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view.c
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * view.c
4  * use rewrite rules to construct views
5  *
6  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2019, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
8  *
9  *
10  * IDENTIFICATION
11  * src/backend/commands/view.c
12  *
13  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
14  */
15 #include "postgres.h"
16 
17 #include "access/relation.h"
18 #include "access/xact.h"
19 #include "catalog/namespace.h"
20 #include "commands/defrem.h"
21 #include "commands/tablecmds.h"
22 #include "commands/view.h"
23 #include "miscadmin.h"
24 #include "nodes/makefuncs.h"
25 #include "nodes/nodeFuncs.h"
26 #include "parser/analyze.h"
27 #include "parser/parse_relation.h"
28 #include "rewrite/rewriteDefine.h"
29 #include "rewrite/rewriteManip.h"
30 #include "rewrite/rewriteHandler.h"
31 #include "rewrite/rewriteSupport.h"
32 #include "utils/acl.h"
33 #include "utils/builtins.h"
34 #include "utils/lsyscache.h"
35 #include "utils/rel.h"
36 #include "utils/syscache.h"
37 
38 
39 static void checkViewTupleDesc(TupleDesc newdesc, TupleDesc olddesc);
40 
41 /*---------------------------------------------------------------------
42  * DefineVirtualRelation
43  *
44  * Create a view relation and use the rules system to store the query
45  * for the view.
46  *
47  * EventTriggerAlterTableStart must have been called already.
48  *---------------------------------------------------------------------
49  */
50 static ObjectAddress
51 DefineVirtualRelation(RangeVar *relation, List *tlist, bool replace,
52  List *options, Query *viewParse)
53 {
54  Oid viewOid;
55  LOCKMODE lockmode;
56  CreateStmt *createStmt = makeNode(CreateStmt);
57  List *attrList;
58  ListCell *t;
59 
60  /*
61  * create a list of ColumnDef nodes based on the names and types of the
62  * (non-junk) targetlist items from the view's SELECT list.
63  */
64  attrList = NIL;
65  foreach(t, tlist)
66  {
67  TargetEntry *tle = (TargetEntry *) lfirst(t);
68 
69  if (!tle->resjunk)
70  {
71  ColumnDef *def = makeColumnDef(tle->resname,
72  exprType((Node *) tle->expr),
73  exprTypmod((Node *) tle->expr),
74  exprCollation((Node *) tle->expr));
75 
76  /*
77  * It's possible that the column is of a collatable type but the
78  * collation could not be resolved, so double-check.
79  */
80  if (type_is_collatable(exprType((Node *) tle->expr)))
81  {
82  if (!OidIsValid(def->collOid))
83  ereport(ERROR,
84  (errcode(ERRCODE_INDETERMINATE_COLLATION),
85  errmsg("could not determine which collation to use for view column \"%s\"",
86  def->colname),
87  errhint("Use the COLLATE clause to set the collation explicitly.")));
88  }
89  else
90  Assert(!OidIsValid(def->collOid));
91 
92  attrList = lappend(attrList, def);
93  }
94  }
95 
96  /*
97  * Look up, check permissions on, and lock the creation namespace; also
98  * check for a preexisting view with the same name. This will also set
99  * relation->relpersistence to RELPERSISTENCE_TEMP if the selected
100  * namespace is temporary.
101  */
102  lockmode = replace ? AccessExclusiveLock : NoLock;
103  (void) RangeVarGetAndCheckCreationNamespace(relation, lockmode, &viewOid);
104 
105  if (OidIsValid(viewOid) && replace)
106  {
107  Relation rel;
109  List *atcmds = NIL;
110  AlterTableCmd *atcmd;
111  ObjectAddress address;
112 
113  /* Relation is already locked, but we must build a relcache entry. */
114  rel = relation_open(viewOid, NoLock);
115 
116  /* Make sure it *is* a view. */
117  if (rel->rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_VIEW)
118  ereport(ERROR,
119  (errcode(ERRCODE_WRONG_OBJECT_TYPE),
120  errmsg("\"%s\" is not a view",
121  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
122 
123  /* Also check it's not in use already */
124  CheckTableNotInUse(rel, "CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW");
125 
126  /*
127  * Due to the namespace visibility rules for temporary objects, we
128  * should only end up replacing a temporary view with another
129  * temporary view, and similarly for permanent views.
130  */
131  Assert(relation->relpersistence == rel->rd_rel->relpersistence);
132 
133  /*
134  * Create a tuple descriptor to compare against the existing view, and
135  * verify that the old column list is an initial prefix of the new
136  * column list.
137  */
138  descriptor = BuildDescForRelation(attrList);
139  checkViewTupleDesc(descriptor, rel->rd_att);
140 
141  /*
142  * If new attributes have been added, we must add pg_attribute entries
143  * for them. It is convenient (although overkill) to use the ALTER
144  * TABLE ADD COLUMN infrastructure for this.
145  *
146  * Note that we must do this before updating the query for the view,
147  * since the rules system requires that the correct view columns be in
148  * place when defining the new rules.
149  */
150  if (list_length(attrList) > rel->rd_att->natts)
151  {
152  ListCell *c;
153  int skip = rel->rd_att->natts;
154 
155  foreach(c, attrList)
156  {
157  if (skip > 0)
158  {
159  skip--;
160  continue;
161  }
162  atcmd = makeNode(AlterTableCmd);
163  atcmd->subtype = AT_AddColumnToView;
164  atcmd->def = (Node *) lfirst(c);
165  atcmds = lappend(atcmds, atcmd);
166  }
167 
168  /* EventTriggerAlterTableStart called by ProcessUtilitySlow */
169  AlterTableInternal(viewOid, atcmds, true);
170 
171  /* Make the new view columns visible */
173  }
174 
175  /*
176  * Update the query for the view.
177  *
178  * Note that we must do this before updating the view options, because
179  * the new options may not be compatible with the old view query (for
180  * example if we attempt to add the WITH CHECK OPTION, we require that
181  * the new view be automatically updatable, but the old view may not
182  * have been).
183  */
184  StoreViewQuery(viewOid, viewParse, replace);
185 
186  /* Make the new view query visible */
188 
189  /*
190  * Finally update the view options.
191  *
192  * The new options list replaces the existing options list, even if
193  * it's empty.
194  */
195  atcmd = makeNode(AlterTableCmd);
196  atcmd->subtype = AT_ReplaceRelOptions;
197  atcmd->def = (Node *) options;
198  atcmds = list_make1(atcmd);
199 
200  /* EventTriggerAlterTableStart called by ProcessUtilitySlow */
201  AlterTableInternal(viewOid, atcmds, true);
202 
203  ObjectAddressSet(address, RelationRelationId, viewOid);
204 
205  /*
206  * Seems okay, so return the OID of the pre-existing view.
207  */
208  relation_close(rel, NoLock); /* keep the lock! */
209 
210  return address;
211  }
212  else
213  {
214  ObjectAddress address;
215 
216  /*
217  * Set the parameters for keys/inheritance etc. All of these are
218  * uninteresting for views...
219  */
220  createStmt->relation = relation;
221  createStmt->tableElts = attrList;
222  createStmt->inhRelations = NIL;
223  createStmt->constraints = NIL;
224  createStmt->options = options;
225  createStmt->oncommit = ONCOMMIT_NOOP;
226  createStmt->tablespacename = NULL;
227  createStmt->if_not_exists = false;
228 
229  /*
230  * Create the relation (this will error out if there's an existing
231  * view, so we don't need more code to complain if "replace" is
232  * false).
233  */
234  address = DefineRelation(createStmt, RELKIND_VIEW, InvalidOid, NULL,
235  NULL);
236  Assert(address.objectId != InvalidOid);
237 
238  /* Make the new view relation visible */
240 
241  /* Store the query for the view */
242  StoreViewQuery(address.objectId, viewParse, replace);
243 
244  return address;
245  }
246 }
247 
248 /*
249  * Verify that tupledesc associated with proposed new view definition
250  * matches tupledesc of old view. This is basically a cut-down version
251  * of equalTupleDescs(), with code added to generate specific complaints.
252  * Also, we allow the new tupledesc to have more columns than the old.
253  */
254 static void
256 {
257  int i;
258 
259  if (newdesc->natts < olddesc->natts)
260  ereport(ERROR,
261  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
262  errmsg("cannot drop columns from view")));
263 
264  for (i = 0; i < olddesc->natts; i++)
265  {
266  Form_pg_attribute newattr = TupleDescAttr(newdesc, i);
267  Form_pg_attribute oldattr = TupleDescAttr(olddesc, i);
268 
269  /* XXX msg not right, but we don't support DROP COL on view anyway */
270  if (newattr->attisdropped != oldattr->attisdropped)
271  ereport(ERROR,
272  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
273  errmsg("cannot drop columns from view")));
274 
275  if (strcmp(NameStr(newattr->attname), NameStr(oldattr->attname)) != 0)
276  ereport(ERROR,
277  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
278  errmsg("cannot change name of view column \"%s\" to \"%s\"",
279  NameStr(oldattr->attname),
280  NameStr(newattr->attname))));
281  /* XXX would it be safe to allow atttypmod to change? Not sure */
282  if (newattr->atttypid != oldattr->atttypid ||
283  newattr->atttypmod != oldattr->atttypmod)
284  ereport(ERROR,
285  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
286  errmsg("cannot change data type of view column \"%s\" from %s to %s",
287  NameStr(oldattr->attname),
288  format_type_with_typemod(oldattr->atttypid,
289  oldattr->atttypmod),
290  format_type_with_typemod(newattr->atttypid,
291  newattr->atttypmod))));
292  /* We can ignore the remaining attributes of an attribute... */
293  }
294 
295  /*
296  * We ignore the constraint fields. The new view desc can't have any
297  * constraints, and the only ones that could be on the old view are
298  * defaults, which we are happy to leave in place.
299  */
300 }
301 
302 static void
303 DefineViewRules(Oid viewOid, Query *viewParse, bool replace)
304 {
305  /*
306  * Set up the ON SELECT rule. Since the query has already been through
307  * parse analysis, we use DefineQueryRewrite() directly.
308  */
310  viewOid,
311  NULL,
312  CMD_SELECT,
313  true,
314  replace,
315  list_make1(viewParse));
316 
317  /*
318  * Someday: automatic ON INSERT, etc
319  */
320 }
321 
322 /*---------------------------------------------------------------
323  * UpdateRangeTableOfViewParse
324  *
325  * Update the range table of the given parsetree.
326  * This update consists of adding two new entries IN THE BEGINNING
327  * of the range table (otherwise the rule system will die a slow,
328  * horrible and painful death, and we do not want that now, do we?)
329  * one for the OLD relation and one for the NEW one (both of
330  * them refer in fact to the "view" relation).
331  *
332  * Of course we must also increase the 'varnos' of all the Var nodes
333  * by 2...
334  *
335  * These extra RT entries are not actually used in the query,
336  * except for run-time locking and permission checking.
337  *---------------------------------------------------------------
338  */
339 static Query *
341 {
342  Relation viewRel;
343  List *new_rt;
344  RangeTblEntry *rt_entry1,
345  *rt_entry2;
346  ParseState *pstate;
347 
348  /*
349  * Make a copy of the given parsetree. It's not so much that we don't
350  * want to scribble on our input, it's that the parser has a bad habit of
351  * outputting multiple links to the same subtree for constructs like
352  * BETWEEN, and we mustn't have OffsetVarNodes increment the varno of a
353  * Var node twice. copyObject will expand any multiply-referenced subtree
354  * into multiple copies.
355  */
356  viewParse = copyObject(viewParse);
357 
358  /* Create a dummy ParseState for addRangeTableEntryForRelation */
359  pstate = make_parsestate(NULL);
360 
361  /* need to open the rel for addRangeTableEntryForRelation */
362  viewRel = relation_open(viewOid, AccessShareLock);
363 
364  /*
365  * Create the 2 new range table entries and form the new range table...
366  * OLD first, then NEW....
367  */
368  rt_entry1 = addRangeTableEntryForRelation(pstate, viewRel,
370  makeAlias("old", NIL),
371  false, false);
372  rt_entry2 = addRangeTableEntryForRelation(pstate, viewRel,
374  makeAlias("new", NIL),
375  false, false);
376  /* Must override addRangeTableEntry's default access-check flags */
377  rt_entry1->requiredPerms = 0;
378  rt_entry2->requiredPerms = 0;
379 
380  new_rt = lcons(rt_entry1, lcons(rt_entry2, viewParse->rtable));
381 
382  viewParse->rtable = new_rt;
383 
384  /*
385  * Now offset all var nodes by 2, and jointree RT indexes too.
386  */
387  OffsetVarNodes((Node *) viewParse, 2, 0);
388 
390 
391  return viewParse;
392 }
393 
394 /*
395  * DefineView
396  * Execute a CREATE VIEW command.
397  */
399 DefineView(ViewStmt *stmt, const char *queryString,
400  int stmt_location, int stmt_len)
401 {
402  RawStmt *rawstmt;
403  Query *viewParse;
404  RangeVar *view;
405  ListCell *cell;
406  bool check_option;
407  ObjectAddress address;
408 
409  /*
410  * Run parse analysis to convert the raw parse tree to a Query. Note this
411  * also acquires sufficient locks on the source table(s).
412  *
413  * Since parse analysis scribbles on its input, copy the raw parse tree;
414  * this ensures we don't corrupt a prepared statement, for example.
415  */
416  rawstmt = makeNode(RawStmt);
417  rawstmt->stmt = (Node *) copyObject(stmt->query);
418  rawstmt->stmt_location = stmt_location;
419  rawstmt->stmt_len = stmt_len;
420 
421  viewParse = parse_analyze(rawstmt, queryString, NULL, 0, NULL);
422 
423  /*
424  * The grammar should ensure that the result is a single SELECT Query.
425  * However, it doesn't forbid SELECT INTO, so we have to check for that.
426  */
427  if (!IsA(viewParse, Query))
428  elog(ERROR, "unexpected parse analysis result");
429  if (viewParse->utilityStmt != NULL &&
430  IsA(viewParse->utilityStmt, CreateTableAsStmt))
431  ereport(ERROR,
432  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
433  errmsg("views must not contain SELECT INTO")));
434  if (viewParse->commandType != CMD_SELECT)
435  elog(ERROR, "unexpected parse analysis result");
436 
437  /*
438  * Check for unsupported cases. These tests are redundant with ones in
439  * DefineQueryRewrite(), but that function will complain about a bogus ON
440  * SELECT rule, and we'd rather the message complain about a view.
441  */
442  if (viewParse->hasModifyingCTE)
443  ereport(ERROR,
444  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
445  errmsg("views must not contain data-modifying statements in WITH")));
446 
447  /*
448  * If the user specified the WITH CHECK OPTION, add it to the list of
449  * reloptions.
450  */
451  if (stmt->withCheckOption == LOCAL_CHECK_OPTION)
452  stmt->options = lappend(stmt->options,
453  makeDefElem("check_option",
454  (Node *) makeString("local"), -1));
455  else if (stmt->withCheckOption == CASCADED_CHECK_OPTION)
456  stmt->options = lappend(stmt->options,
457  makeDefElem("check_option",
458  (Node *) makeString("cascaded"), -1));
459 
460  /*
461  * Check that the view is auto-updatable if WITH CHECK OPTION was
462  * specified.
463  */
464  check_option = false;
465 
466  foreach(cell, stmt->options)
467  {
468  DefElem *defel = (DefElem *) lfirst(cell);
469 
470  if (strcmp(defel->defname, "check_option") == 0)
471  check_option = true;
472  }
473 
474  /*
475  * If the check option is specified, look to see if the view is actually
476  * auto-updatable or not.
477  */
478  if (check_option)
479  {
480  const char *view_updatable_error =
481  view_query_is_auto_updatable(viewParse, true);
482 
483  if (view_updatable_error)
484  ereport(ERROR,
485  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
486  errmsg("WITH CHECK OPTION is supported only on automatically updatable views"),
487  errhint("%s", _(view_updatable_error))));
488  }
489 
490  /*
491  * If a list of column names was given, run through and insert these into
492  * the actual query tree. - thomas 2000-03-08
493  */
494  if (stmt->aliases != NIL)
495  {
496  ListCell *alist_item = list_head(stmt->aliases);
497  ListCell *targetList;
498 
499  foreach(targetList, viewParse->targetList)
500  {
501  TargetEntry *te = lfirst_node(TargetEntry, targetList);
502 
503  /* junk columns don't get aliases */
504  if (te->resjunk)
505  continue;
506  te->resname = pstrdup(strVal(lfirst(alist_item)));
507  alist_item = lnext(stmt->aliases, alist_item);
508  if (alist_item == NULL)
509  break; /* done assigning aliases */
510  }
511 
512  if (alist_item != NULL)
513  ereport(ERROR,
514  (errcode(ERRCODE_SYNTAX_ERROR),
515  errmsg("CREATE VIEW specifies more column "
516  "names than columns")));
517  }
518 
519  /* Unlogged views are not sensible. */
520  if (stmt->view->relpersistence == RELPERSISTENCE_UNLOGGED)
521  ereport(ERROR,
522  (errcode(ERRCODE_SYNTAX_ERROR),
523  errmsg("views cannot be unlogged because they do not have storage")));
524 
525  /*
526  * If the user didn't explicitly ask for a temporary view, check whether
527  * we need one implicitly. We allow TEMP to be inserted automatically as
528  * long as the CREATE command is consistent with that --- no explicit
529  * schema name.
530  */
531  view = copyObject(stmt->view); /* don't corrupt original command */
532  if (view->relpersistence == RELPERSISTENCE_PERMANENT
533  && isQueryUsingTempRelation(viewParse))
534  {
535  view->relpersistence = RELPERSISTENCE_TEMP;
536  ereport(NOTICE,
537  (errmsg("view \"%s\" will be a temporary view",
538  view->relname)));
539  }
540 
541  /*
542  * Create the view relation
543  *
544  * NOTE: if it already exists and replace is false, the xact will be
545  * aborted.
546  */
547  address = DefineVirtualRelation(view, viewParse->targetList,
548  stmt->replace, stmt->options, viewParse);
549 
550  return address;
551 }
552 
553 /*
554  * Use the rules system to store the query for the view.
555  */
556 void
557 StoreViewQuery(Oid viewOid, Query *viewParse, bool replace)
558 {
559  /*
560  * The range table of 'viewParse' does not contain entries for the "OLD"
561  * and "NEW" relations. So... add them!
562  */
563  viewParse = UpdateRangeTableOfViewParse(viewOid, viewParse);
564 
565  /*
566  * Now create the rules associated with the view.
567  */
568  DefineViewRules(viewOid, viewParse, replace);
569 }
RangeVar * relation
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Definition: pg_list.h:190
Expr * expr
Definition: primnodes.h:1393
Oid exprType(const Node *expr)
Definition: nodeFuncs.c:42
static int list_length(const List *l)
Definition: pg_list.h:169
Oid exprCollation(const Node *expr)
Definition: nodeFuncs.c:720
static ObjectAddress DefineVirtualRelation(RangeVar *relation, List *tlist, bool replace, List *options, Query *viewParse)
Definition: view.c:51
#define ObjectAddressSet(addr, class_id, object_id)
Definition: objectaddress.h:40
char relpersistence
Definition: primnodes.h:71
void AlterTableInternal(Oid relid, List *cmds, bool recurse)
Definition: tablecmds.c:3519
#define AccessExclusiveLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:45
int errmsg(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:784
#define elog(elevel,...)
Definition: elog.h:226
int i
#define NameStr(name)
Definition: c.h:609
bool hasModifyingCTE
Definition: parsenodes.h:131
char * defname
Definition: parsenodes.h:730
char * colname
Definition: parsenodes.h:646
ViewCheckOption withCheckOption
Definition: parsenodes.h:3097
Node * query
Definition: parsenodes.h:3094
TupleDesc BuildDescForRelation(List *schema)
Definition: tupdesc.c:794
#define copyObject(obj)
Definition: nodes.h:641
static void DefineViewRules(Oid viewOid, Query *viewParse, bool replace)
Definition: view.c:303
const char * view_query_is_auto_updatable(Query *viewquery, bool check_cols)
bool type_is_collatable(Oid typid)
Definition: lsyscache.c:2848
Definition: pg_list.h:50
#define _(x)
Definition: elog.c:84
ObjectAddress DefineQueryRewrite(const char *rulename, Oid event_relid, Node *event_qual, CmdType event_type, bool is_instead, bool replace, List *action)
ColumnDef * makeColumnDef(const char *colname, Oid typeOid, int32 typmod, Oid collOid)
Definition: makefuncs.c:488