv NAME [VALUE] inside psql\n\n"));
483 #endif
484 
485  fprintf(output, _(" COLUMNS\n"
486  " number of columns for wrapped format\n"));
487  fprintf(output, _(" PGAPPNAME\n"
488  " same as the application_name connection parameter\n"));
489  fprintf(output, _(" PGDATABASE\n"
490  " same as the dbname connection parameter\n"));
491  fprintf(output, _(" PGHOST\n"
492  " same as the host connection parameter\n"));
493  fprintf(output, _(" PGPASSFILE\n"
494  " password file name\n"));
495  fprintf(output, _(" PGPASSWORD\n"
496  " connection password (not recommended)\n"));
497  fprintf(output, _(" PGPORT\n"
498  " same as the port connection parameter\n"));
499  fprintf(output, _(" PGUSER\n"
500  " same as the user connection parameter\n"));
501  fprintf(output, _(" PSQL_EDITOR, EDITOR, VISUAL\n"
502  " editor used by the \\e, \\ef, and \\ev commands\n"));
503  fprintf(output, _(" PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG\n"
504  " how to specify a line number when invoking the editor\n"));
505  fprintf(output, _(" PSQL_HISTORY\n"
506  " alternative location for the command history file\n"));
507  fprintf(output, _(" PSQL_PAGER, PAGER\n"
508  " name of external pager program\n"));
509 #ifndef WIN32
510  fprintf(output, _(" PSQL_WATCH_PAGER\n"
511  " name of external pager program used for \\watch\n"));
512 #endif
513  fprintf(output, _(" PSQLRC\n"
514  " alternative location for the user's .psqlrc file\n"));
515  fprintf(output, _(" SHELL\n"
516  " shell used by the \\! command\n"));
517  fprintf(output, _(" TMPDIR\n"
518  " directory for temporary files\n"));
519 
521 }
#define DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP
Definition: settings.h:15

References _, ClosePager(), DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP, fprintf, output(), PageOutput(), _psqlSettings::popt, pset, and printQueryOpt::topt.

Referenced by exec_command_slash_command_help(), and parse_psql_options().

◆ print_copyright()

void print_copyright ( void  )

Definition at line 692 of file help.c.

693 {
694  puts("PostgreSQL Database Management System\n"
695  "(formerly known as Postgres, then as Postgres95)\n\n"
696  "Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2022, PostgreSQL Global Development Group\n\n"
697  "Portions Copyright (c) 1994, The Regents of the University of California\n\n"
698  "Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its\n"
699  "documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement\n"
700  "is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this\n"
701  "paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.\n\n"
702  "IN NO EVENT SHALL THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR\n"
703  "DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING\n"
704  "LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS\n"
705  "DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE\n"
706  "POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.\n\n"
707  "THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES,\n"
708  "INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY\n"
709  "AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS\n"
710  "ON AN \"AS IS\" BASIS, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA HAS NO OBLIGATIONS TO\n"
711  "PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.\n");
712 }

Referenced by exec_command_copyright().

◆ slashUsage()

void slashUsage ( unsigned short int  pager)

Definition at line 157 of file help.c.

158 {
159  FILE *output;
160  char *currdb;
161 
162  currdb = PQdb(pset.db);
163 
164  /*
165  * Keep this line count in sync with the number of lines printed below!
166  * Use "psql --help=commands | wc" to count correctly. It's okay to count
167  * the USE_READLINE line even in builds without that.
168  */
169  output = PageOutput(137, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
170 
171  fprintf(output, _("General\n"));
172  fprintf(output, _(" \\copyright show PostgreSQL usage and distribution terms\n"));
173  fprintf(output, _(" \\crosstabview [COLUMNS] execute query and display results in crosstab\n"));
174  fprintf(output, _(" \\errverbose show most recent error message at maximum verbosity\n"));
175  fprintf(output, _(" \\g [(OPTIONS)] [FILE] execute query (and send results to file or |pipe);\n"
176  " \\g with no arguments is equivalent to a semicolon\n"));
177  fprintf(output, _(" \\gdesc describe result of query, without executing it\n"));
178  fprintf(output, _(" \\gexec execute query, then execute each value in its result\n"));
179  fprintf(output, _(" \\gset [PREFIX] execute query and store results in psql variables\n"));
180  fprintf(output, _(" \\gx [(OPTIONS)] [FILE] as \\g, but forces expanded output mode\n"));
181  fprintf(output, _(" \\q quit psql\n"));
182  fprintf(output, _(" \\watch [SEC] execute query every SEC seconds\n"));
183  fprintf(output, "\n");
184 
185  fprintf(output, _("Help\n"));
186 
187  fprintf(output, _(" \\? [commands] show help on backslash commands\n"));
188  fprintf(output, _(" \\? options show help on psql command-line options\n"));
189  fprintf(output, _(" \\? variables show help on special variables\n"));
190  fprintf(output, _(" \\h [NAME] help on syntax of SQL commands, * for all commands\n"));
191  fprintf(output, "\n");
192 
193  fprintf(output, _("Query Buffer\n"));
194  fprintf(output, _(" \\e [FILE] [LINE] edit the query buffer (or file) with external editor\n"));
195  fprintf(output, _(" \\ef [FUNCNAME [LINE]] edit function definition with external editor\n"));
196  fprintf(output, _(" \\ev [VIEWNAME [LINE]] edit view definition with external editor\n"));
197  fprintf(output, _(" \\p show the contents of the query buffer\n"));
198  fprintf(output, _(" \\r reset (clear) the query buffer\n"));
199 #ifdef USE_READLINE
200  fprintf(output, _(" \\s [FILE] display history or save it to file\n"));
201 #endif
202  fprintf(output, _(" \\w FILE write query buffer to file\n"));
203  fprintf(output, "\n");
204 
205  fprintf(output, _("Input/Output\n"));
206  fprintf(output, _(" \\copy ... perform SQL COPY with data stream to the client host\n"));
207  fprintf(output, _(" \\echo [-n] [STRING] write string to standard output (-n for no newline)\n"));
208  fprintf(output, _(" \\i FILE execute commands from file\n"));
209  fprintf(output, _(" \\ir FILE as \\i, but relative to location of current script\n"));
210  fprintf(output, _(" \\o [FILE] send all query results to file or |pipe\n"));
211  fprintf(output, _(" \\qecho [-n] [STRING] write string to \\o output stream (-n for no newline)\n"));
212  fprintf(output, _(" \\warn [-n] [STRING] write string to standard error (-n for no newline)\n"));
213  fprintf(output, "\n");
214 
215  fprintf(output, _("Conditional\n"));
216  fprintf(output, _(" \\if EXPR begin conditional block\n"));
217  fprintf(output, _(" \\elif EXPR alternative within current conditional block\n"));
218  fprintf(output, _(" \\else final alternative within current conditional block\n"));
219  fprintf(output, _(" \\endif end conditional block\n"));
220  fprintf(output, "\n");
221 
222  fprintf(output, _("Informational\n"));
223  fprintf(output, _(" (options: S = show system objects, + = additional detail)\n"));
224  fprintf(output, _(" \\d[S+] list tables, views, and sequences\n"));
225  fprintf(output, _(" \\d[S+] NAME describe table, view, sequence, or index\n"));
226  fprintf(output, _(" \\da[S] [PATTERN] list aggregates\n"));
227  fprintf(output, _(" \\dA[+] [PATTERN] list access methods\n"));
228  fprintf(output, _(" \\dAc[+] [AMPTRN [TYPEPTRN]] list operator classes\n"));
229  fprintf(output, _(" \\dAf[+] [AMPTRN [TYPEPTRN]] list operator families\n"));
230  fprintf(output, _(" \\dAo[+] [AMPTRN [OPFPTRN]] list operators of operator families\n"));
231  fprintf(output, _(" \\dAp[+] [AMPTRN [OPFPTRN]] list support functions of operator families\n"));
232  fprintf(output, _(" \\db[+] [PATTERN] list tablespaces\n"));
233  fprintf(output, _(" \\dc[S+] [PATTERN] list conversions\n"));
234  fprintf(output, _(" \\dC[+] [PATTERN] list casts\n"));
235  fprintf(output, _(" \\dd[S] [PATTERN] show object descriptions not displayed elsewhere\n"));
236  fprintf(output, _(" \\dD[S+] [PATTERN] list domains\n"));
237  fprintf(output, _(" \\ddp [PATTERN] list default privileges\n"));
238  fprintf(output, _(" \\dE[S+] [PATTERN] list foreign tables\n"));
239  fprintf(output, _(" \\des[+] [PATTERN] list foreign servers\n"));
240  fprintf(output, _(" \\det[+] [PATTERN] list foreign tables\n"));
241  fprintf(output, _(" \\deu[+] [PATTERN] list user mappings\n"));
242  fprintf(output, _(" \\dew[+] [PATTERN] list foreign-data wrappers\n"));
243  fprintf(output, _(" \\df[anptw][S+] [FUNCPTRN [TYPEPTRN ...]]\n"
244  " list [only agg/normal/procedure/trigger/window] functions\n"));
245  fprintf(output, _(" \\dF[+] [PATTERN] list text search configurations\n"));
246  fprintf(output, _(" \\dFd[+] [PATTERN] list text search dictionaries\n"));
247  fprintf(output, _(" \\dFp[+] [PATTERN] list text search parsers\n"));
248  fprintf(output, _(" \\dFt[+] [PATTERN] list text search templates\n"));
249  fprintf(output, _(" \\dg[S+] [PATTERN] list roles\n"));
250  fprintf(output, _(" \\di[S+] [PATTERN] list indexes\n"));
251  fprintf(output, _(" \\dl[+] list large objects, same as \\lo_list\n"));
252  fprintf(output, _(" \\dL[S+] [PATTERN] list procedural languages\n"));
253  fprintf(output, _(" \\dm[S+] [PATTERN] list materialized views\n"));
254  fprintf(output, _(" \\dn[S+] [PATTERN] list schemas\n"));
255  fprintf(output, _(" \\do[S+] [OPPTRN [TYPEPTRN [TYPEPTRN]]]\n"
256  " list operators\n"));
257  fprintf(output, _(" \\dO[S+] [PATTERN] list collations\n"));
258  fprintf(output, _(" \\dp [PATTERN] list table, view, and sequence access privileges\n"));
259  fprintf(output, _(" \\dP[itn+] [PATTERN] list [only index/table] partitioned relations [n=nested]\n"));
260  fprintf(output, _(" \\drds [ROLEPTRN [DBPTRN]] list per-database role settings\n"));
261  fprintf(output, _(" \\dRp[+] [PATTERN] list replication publications\n"));
262  fprintf(output, _(" \\dRs[+] [PATTERN] list replication subscriptions\n"));
263  fprintf(output, _(" \\ds[S+] [PATTERN] list sequences\n"));
264  fprintf(output, _(" \\dt[S+] [PATTERN] list tables\n"));
265  fprintf(output, _(" \\dT[S+] [PATTERN] list data types\n"));
266  fprintf(output, _(" \\du[S+] [PATTERN] list roles\n"));
267  fprintf(output, _(" \\dv[S+] [PATTERN] list views\n"));
268  fprintf(output, _(" \\dx[+] [PATTERN] list extensions\n"));
269  fprintf(output, _(" \\dX [PATTERN] list extended statistics\n"));
270  fprintf(output, _(" \\dy[+] [PATTERN] list event triggers\n"));
271  fprintf(output, _(" \\l[+] [PATTERN] list databases\n"));
272  fprintf(output, _(" \\sf[+] FUNCNAME show a function's definition\n"));
273  fprintf(output, _(" \\sv[+] VIEWNAME show a view's definition\n"));
274  fprintf(output, _(" \\z [PATTERN] same as \\dp\n"));
275  fprintf(output, "\n");
276 
277  fprintf(output, _("Formatting\n"));
278  fprintf(output, _(" \\a toggle between unaligned and aligned output mode\n"));
279  fprintf(output, _(" \\C [STRING] set table title, or unset if none\n"));
280  fprintf(output, _(" \\f [STRING] show or set field separator for unaligned query output\n"));
281  fprintf(output, _(" \\H toggle HTML output mode (currently %s)\n"),
283  fprintf(output, _(" \\pset [NAME [VALUE]] set table output option\n"
284  " (border|columns|csv_fieldsep|expanded|fieldsep|\n"
285  " fieldsep_zero|footer|format|linestyle|null|\n"
286  " numericlocale|pager|pager_min_lines|recordsep|\n"
287  " recordsep_zero|tableattr|title|tuples_only|\n"
288  " unicode_border_linestyle|unicode_column_linestyle|\n"
289  " unicode_header_linestyle)\n"));
290  fprintf(output, _(" \\t [on|off] show only rows (currently %s)\n"),
292  fprintf(output, _(" \\T [STRING] set HTML <table> tag attributes, or unset if none\n"));
293  fprintf(output, _(" \\x [on|off|auto] toggle expanded output (currently %s)\n"),
294  pset.popt.topt.expanded == 2 ? "auto" : ON(pset.popt.topt.expanded));
295  fprintf(output, "\n");
296 
297  fprintf(output, _("Connection\n"));
298  if (currdb)
299  fprintf(output, _(" \\c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}\n"
300  " connect to new database (currently \"%s\")\n"),
301  currdb);
302  else
303  fprintf(output, _(" \\c[onnect] {[DBNAME|- USER|- HOST|- PORT|-] | conninfo}\n"
304  " connect to new database (currently no connection)\n"));
305  fprintf(output, _(" \\conninfo display information about current connection\n"));
306  fprintf(output, _(" \\encoding [ENCODING] show or set client encoding\n"));
307  fprintf(output, _(" \\password [USERNAME] securely change the password for a user\n"));
308  fprintf(output, "\n");
309 
310  fprintf(output, _("Operating System\n"));
311  fprintf(output, _(" \\cd [DIR] change the current working directory\n"));
312  fprintf(output, _(" \\getenv PSQLVAR ENVVAR fetch environment variable\n"));
313  fprintf(output, _(" \\setenv NAME [VALUE] set or unset environment variable\n"));
314  fprintf(output, _(" \\timing [on|off] toggle timing of commands (currently %s)\n"),
315  ON(pset.timing));
316  fprintf(output, _(" \\! [COMMAND] execute command in shell or start interactive shell\n"));
317  fprintf(output, "\n");
318 
319  fprintf(output, _("Variables\n"));
320  fprintf(output, _(" \\prompt [TEXT] NAME prompt user to set internal variable\n"));
321  fprintf(output, _(" \\set [NAME [VALUE]] set internal variable, or list all if no parameters\n"));
322  fprintf(output, _(" \\unset NAME unset (delete) internal variable\n"));
323  fprintf(output, "\n");
324 
325  fprintf(output, _("Large Objects\n"));
326  fprintf(output, _(" \\lo_export LOBOID FILE\n"
327  " \\lo_import FILE [COMMENT]\n"
328  " \\lo_list[+]\n"
329  " \\lo_unlink LOBOID large object operations\n"));
330 
332 }
char * PQdb(const PGconn *conn)
Definition: fe-connect.c:6761
@ PRINT_HTML
Definition: print.h:34
#define ON(var)
Definition: help.c:45
PGconn * db
Definition: settings.h:82
unsigned short int expanded
Definition: print.h:102
bool tuples_only
Definition: print.h:110
enum printFormat format
Definition: print.h:101

References _, ClosePager(), _psqlSettings::db, printTableOpt::expanded, printTableOpt::format, fprintf, ON, output(), PageOutput(), _psqlSettings::popt, PQdb(), PRINT_HTML, pset, _psqlSettings::timing, printQueryOpt::topt, and printTableOpt::tuples_only.

Referenced by exec_command_slash_command_help(), and parse_psql_options().

◆ usage()

void usage ( unsigned short int  pager)

Definition at line 48 of file help.c.

49 {
50  const char *env;
51  const char *user;
52  char *errstr;
53  FILE *output;
54 
55  /* Find default user, in case we need it. */
56  user = getenv("PGUSER");
57  if (!user)
58  {
59  user = get_user_name(&errstr);
60  if (!user)
61  {
62  pg_log_fatal("%s", errstr);
64  }
65  }
66 
67  /*
68  * Keep this line count in sync with the number of lines printed below!
69  * Use "psql --help=options | wc" to count correctly.
70  */
71  output = PageOutput(63, pager ? &(pset.popt.topt) : NULL);
72 
73  fprintf(output, _("psql is the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.\n\n"));
74  fprintf(output, _("Usage:\n"));
75  fprintf(output, _(" psql [OPTION]... [DBNAME [USERNAME]]\n\n"));
76 
77  fprintf(output, _("General options:\n"));
78  /* Display default database */
79  env = getenv("PGDATABASE");
80  if (!env)
81  env = user;
82  fprintf(output, _(" -c, --command=COMMAND run only single command (SQL or internal) and exit\n"));
83  fprintf(output, _(" -d, --dbname=DBNAME database name to connect to (default: \"%s\")\n"), env);
84  fprintf(output, _(" -f, --file=FILENAME execute commands from file, then exit\n"));
85  fprintf(output, _(" -l, --list list available databases, then exit\n"));
86  fprintf(output, _(" -v, --set=, --variable=NAME=VALUE\n"
87  " set psql variable NAME to VALUE\n"
88  " (e.g., -v ON_ERROR_STOP=1)\n"));
89  fprintf(output, _(" -V, --version output version information, then exit\n"));
90  fprintf(output, _(" -X, --no-psqlrc do not read startup file (~/.psqlrc)\n"));
91  fprintf(output, _(" -1 (\"one\"), --single-transaction\n"
92  " execute as a single transaction (if non-interactive)\n"));
93  fprintf(output, _(" -?, --help[=options] show this help, then exit\n"));
94  fprintf(output, _(" --help=commands list backslash commands, then exit\n"));
95  fprintf(output, _(" --help=variables list special variables, then exit\n"));
96 
97  fprintf(output, _("\nInput and output options:\n"));
98  fprintf(output, _(" -a, --echo-all echo all input from script\n"));
99  fprintf(output, _(" -b, --echo-errors echo failed commands\n"));
100  fprintf(output, _(" -e, --echo-queries echo commands sent to server\n"));
101  fprintf(output, _(" -E, --echo-hidden display queries that internal commands generate\n"));
102  fprintf(output, _(" -L, --log-file=FILENAME send session log to file\n"));
103  fprintf(output, _(" -n, --no-readline disable enhanced command line editing (readline)\n"));
104  fprintf(output, _(" -o, --output=FILENAME send query results to file (or |pipe)\n"));
105  fprintf(output, _(" -q, --quiet run quietly (no messages, only query output)\n"));
106  fprintf(output, _(" -s, --single-step single-step mode (confirm each query)\n"));
107  fprintf(output, _(" -S, --single-line single-line mode (end of line terminates SQL command)\n"));
108 
109  fprintf(output, _("\nOutput format options:\n"));
110  fprintf(output, _(" -A, --no-align unaligned table output mode\n"));
111  fprintf(output, _(" --csv CSV (Comma-Separated Values) table output mode\n"));
112  fprintf(output, _(" -F, --field-separator=STRING\n"
113  " field separator for unaligned output (default: \"%s\")\n"),
115  fprintf(output, _(" -H, --html HTML table output mode\n"));
116  fprintf(output, _(" -P, --pset=VAR[=ARG] set printing option VAR to ARG (see \\pset command)\n"));
117  fprintf(output, _(" -R, --record-separator=STRING\n"
118  " record separator for unaligned output (default: newline)\n"));
119  fprintf(output, _(" -t, --tuples-only print rows only\n"));
120  fprintf(output, _(" -T, --table-attr=TEXT set HTML table tag attributes (e.g., width, border)\n"));
121  fprintf(output, _(" -x, --expanded turn on expanded table output\n"));
122  fprintf(output, _(" -z, --field-separator-zero\n"
123  " set field separator for unaligned output to zero byte\n"));
124  fprintf(output, _(" -0, --record-separator-zero\n"
125  " set record separator for unaligned output to zero byte\n"));
126 
127  fprintf(output, _("\nConnection options:\n"));
128  /* Display default host */
129  env = getenv("PGHOST");
130  fprintf(output, _(" -h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory (default: \"%s\")\n"),
131  env ? env : _("local socket"));
132  /* Display default port */
133  env = getenv("PGPORT");
134  fprintf(output, _(" -p, --port=PORT database server port (default: \"%s\")\n"),
135  env ? env : DEF_PGPORT_STR);
136  /* Display default user */
137  fprintf(output, _(" -U, --username=USERNAME database user name (default: \"%s\")\n"), user);
138  fprintf(output, _(" -w, --no-password never prompt for password\n"));
139  fprintf(output, _(" -W, --password force password prompt (should happen automatically)\n"));
140 
141  fprintf(output, _("\nFor more information, type \"\\?\" (for internal commands) or \"\\help\" (for SQL\n"
142  "commands) from within psql, or consult the psql section in the PostgreSQL\n"
143  "documentation.\n\n"));
144  fprintf(output, _("Report bugs to <%s>.\n"), PACKAGE_BUGREPORT);
145  fprintf(output, _("%s home page: <%s>\n"), PACKAGE_NAME, PACKAGE_URL);
146 
148 }
exit(1)
#define pg_log_fatal(...)
Definition: logging.h:76
static char * user
Definition: pg_regress.c:95
#define EXIT_FAILURE
Definition: settings.h:162
const char * get_user_name(char **errstr)
Definition: username.c:31

References _, ClosePager(), DEFAULT_FIELD_SEP, exit(), EXIT_FAILURE, fprintf, get_user_name(), output(), PageOutput(), pg_log_fatal, _psqlSettings::popt, pset, printQueryOpt::topt, and user.