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view.c
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * view.c
4  * use rewrite rules to construct views
5  *
6  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2020, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
8  *
9  *
10  * IDENTIFICATION
11  * src/backend/commands/view.c
12  *
13  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
14  */
15 #include "postgres.h"
16 
17 #include "access/relation.h"
18 #include "access/xact.h"
19 #include "catalog/namespace.h"
20 #include "commands/defrem.h"
21 #include "commands/tablecmds.h"
22 #include "commands/view.h"
23 #include "miscadmin.h"
24 #include "nodes/makefuncs.h"
25 #include "nodes/nodeFuncs.h"
26 #include "parser/analyze.h"
27 #include "parser/parse_relation.h"
28 #include "rewrite/rewriteDefine.h"
29 #include "rewrite/rewriteHandler.h"
30 #include "rewrite/rewriteManip.h"
31 #include "rewrite/rewriteSupport.h"
32 #include "utils/acl.h"
33 #include "utils/builtins.h"
34 #include "utils/lsyscache.h"
35 #include "utils/rel.h"
36 #include "utils/syscache.h"
37 
38 static void checkViewTupleDesc(TupleDesc newdesc, TupleDesc olddesc);
39 
40 /*---------------------------------------------------------------------
41  * DefineVirtualRelation
42  *
43  * Create a view relation and use the rules system to store the query
44  * for the view.
45  *
46  * EventTriggerAlterTableStart must have been called already.
47  *---------------------------------------------------------------------
48  */
49 static ObjectAddress
50 DefineVirtualRelation(RangeVar *relation, List *tlist, bool replace,
51  List *options, Query *viewParse)
52 {
53  Oid viewOid;
54  LOCKMODE lockmode;
55  CreateStmt *createStmt = makeNode(CreateStmt);
56  List *attrList;
57  ListCell *t;
58 
59  /*
60  * create a list of ColumnDef nodes based on the names and types of the
61  * (non-junk) targetlist items from the view's SELECT list.
62  */
63  attrList = NIL;
64  foreach(t, tlist)
65  {
66  TargetEntry *tle = (TargetEntry *) lfirst(t);
67 
68  if (!tle->resjunk)
69  {
70  ColumnDef *def = makeColumnDef(tle->resname,
71  exprType((Node *) tle->expr),
72  exprTypmod((Node *) tle->expr),
73  exprCollation((Node *) tle->expr));
74 
75  /*
76  * It's possible that the column is of a collatable type but the
77  * collation could not be resolved, so double-check.
78  */
79  if (type_is_collatable(exprType((Node *) tle->expr)))
80  {
81  if (!OidIsValid(def->collOid))
82  ereport(ERROR,
83  (errcode(ERRCODE_INDETERMINATE_COLLATION),
84  errmsg("could not determine which collation to use for view column \"%s\"",
85  def->colname),
86  errhint("Use the COLLATE clause to set the collation explicitly.")));
87  }
88  else
89  Assert(!OidIsValid(def->collOid));
90 
91  attrList = lappend(attrList, def);
92  }
93  }
94 
95  /*
96  * Look up, check permissions on, and lock the creation namespace; also
97  * check for a preexisting view with the same name. This will also set
98  * relation->relpersistence to RELPERSISTENCE_TEMP if the selected
99  * namespace is temporary.
100  */
101  lockmode = replace ? AccessExclusiveLock : NoLock;
102  (void) RangeVarGetAndCheckCreationNamespace(relation, lockmode, &viewOid);
103 
104  if (OidIsValid(viewOid) && replace)
105  {
106  Relation rel;
108  List *atcmds = NIL;
109  AlterTableCmd *atcmd;
110  ObjectAddress address;
111 
112  /* Relation is already locked, but we must build a relcache entry. */
113  rel = relation_open(viewOid, NoLock);
114 
115  /* Make sure it *is* a view. */
116  if (rel->rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_VIEW)
117  ereport(ERROR,
118  (errcode(ERRCODE_WRONG_OBJECT_TYPE),
119  errmsg("\"%s\" is not a view",
120  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
121 
122  /* Also check it's not in use already */
123  CheckTableNotInUse(rel, "CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW");
124 
125  /*
126  * Due to the namespace visibility rules for temporary objects, we
127  * should only end up replacing a temporary view with another
128  * temporary view, and similarly for permanent views.
129  */
130  Assert(relation->relpersistence == rel->rd_rel->relpersistence);
131 
132  /*
133  * Create a tuple descriptor to compare against the existing view, and
134  * verify that the old column list is an initial prefix of the new
135  * column list.
136  */
137  descriptor = BuildDescForRelation(attrList);
138  checkViewTupleDesc(descriptor, rel->rd_att);
139 
140  /*
141  * If new attributes have been added, we must add pg_attribute entries
142  * for them. It is convenient (although overkill) to use the ALTER
143  * TABLE ADD COLUMN infrastructure for this.
144  *
145  * Note that we must do this before updating the query for the view,
146  * since the rules system requires that the correct view columns be in
147  * place when defining the new rules.
148  *
149  * Also note that ALTER TABLE doesn't run parse transformation on
150  * AT_AddColumnToView commands. The ColumnDef we supply must be ready
151  * to execute as-is.
152  */
153  if (list_length(attrList) > rel->rd_att->natts)
154  {
155  ListCell *c;
156  int skip = rel->rd_att->natts;
157 
158  foreach(c, attrList)
159  {
160  if (skip > 0)
161  {
162  skip--;
163  continue;
164  }
165  atcmd = makeNode(AlterTableCmd);
166  atcmd->subtype = AT_AddColumnToView;
167  atcmd->def = (Node *) lfirst(c);
168  atcmds = lappend(atcmds, atcmd);
169  }
170 
171  /* EventTriggerAlterTableStart called by ProcessUtilitySlow */
172  AlterTableInternal(viewOid, atcmds, true);
173 
174  /* Make the new view columns visible */
176  }
177 
178  /*
179  * Update the query for the view.
180  *
181  * Note that we must do this before updating the view options, because
182  * the new options may not be compatible with the old view query (for
183  * example if we attempt to add the WITH CHECK OPTION, we require that
184  * the new view be automatically updatable, but the old view may not
185  * have been).
186  */
187  StoreViewQuery(viewOid, viewParse, replace);
188 
189  /* Make the new view query visible */
191 
192  /*
193  * Finally update the view options.
194  *
195  * The new options list replaces the existing options list, even if
196  * it's empty.
197  */
198  atcmd = makeNode(AlterTableCmd);
199  atcmd->subtype = AT_ReplaceRelOptions;
200  atcmd->def = (Node *) options;
201  atcmds = list_make1(atcmd);
202 
203  /* EventTriggerAlterTableStart called by ProcessUtilitySlow */
204  AlterTableInternal(viewOid, atcmds, true);
205 
206  ObjectAddressSet(address, RelationRelationId, viewOid);
207 
208  /*
209  * Seems okay, so return the OID of the pre-existing view.
210  */
211  relation_close(rel, NoLock); /* keep the lock! */
212 
213  return address;
214  }
215  else
216  {
217  ObjectAddress address;
218 
219  /*
220  * Set the parameters for keys/inheritance etc. All of these are
221  * uninteresting for views...
222  */
223  createStmt->relation = relation;
224  createStmt->tableElts = attrList;
225  createStmt->inhRelations = NIL;
226  createStmt->constraints = NIL;
227  createStmt->options = options;
228  createStmt->oncommit = ONCOMMIT_NOOP;
229  createStmt->tablespacename = NULL;
230  createStmt->if_not_exists = false;
231 
232  /*
233  * Create the relation (this will error out if there's an existing
234  * view, so we don't need more code to complain if "replace" is
235  * false).
236  */
237  address = DefineRelation(createStmt, RELKIND_VIEW, InvalidOid, NULL,
238  NULL);
239  Assert(address.objectId != InvalidOid);
240 
241  /* Make the new view relation visible */
243 
244  /* Store the query for the view */
245  StoreViewQuery(address.objectId, viewParse, replace);
246 
247  return address;
248  }
249 }
250 
251 /*
252  * Verify that tupledesc associated with proposed new view definition
253  * matches tupledesc of old view. This is basically a cut-down version
254  * of equalTupleDescs(), with code added to generate specific complaints.
255  * Also, we allow the new tupledesc to have more columns than the old.
256  */
257 static void
259 {
260  int i;
261 
262  if (newdesc->natts < olddesc->natts)
263  ereport(ERROR,
264  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
265  errmsg("cannot drop columns from view")));
266 
267  for (i = 0; i < olddesc->natts; i++)
268  {
269  Form_pg_attribute newattr = TupleDescAttr(newdesc, i);
270  Form_pg_attribute oldattr = TupleDescAttr(olddesc, i);
271 
272  /* XXX msg not right, but we don't support DROP COL on view anyway */
273  if (newattr->attisdropped != oldattr->attisdropped)
274  ereport(ERROR,
275  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
276  errmsg("cannot drop columns from view")));
277 
278  if (strcmp(NameStr(newattr->attname), NameStr(oldattr->attname)) != 0)
279  ereport(ERROR,
280  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
281  errmsg("cannot change name of view column \"%s\" to \"%s\"",
282  NameStr(oldattr->attname),
283  NameStr(newattr->attname)),
284  errhint("Use ALTER VIEW ... RENAME COLUMN ... to change name of view column instead.")));
285  /* XXX would it be safe to allow atttypmod to change? Not sure */
286  if (newattr->atttypid != oldattr->atttypid ||
287  newattr->atttypmod != oldattr->atttypmod)
288  ereport(ERROR,
289  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
290  errmsg("cannot change data type of view column \"%s\" from %s to %s",
291  NameStr(oldattr->attname),
292  format_type_with_typemod(oldattr->atttypid,
293  oldattr->atttypmod),
294  format_type_with_typemod(newattr->atttypid,
295  newattr->atttypmod))));
296  /* We can ignore the remaining attributes of an attribute... */
297  }
298 
299  /*
300  * We ignore the constraint fields. The new view desc can't have any
301  * constraints, and the only ones that could be on the old view are
302  * defaults, which we are happy to leave in place.
303  */
304 }
305 
306 static void
307 DefineViewRules(Oid viewOid, Query *viewParse, bool replace)
308 {
309  /*
310  * Set up the ON SELECT rule. Since the query has already been through
311  * parse analysis, we use DefineQueryRewrite() directly.
312  */
314  viewOid,
315  NULL,
316  CMD_SELECT,
317  true,
318  replace,
319  list_make1(viewParse));
320 
321  /*
322  * Someday: automatic ON INSERT, etc
323  */
324 }
325 
326 /*---------------------------------------------------------------
327  * UpdateRangeTableOfViewParse
328  *
329  * Update the range table of the given parsetree.
330  * This update consists of adding two new entries IN THE BEGINNING
331  * of the range table (otherwise the rule system will die a slow,
332  * horrible and painful death, and we do not want that now, do we?)
333  * one for the OLD relation and one for the NEW one (both of
334  * them refer in fact to the "view" relation).
335  *
336  * Of course we must also increase the 'varnos' of all the Var nodes
337  * by 2...
338  *
339  * These extra RT entries are not actually used in the query,
340  * except for run-time locking and permission checking.
341  *---------------------------------------------------------------
342  */
343 static Query *
345 {
346  Relation viewRel;
347  List *new_rt;
348  ParseNamespaceItem *nsitem;
349  RangeTblEntry *rt_entry1,
350  *rt_entry2;
351  ParseState *pstate;
352 
353  /*
354  * Make a copy of the given parsetree. It's not so much that we don't
355  * want to scribble on our input, it's that the parser has a bad habit of
356  * outputting multiple links to the same subtree for constructs like
357  * BETWEEN, and we mustn't have OffsetVarNodes increment the varno of a
358  * Var node twice. copyObject will expand any multiply-referenced subtree
359  * into multiple copies.
360  */
361  viewParse = copyObject(viewParse);
362 
363  /* Create a dummy ParseState for addRangeTableEntryForRelation */
364  pstate = make_parsestate(NULL);
365 
366  /* need to open the rel for addRangeTableEntryForRelation */
367  viewRel = relation_open(viewOid, AccessShareLock);
368 
369  /*
370  * Create the 2 new range table entries and form the new range table...
371  * OLD first, then NEW....
372  */
373  nsitem = addRangeTableEntryForRelation(pstate, viewRel,
375  makeAlias("old", NIL),
376  false, false);
377  rt_entry1 = nsitem->p_rte;
378  nsitem = addRangeTableEntryForRelation(pstate, viewRel,
380  makeAlias("new", NIL),
381  false, false);
382  rt_entry2 = nsitem->p_rte;
383 
384  /* Must override addRangeTableEntry's default access-check flags */
385  rt_entry1->requiredPerms = 0;
386  rt_entry2->requiredPerms = 0;
387 
388  new_rt = lcons(rt_entry1, lcons(rt_entry2, viewParse->rtable));
389 
390  viewParse->rtable = new_rt;
391 
392  /*
393  * Now offset all var nodes by 2, and jointree RT indexes too.
394  */
395  OffsetVarNodes((Node *) viewParse, 2, 0);
396 
398 
399  return viewParse;
400 }
401 
402 /*
403  * DefineView
404  * Execute a CREATE VIEW command.
405  */
407 DefineView(ViewStmt *stmt, const char *queryString,
408  int stmt_location, int stmt_len)
409 {
410  RawStmt *rawstmt;
411  Query *viewParse;
412  RangeVar *view;
413  ListCell *cell;
414  bool check_option;
415  ObjectAddress address;
416 
417  /*
418  * Run parse analysis to convert the raw parse tree to a Query. Note this
419  * also acquires sufficient locks on the source table(s).
420  *
421  * Since parse analysis scribbles on its input, copy the raw parse tree;
422  * this ensures we don't corrupt a prepared statement, for example.
423  */
424  rawstmt = makeNode(RawStmt);
425  rawstmt->stmt = (Node *) copyObject(stmt->query);
426  rawstmt->stmt_location = stmt_location;
427  rawstmt->stmt_len = stmt_len;
428 
429  viewParse = parse_analyze(rawstmt, queryString, NULL, 0, NULL);
430 
431  /*
432  * The grammar should ensure that the result is a single SELECT Query.
433  * However, it doesn't forbid SELECT INTO, so we have to check for that.
434  */
435  if (!IsA(viewParse, Query))
436  elog(ERROR, "unexpected parse analysis result");
437  if (viewParse->utilityStmt != NULL &&
438  IsA(viewParse->utilityStmt, CreateTableAsStmt))
439  ereport(ERROR,
440  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
441  errmsg("views must not contain SELECT INTO")));
442  if (viewParse->commandType != CMD_SELECT)
443  elog(ERROR, "unexpected parse analysis result");
444 
445  /*
446  * Check for unsupported cases. These tests are redundant with ones in
447  * DefineQueryRewrite(), but that function will complain about a bogus ON
448  * SELECT rule, and we'd rather the message complain about a view.
449  */
450  if (viewParse->hasModifyingCTE)
451  ereport(ERROR,
452  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
453  errmsg("views must not contain data-modifying statements in WITH")));
454 
455  /*
456  * If the user specified the WITH CHECK OPTION, add it to the list of
457  * reloptions.
458  */
459  if (stmt->withCheckOption == LOCAL_CHECK_OPTION)
460  stmt->options = lappend(stmt->options,
461  makeDefElem("check_option",
462  (Node *) makeString("local"), -1));
463  else if (stmt->withCheckOption == CASCADED_CHECK_OPTION)
464  stmt->options = lappend(stmt->options,
465  makeDefElem("check_option",
466  (Node *) makeString("cascaded"), -1));
467 
468  /*
469  * Check that the view is auto-updatable if WITH CHECK OPTION was
470  * specified.
471  */
472  check_option = false;
473 
474  foreach(cell, stmt->options)
475  {
476  DefElem *defel = (DefElem *) lfirst(cell);
477 
478  if (strcmp(defel->defname, "check_option") == 0)
479  check_option = true;
480  }
481 
482  /*
483  * If the check option is specified, look to see if the view is actually
484  * auto-updatable or not.
485  */
486  if (check_option)
487  {
488  const char *view_updatable_error =
489  view_query_is_auto_updatable(viewParse, true);
490 
491  if (view_updatable_error)
492  ereport(ERROR,
493  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
494  errmsg("WITH CHECK OPTION is supported only on automatically updatable views"),
495  errhint("%s", _(view_updatable_error))));
496  }
497 
498  /*
499  * If a list of column names was given, run through and insert these into
500  * the actual query tree. - thomas 2000-03-08
501  */
502  if (stmt->aliases != NIL)
503  {
504  ListCell *alist_item = list_head(stmt->aliases);
505  ListCell *targetList;
506 
507  foreach(targetList, viewParse->targetList)
508  {
509  TargetEntry *te = lfirst_node(TargetEntry, targetList);
510 
511  /* junk columns don't get aliases */
512  if (te->resjunk)
513  continue;
514  te->resname = pstrdup(strVal(lfirst(alist_item)));
515  alist_item = lnext(stmt->aliases, alist_item);
516  if (alist_item == NULL)
517  break; /* done assigning aliases */
518  }
519 
520  if (alist_item != NULL)
521  ereport(ERROR,
522  (errcode(ERRCODE_SYNTAX_ERROR),
523  errmsg("CREATE VIEW specifies more column "
524  "names than columns")));
525  }
526 
527  /* Unlogged views are not sensible. */
528  if (stmt->view->relpersistence == RELPERSISTENCE_UNLOGGED)
529  ereport(ERROR,
530  (errcode(ERRCODE_SYNTAX_ERROR),
531  errmsg("views cannot be unlogged because they do not have storage")));
532 
533  /*
534  * If the user didn't explicitly ask for a temporary view, check whether
535  * we need one implicitly. We allow TEMP to be inserted automatically as
536  * long as the CREATE command is consistent with that --- no explicit
537  * schema name.
538  */
539  view = copyObject(stmt->view); /* don't corrupt original command */
540  if (view->relpersistence == RELPERSISTENCE_PERMANENT
541  && isQueryUsingTempRelation(viewParse))
542  {
543  view->relpersistence = RELPERSISTENCE_TEMP;
544  ereport(NOTICE,
545  (errmsg("view \"%s\" will be a temporary view",
546  view->relname)));
547  }
548 
549  /*
550  * Create the view relation
551  *
552  * NOTE: if it already exists and replace is false, the xact will be
553  * aborted.
554  */
555  address = DefineVirtualRelation(view, viewParse->targetList,
556  stmt->replace, stmt->options, viewParse);
557 
558  return address;
559 }
560 
561 /*
562  * Use the rules system to store the query for the view.
563  */
564 void
565 StoreViewQuery(Oid viewOid, Query *viewParse, bool replace)
566 {
567  /*
568  * The range table of 'viewParse' does not contain entries for the "OLD"
569  * and "NEW" relations. So... add them!
570  */
571  viewParse = UpdateRangeTableOfViewParse(viewOid, viewParse);
572 
573  /*
574  * Now create the rules associated with the view.
575  */
576  DefineViewRules(viewOid, viewParse, replace);
577 }
RangeVar * relation
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Definition: parsenodes.h:2071
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Definition: view.c:344
List * lcons(void *datum, List *list)
Definition: list.c:454
#define makeNode(_type_)
Definition: nodes.h:574
void relation_close(Relation relation, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: relation.c:206
List * options
Definition: parsenodes.h:3126
#define Assert(condition)
Definition: c.h:738
#define lfirst(lc)
Definition: pg_list.h:190
Expr * expr
Definition: primnodes.h:1407
Oid exprType(const Node *expr)
Definition: nodeFuncs.c:41
static int list_length(const List *l)
Definition: pg_list.h:169
Oid exprCollation(const Node *expr)
Definition: nodeFuncs.c:719
static ObjectAddress DefineVirtualRelation(RangeVar *relation, List *tlist, bool replace, List *options, Query *viewParse)
Definition: view.c:50
#define ObjectAddressSet(addr, class_id, object_id)
Definition: objectaddress.h:40
char relpersistence
Definition: primnodes.h:71
void AlterTableInternal(Oid relid, List *cmds, bool recurse)
Definition: tablecmds.c:3592
#define AccessExclusiveLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:45
int errmsg(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:824
#define elog(elevel,...)
Definition: elog.h:214
int i
#define NameStr(name)
Definition: c.h:615
bool hasModifyingCTE
Definition: parsenodes.h:131
char * defname
Definition: parsenodes.h:731
char * colname
Definition: parsenodes.h:646
ViewCheckOption withCheckOption
Definition: parsenodes.h:3127
Node * query
Definition: parsenodes.h:3124
TupleDesc BuildDescForRelation(List *schema)
Definition: tupdesc.c:794
#define copyObject(obj)
Definition: nodes.h:642
static void DefineViewRules(Oid viewOid, Query *viewParse, bool replace)
Definition: view.c:307
const char * view_query_is_auto_updatable(Query *viewquery, bool check_cols)
bool type_is_collatable(Oid typid)
Definition: lsyscache.c:2909
Definition: pg_list.h:50
#define _(x)
Definition: elog.c:88
ObjectAddress DefineQueryRewrite(const char *rulename, Oid event_relid, Node *event_qual, CmdType event_type, bool is_instead, bool replace, List *action)
ColumnDef * makeColumnDef(const char *colname, Oid typeOid, int32 typmod, Oid collOid)
Definition: makefuncs.c:488