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tuplesort.h
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * tuplesort.h
4  * Generalized tuple sorting routines.
5  *
6  * This module handles sorting of heap tuples, index tuples, or single
7  * Datums (and could easily support other kinds of sortable objects,
8  * if necessary). It works efficiently for both small and large amounts
9  * of data. Small amounts are sorted in-memory using qsort(). Large
10  * amounts are sorted using temporary files and a standard external sort
11  * algorithm. Parallel sorts use a variant of this external sort
12  * algorithm, and are typically only used for large amounts of data.
13  *
14  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2024, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
15  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
16  *
17  * src/include/utils/tuplesort.h
18  *
19  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
20  */
21 #ifndef TUPLESORT_H
22 #define TUPLESORT_H
23 
24 #include "access/brin_tuple.h"
25 #include "access/itup.h"
26 #include "executor/tuptable.h"
27 #include "storage/dsm.h"
28 #include "utils/logtape.h"
29 #include "utils/relcache.h"
30 #include "utils/sortsupport.h"
31 
32 
33 /*
34  * Tuplesortstate and Sharedsort are opaque types whose details are not
35  * known outside tuplesort.c.
36  */
37 typedef struct Tuplesortstate Tuplesortstate;
38 typedef struct Sharedsort Sharedsort;
39 
40 /*
41  * Tuplesort parallel coordination state, allocated by each participant in
42  * local memory. Participant caller initializes everything. See usage notes
43  * below.
44  */
45 typedef struct SortCoordinateData
46 {
47  /* Worker process? If not, must be leader. */
48  bool isWorker;
49 
50  /*
51  * Leader-process-passed number of participants known launched (workers
52  * set this to -1). Includes state within leader needed for it to
53  * participate as a worker, if any.
54  */
56 
57  /* Private opaque state (points to shared memory) */
60 
62 
63 /*
64  * Data structures for reporting sort statistics. Note that
65  * TuplesortInstrumentation can't contain any pointers because we
66  * sometimes put it in shared memory.
67  *
68  * The parallel-sort infrastructure relies on having a zero TuplesortMethod
69  * to indicate that a worker never did anything, so we assign zero to
70  * SORT_TYPE_STILL_IN_PROGRESS. The other values of this enum can be
71  * OR'ed together to represent a situation where different workers used
72  * different methods, so we need a separate bit for each one. Keep the
73  * NUM_TUPLESORTMETHODS constant in sync with the number of bits!
74  */
75 typedef enum
76 {
83 
84 #define NUM_TUPLESORTMETHODS 4
85 
86 typedef enum
87 {
91 
92 /* Bitwise option flags for tuple sorts */
93 #define TUPLESORT_NONE 0
94 
95 /* specifies whether non-sequential access to the sort result is required */
96 #define TUPLESORT_RANDOMACCESS (1 << 0)
97 
98 /* specifies if the tuplesort is able to support bounded sorts */
99 #define TUPLESORT_ALLOWBOUNDED (1 << 1)
100 
102 {
103  TuplesortMethod sortMethod; /* sort algorithm used */
104  TuplesortSpaceType spaceType; /* type of space spaceUsed represents */
105  int64 spaceUsed; /* space consumption, in kB */
107 
108 /*
109  * The objects we actually sort are SortTuple structs. These contain
110  * a pointer to the tuple proper (might be a MinimalTuple or IndexTuple),
111  * which is a separate palloc chunk --- we assume it is just one chunk and
112  * can be freed by a simple pfree() (except during merge, when we use a
113  * simple slab allocator). SortTuples also contain the tuple's first key
114  * column in Datum/nullflag format, and a source/input tape number that
115  * tracks which tape each heap element/slot belongs to during merging.
116  *
117  * Storing the first key column lets us save heap_getattr or index_getattr
118  * calls during tuple comparisons. We could extract and save all the key
119  * columns not just the first, but this would increase code complexity and
120  * overhead, and wouldn't actually save any comparison cycles in the common
121  * case where the first key determines the comparison result. Note that
122  * for a pass-by-reference datatype, datum1 points into the "tuple" storage.
123  *
124  * There is one special case: when the sort support infrastructure provides an
125  * "abbreviated key" representation, where the key is (typically) a pass by
126  * value proxy for a pass by reference type. In this case, the abbreviated key
127  * is stored in datum1 in place of the actual first key column.
128  *
129  * When sorting single Datums, the data value is represented directly by
130  * datum1/isnull1 for pass by value types (or null values). If the datatype is
131  * pass-by-reference and isnull1 is false, then "tuple" points to a separately
132  * palloc'd data value, otherwise "tuple" is NULL. The value of datum1 is then
133  * either the same pointer as "tuple", or is an abbreviated key value as
134  * described above. Accordingly, "tuple" is always used in preference to
135  * datum1 as the authoritative value for pass-by-reference cases.
136  */
137 typedef struct
138 {
139  void *tuple; /* the tuple itself */
140  Datum datum1; /* value of first key column */
141  bool isnull1; /* is first key column NULL? */
142  int srctape; /* source tape number */
143 } SortTuple;
144 
145 typedef int (*SortTupleComparator) (const SortTuple *a, const SortTuple *b,
147 
148 /*
149  * The public part of a Tuple sort operation state. This data structure
150  * contains the definition of sort-variant-specific interface methods and
151  * the part of Tuple sort operation state required by their implementations.
152  */
153 typedef struct
154 {
155  /*
156  * These function pointers decouple the routines that must know what kind
157  * of tuple we are sorting from the routines that don't need to know it.
158  * They are set up by the tuplesort_begin_xxx routines.
159  *
160  * Function to compare two tuples; result is per qsort() convention, ie:
161  * <0, 0, >0 according as a<b, a=b, a>b. The API must match
162  * qsort_arg_comparator.
163  */
165 
166  /*
167  * Fall back to the full tuple for comparison, but only compare the first
168  * sortkey if it was abbreviated. Otherwise, only compare second and later
169  * sortkeys.
170  */
172 
173  /*
174  * Alter datum1 representation in the SortTuple's array back from the
175  * abbreviated key to the first column value.
176  */
177  void (*removeabbrev) (Tuplesortstate *state, SortTuple *stups,
178  int count);
179 
180  /*
181  * Function to write a stored tuple onto tape. The representation of the
182  * tuple on tape need not be the same as it is in memory.
183  */
184  void (*writetup) (Tuplesortstate *state, LogicalTape *tape,
185  SortTuple *stup);
186 
187  /*
188  * Function to read a stored tuple from tape back into memory. 'len' is
189  * the already-read length of the stored tuple. The tuple is allocated
190  * from the slab memory arena, or is palloc'd, see
191  * tuplesort_readtup_alloc().
192  */
193  void (*readtup) (Tuplesortstate *state, SortTuple *stup,
194  LogicalTape *tape, unsigned int len);
195 
196  /*
197  * Function to do some specific release of resources for the sort variant.
198  * In particular, this function should free everything stored in the "arg"
199  * field, which wouldn't be cleared on reset of the Tuple sort memory
200  * contexts. This can be NULL if nothing specific needs to be done.
201  */
203 
204  /*
205  * The subsequent fields are used in the implementations of the functions
206  * above.
207  */
208  MemoryContext maincontext; /* memory context for tuple sort metadata that
209  * persists across multiple batches */
210  MemoryContext sortcontext; /* memory context holding most sort data */
211  MemoryContext tuplecontext; /* sub-context of sortcontext for tuple data */
212 
213  /*
214  * Whether SortTuple's datum1 and isnull1 members are maintained by the
215  * above routines. If not, some sort specializations are disabled.
216  */
218 
219  /*
220  * The sortKeys variable is used by every case other than the hash index
221  * case; it is set by tuplesort_begin_xxx. tupDesc is only used by the
222  * MinimalTuple and CLUSTER routines, though.
223  */
224  int nKeys; /* number of columns in sort key */
225  SortSupport sortKeys; /* array of length nKeys */
226 
227  /*
228  * This variable is shared by the single-key MinimalTuple case and the
229  * Datum case (which both use qsort_ssup()). Otherwise, it's NULL. The
230  * presence of a value in this field is also checked by various sort
231  * specialization functions as an optimization when comparing the leading
232  * key in a tiebreak situation to determine if there are any subsequent
233  * keys to sort on.
234  */
236 
237  int sortopt; /* Bitmask of flags used to setup sort */
238 
239  bool tuples; /* Can SortTuple.tuple ever be set? */
240 
241  void *arg; /* Specific information for the sort variant */
243 
244 /* Sort parallel code from state for sort__start probes */
245 #define PARALLEL_SORT(coordinate) (coordinate == NULL || \
246  (coordinate)->sharedsort == NULL ? 0 : \
247  (coordinate)->isWorker ? 1 : 2)
248 
249 #define TuplesortstateGetPublic(state) ((TuplesortPublic *) state)
250 
251 /* When using this macro, beware of double evaluation of len */
252 #define LogicalTapeReadExact(tape, ptr, len) \
253  do { \
254  if (LogicalTapeRead(tape, ptr, len) != (size_t) (len)) \
255  elog(ERROR, "unexpected end of data"); \
256  } while(0)
257 
258 /*
259  * We provide multiple interfaces to what is essentially the same code,
260  * since different callers have different data to be sorted and want to
261  * specify the sort key information differently. There are two APIs for
262  * sorting HeapTuples and two more for sorting IndexTuples. Yet another
263  * API supports sorting bare Datums.
264  *
265  * Serial sort callers should pass NULL for their coordinate argument.
266  *
267  * The "heap" API actually stores/sorts MinimalTuples, which means it doesn't
268  * preserve the system columns (tuple identity and transaction visibility
269  * info). The sort keys are specified by column numbers within the tuples
270  * and sort operator OIDs. We save some cycles by passing and returning the
271  * tuples in TupleTableSlots, rather than forming actual HeapTuples (which'd
272  * have to be converted to MinimalTuples). This API works well for sorts
273  * executed as parts of plan trees.
274  *
275  * The "cluster" API stores/sorts full HeapTuples including all visibility
276  * info. The sort keys are specified by reference to a btree index that is
277  * defined on the relation to be sorted. Note that putheaptuple/getheaptuple
278  * go with this API, not the "begin_heap" one!
279  *
280  * The "index_btree" API stores/sorts IndexTuples (preserving all their
281  * header fields). The sort keys are specified by a btree index definition.
282  *
283  * The "index_hash" API is similar to index_btree, but the tuples are
284  * actually sorted by their hash codes not the raw data.
285  *
286  * The "index_brin" API is similar to index_btree, but the tuples are
287  * BrinTuple and are sorted by their block number not the raw data.
288  *
289  * Parallel sort callers are required to coordinate multiple tuplesort states
290  * in a leader process and one or more worker processes. The leader process
291  * must launch workers, and have each perform an independent "partial"
292  * tuplesort, typically fed by the parallel heap interface. The leader later
293  * produces the final output (internally, it merges runs output by workers).
294  *
295  * Callers must do the following to perform a sort in parallel using multiple
296  * worker processes:
297  *
298  * 1. Request tuplesort-private shared memory for n workers. Use
299  * tuplesort_estimate_shared() to get the required size.
300  * 2. Have leader process initialize allocated shared memory using
301  * tuplesort_initialize_shared(). Launch workers.
302  * 3. Initialize a coordinate argument within both the leader process, and
303  * for each worker process. This has a pointer to the shared
304  * tuplesort-private structure, as well as some caller-initialized fields.
305  * Leader's coordinate argument reliably indicates number of workers
306  * launched (this is unused by workers).
307  * 4. Begin a tuplesort using some appropriate tuplesort_begin* routine,
308  * (passing the coordinate argument) within each worker. The workMem
309  * arguments need not be identical. All other arguments should match
310  * exactly, though.
311  * 5. tuplesort_attach_shared() should be called by all workers. Feed tuples
312  * to each worker, and call tuplesort_performsort() within each when input
313  * is exhausted.
314  * 6. Call tuplesort_end() in each worker process. Worker processes can shut
315  * down once tuplesort_end() returns.
316  * 7. Begin a tuplesort in the leader using the same tuplesort_begin*
317  * routine, passing a leader-appropriate coordinate argument (this can
318  * happen as early as during step 3, actually, since we only need to know
319  * the number of workers successfully launched). The leader must now wait
320  * for workers to finish. Caller must use own mechanism for ensuring that
321  * next step isn't reached until all workers have called and returned from
322  * tuplesort_performsort(). (Note that it's okay if workers have already
323  * also called tuplesort_end() by then.)
324  * 8. Call tuplesort_performsort() in leader. Consume output using the
325  * appropriate tuplesort_get* routine. Leader can skip this step if
326  * tuplesort turns out to be unnecessary.
327  * 9. Call tuplesort_end() in leader.
328  *
329  * This division of labor assumes nothing about how input tuples are produced,
330  * but does require that caller combine the state of multiple tuplesorts for
331  * any purpose other than producing the final output. For example, callers
332  * must consider that tuplesort_get_stats() reports on only one worker's role
333  * in a sort (or the leader's role), and not statistics for the sort as a
334  * whole.
335  *
336  * Note that callers may use the leader process to sort runs as if it was an
337  * independent worker process (prior to the process performing a leader sort
338  * to produce the final sorted output). Doing so only requires a second
339  * "partial" tuplesort within the leader process, initialized like that of a
340  * worker process. The steps above don't touch on this directly. The only
341  * difference is that the tuplesort_attach_shared() call is never needed within
342  * leader process, because the backend as a whole holds the shared fileset
343  * reference. A worker Tuplesortstate in leader is expected to do exactly the
344  * same amount of total initial processing work as a worker process
345  * Tuplesortstate, since the leader process has nothing else to do before
346  * workers finish.
347  *
348  * Note that only a very small amount of memory will be allocated prior to
349  * the leader state first consuming input, and that workers will free the
350  * vast majority of their memory upon returning from tuplesort_performsort().
351  * Callers can rely on this to arrange for memory to be used in a way that
352  * respects a workMem-style budget across an entire parallel sort operation.
353  *
354  * Callers are responsible for parallel safety in general. However, they
355  * can at least rely on there being no parallel safety hazards within
356  * tuplesort, because tuplesort thinks of the sort as several independent
357  * sorts whose results are combined. Since, in general, the behavior of
358  * sort operators is immutable, caller need only worry about the parallel
359  * safety of whatever the process is through which input tuples are
360  * generated (typically, caller uses a parallel heap scan).
361  */
362 
363 
364 extern Tuplesortstate *tuplesort_begin_common(int workMem,
365  SortCoordinate coordinate,
366  int sortopt);
367 extern void tuplesort_set_bound(Tuplesortstate *state, int64 bound);
370  SortTuple *tuple, bool useAbbrev);
372 extern bool tuplesort_gettuple_common(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward,
373  SortTuple *stup);
374 extern bool tuplesort_skiptuples(Tuplesortstate *state, int64 ntuples,
375  bool forward);
376 extern void tuplesort_end(Tuplesortstate *state);
377 extern void tuplesort_reset(Tuplesortstate *state);
378 
380  TuplesortInstrumentation *stats);
381 extern const char *tuplesort_method_name(TuplesortMethod m);
382 extern const char *tuplesort_space_type_name(TuplesortSpaceType t);
383 
384 extern int tuplesort_merge_order(int64 allowedMem);
385 
386 extern Size tuplesort_estimate_shared(int nWorkers);
387 extern void tuplesort_initialize_shared(Sharedsort *shared, int nWorkers,
388  dsm_segment *seg);
389 extern void tuplesort_attach_shared(Sharedsort *shared, dsm_segment *seg);
390 
391 /*
392  * These routines may only be called if TUPLESORT_RANDOMACCESS was specified
393  * during tuplesort_begin_*. Additionally backwards scan in gettuple/getdatum
394  * also require TUPLESORT_RANDOMACCESS. Note that parallel sorts do not
395  * support random access.
396  */
400 
401 extern void *tuplesort_readtup_alloc(Tuplesortstate *state, Size tuplen);
402 
403 
404 /* tuplesortvariants.c */
405 
407  int nkeys, AttrNumber *attNums,
408  Oid *sortOperators, Oid *sortCollations,
409  bool *nullsFirstFlags,
410  int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate,
411  int sortopt);
413  Relation indexRel, int workMem,
414  SortCoordinate coordinate,
415  int sortopt);
417  Relation indexRel,
418  bool enforceUnique,
419  bool uniqueNullsNotDistinct,
420  int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate,
421  int sortopt);
423  Relation indexRel,
424  uint32 high_mask,
425  uint32 low_mask,
426  uint32 max_buckets,
427  int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate,
428  int sortopt);
430  Relation indexRel,
431  int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate,
432  int sortopt);
433 extern Tuplesortstate *tuplesort_begin_index_brin(int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate,
434  int sortopt);
435 extern Tuplesortstate *tuplesort_begin_datum(Oid datumType,
436  Oid sortOperator, Oid sortCollation,
437  bool nullsFirstFlag,
438  int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate,
439  int sortopt);
440 
442  TupleTableSlot *slot);
445  Relation rel, ItemPointer self,
446  const Datum *values, const bool *isnull);
449  bool isNull);
450 
451 extern bool tuplesort_gettupleslot(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward,
452  bool copy, TupleTableSlot *slot, Datum *abbrev);
456  bool forward);
457 extern bool tuplesort_getdatum(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward, bool copy,
458  Datum *val, bool *isNull, Datum *abbrev);
459 
460 
461 #endif /* TUPLESORT_H */
int16 AttrNumber
Definition: attnum.h:21
static Datum values[MAXATTR]
Definition: bootstrap.c:156
unsigned int uint32
Definition: c.h:495
size_t Size
Definition: c.h:594
long val
Definition: informix.c:664
int b
Definition: isn.c:70
int a
Definition: isn.c:69
const void size_t len
uintptr_t Datum
Definition: postgres.h:64
unsigned int Oid
Definition: postgres_ext.h:31
static void freestate(struct nfa *nfa, struct state *s)
Definition: regc_nfa.c:242
Sharedsort * sharedsort
Definition: tuplesort.h:58
bool isnull1
Definition: tuplesort.h:141
void * tuple
Definition: tuplesort.h:139
int srctape
Definition: tuplesort.h:142
Datum datum1
Definition: tuplesort.h:140
TuplesortMethod sortMethod
Definition: tuplesort.h:103
TuplesortSpaceType spaceType
Definition: tuplesort.h:104
SortSupport onlyKey
Definition: tuplesort.h:235
MemoryContext maincontext
Definition: tuplesort.h:208
MemoryContext tuplecontext
Definition: tuplesort.h:211
MemoryContext sortcontext
Definition: tuplesort.h:210
SortTupleComparator comparetup
Definition: tuplesort.h:164
SortSupport sortKeys
Definition: tuplesort.h:225
SortTupleComparator comparetup_tiebreak
Definition: tuplesort.h:171
Definition: regguts.h:323
IndexTuple tuplesort_getindextuple(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward)
void tuplesort_rescan(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2437
void tuplesort_performsort(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1382
struct SortCoordinateData SortCoordinateData
int tuplesort_merge_order(int64 allowedMem)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1801
void tuplesort_initialize_shared(Sharedsort *shared, int nWorkers, dsm_segment *seg)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2973
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_common(int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
Definition: tuplesort.c:643
HeapTuple tuplesort_getheaptuple(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward)
void tuplesort_putdatum(Tuplesortstate *state, Datum val, bool isNull)
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_index_hash(Relation heapRel, Relation indexRel, uint32 high_mask, uint32 low_mask, uint32 max_buckets, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
void tuplesort_reset(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1037
void tuplesort_putindextuplevalues(Tuplesortstate *state, Relation rel, ItemPointer self, const Datum *values, const bool *isnull)
bool tuplesort_skiptuples(Tuplesortstate *state, int64 ntuples, bool forward)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1733
void tuplesort_puttupleslot(Tuplesortstate *state, TupleTableSlot *slot)
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_index_gist(Relation heapRel, Relation indexRel, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
bool tuplesort_used_bound(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:889
void tuplesort_putbrintuple(Tuplesortstate *state, BrinTuple *tup, Size len)
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_index_btree(Relation heapRel, Relation indexRel, bool enforceUnique, bool uniqueNullsNotDistinct, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
const char * tuplesort_space_type_name(TuplesortSpaceType t)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2601
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_index_brin(int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_datum(Oid datumType, Oid sortOperator, Oid sortCollation, bool nullsFirstFlag, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
Size tuplesort_estimate_shared(int nWorkers)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2952
struct SortCoordinateData * SortCoordinate
Definition: tuplesort.h:61
void tuplesort_get_stats(Tuplesortstate *state, TuplesortInstrumentation *stats)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2534
bool tuplesort_gettupleslot(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward, bool copy, TupleTableSlot *slot, Datum *abbrev)
void tuplesort_end(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:969
void tuplesort_markpos(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2470
void tuplesort_puttuple_common(Tuplesortstate *state, SortTuple *tuple, bool useAbbrev)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1187
bool tuplesort_gettuple_common(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward, SortTuple *stup)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1493
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_cluster(TupleDesc tupDesc, Relation indexRel, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)
void tuplesort_attach_shared(Sharedsort *shared, dsm_segment *seg)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2996
struct TuplesortInstrumentation TuplesortInstrumentation
void tuplesort_restorepos(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2501
TuplesortSpaceType
Definition: tuplesort.h:87
@ SORT_SPACE_TYPE_DISK
Definition: tuplesort.h:88
@ SORT_SPACE_TYPE_MEMORY
Definition: tuplesort.h:89
int(* SortTupleComparator)(const SortTuple *a, const SortTuple *b, Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.h:145
TuplesortMethod
Definition: tuplesort.h:76
@ SORT_TYPE_EXTERNAL_SORT
Definition: tuplesort.h:80
@ SORT_TYPE_TOP_N_HEAPSORT
Definition: tuplesort.h:78
@ SORT_TYPE_QUICKSORT
Definition: tuplesort.h:79
@ SORT_TYPE_STILL_IN_PROGRESS
Definition: tuplesort.h:77
@ SORT_TYPE_EXTERNAL_MERGE
Definition: tuplesort.h:81
void * tuplesort_readtup_alloc(Tuplesortstate *state, Size tuplen)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2918
void tuplesort_putheaptuple(Tuplesortstate *state, HeapTuple tup)
bool tuplesort_getdatum(Tuplesortstate *state, bool forward, bool copy, Datum *val, bool *isNull, Datum *abbrev)
void tuplesort_set_bound(Tuplesortstate *state, int64 bound)
Definition: tuplesort.c:841
BrinTuple * tuplesort_getbrintuple(Tuplesortstate *state, Size *len, bool forward)
const char * tuplesort_method_name(TuplesortMethod m)
Definition: tuplesort.c:2578
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_heap(TupleDesc tupDesc, int nkeys, AttrNumber *attNums, Oid *sortOperators, Oid *sortCollations, bool *nullsFirstFlags, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, int sortopt)