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nbtree.h
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * nbtree.h
4  * header file for postgres btree access method implementation.
5  *
6  *
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2020, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
8  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
9  *
10  * src/include/access/nbtree.h
11  *
12  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
13  */
14 #ifndef NBTREE_H
15 #define NBTREE_H
16 
17 #include "access/amapi.h"
18 #include "access/itup.h"
19 #include "access/sdir.h"
20 #include "access/xlogreader.h"
21 #include "catalog/pg_am_d.h"
22 #include "catalog/pg_index.h"
23 #include "lib/stringinfo.h"
24 #include "storage/bufmgr.h"
25 #include "storage/shm_toc.h"
26 
27 /* There's room for a 16-bit vacuum cycle ID in BTPageOpaqueData */
28 typedef uint16 BTCycleId;
29 
30 /*
31  * BTPageOpaqueData -- At the end of every page, we store a pointer
32  * to both siblings in the tree. This is used to do forward/backward
33  * index scans. The next-page link is also critical for recovery when
34  * a search has navigated to the wrong page due to concurrent page splits
35  * or deletions; see src/backend/access/nbtree/README for more info.
36  *
37  * In addition, we store the page's btree level (counting upwards from
38  * zero at a leaf page) as well as some flag bits indicating the page type
39  * and status. If the page is deleted, we replace the level with the
40  * next-transaction-ID value indicating when it is safe to reclaim the page.
41  *
42  * We also store a "vacuum cycle ID". When a page is split while VACUUM is
43  * processing the index, a nonzero value associated with the VACUUM run is
44  * stored into both halves of the split page. (If VACUUM is not running,
45  * both pages receive zero cycleids.) This allows VACUUM to detect whether
46  * a page was split since it started, with a small probability of false match
47  * if the page was last split some exact multiple of MAX_BT_CYCLE_ID VACUUMs
48  * ago. Also, during a split, the BTP_SPLIT_END flag is cleared in the left
49  * (original) page, and set in the right page, but only if the next page
50  * to its right has a different cycleid.
51  *
52  * NOTE: the BTP_LEAF flag bit is redundant since level==0 could be tested
53  * instead.
54  */
55 
56 typedef struct BTPageOpaqueData
57 {
58  BlockNumber btpo_prev; /* left sibling, or P_NONE if leftmost */
59  BlockNumber btpo_next; /* right sibling, or P_NONE if rightmost */
60  union
61  {
62  uint32 level; /* tree level --- zero for leaf pages */
63  TransactionId xact; /* next transaction ID, if deleted */
64  } btpo;
65  uint16 btpo_flags; /* flag bits, see below */
66  BTCycleId btpo_cycleid; /* vacuum cycle ID of latest split */
68 
70 
71 /* Bits defined in btpo_flags */
72 #define BTP_LEAF (1 << 0) /* leaf page, i.e. not internal page */
73 #define BTP_ROOT (1 << 1) /* root page (has no parent) */
74 #define BTP_DELETED (1 << 2) /* page has been deleted from tree */
75 #define BTP_META (1 << 3) /* meta-page */
76 #define BTP_HALF_DEAD (1 << 4) /* empty, but still in tree */
77 #define BTP_SPLIT_END (1 << 5) /* rightmost page of split group */
78 #define BTP_HAS_GARBAGE (1 << 6) /* page has LP_DEAD tuples (deprecated) */
79 #define BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT (1 << 7) /* right sibling's downlink is missing */
80 
81 /*
82  * The max allowed value of a cycle ID is a bit less than 64K. This is
83  * for convenience of pg_filedump and similar utilities: we want to use
84  * the last 2 bytes of special space as an index type indicator, and
85  * restricting cycle ID lets btree use that space for vacuum cycle IDs
86  * while still allowing index type to be identified.
87  */
88 #define MAX_BT_CYCLE_ID 0xFF7F
89 
90 
91 /*
92  * The Meta page is always the first page in the btree index.
93  * Its primary purpose is to point to the location of the btree root page.
94  * We also point to the "fast" root, which is the current effective root;
95  * see README for discussion.
96  */
97 
98 typedef struct BTMetaPageData
99 {
100  uint32 btm_magic; /* should contain BTREE_MAGIC */
101  uint32 btm_version; /* nbtree version (always <= BTREE_VERSION) */
102  BlockNumber btm_root; /* current root location */
103  uint32 btm_level; /* tree level of the root page */
104  BlockNumber btm_fastroot; /* current "fast" root location */
105  uint32 btm_fastlevel; /* tree level of the "fast" root page */
106  /* remaining fields only valid when btm_version >= BTREE_NOVAC_VERSION */
107  TransactionId btm_oldest_btpo_xact; /* oldest btpo_xact among all deleted
108  * pages */
109  float8 btm_last_cleanup_num_heap_tuples; /* number of heap tuples
110  * during last cleanup */
111  bool btm_allequalimage; /* are all columns "equalimage"? */
113 
114 #define BTPageGetMeta(p) \
115  ((BTMetaPageData *) PageGetContents(p))
116 
117 /*
118  * The current Btree version is 4. That's what you'll get when you create
119  * a new index.
120  *
121  * Btree version 3 was used in PostgreSQL v11. It is mostly the same as
122  * version 4, but heap TIDs were not part of the keyspace. Index tuples
123  * with duplicate keys could be stored in any order. We continue to
124  * support reading and writing Btree versions 2 and 3, so that they don't
125  * need to be immediately re-indexed at pg_upgrade. In order to get the
126  * new heapkeyspace semantics, however, a REINDEX is needed.
127  *
128  * Deduplication is safe to use when the btm_allequalimage field is set to
129  * true. It's safe to read the btm_allequalimage field on version 3, but
130  * only version 4 indexes make use of deduplication. Even version 4
131  * indexes created on PostgreSQL v12 will need a REINDEX to make use of
132  * deduplication, though, since there is no other way to set
133  * btm_allequalimage to true (pg_upgrade hasn't been taught to set the
134  * metapage field).
135  *
136  * Btree version 2 is mostly the same as version 3. There are two new
137  * fields in the metapage that were introduced in version 3. A version 2
138  * metapage will be automatically upgraded to version 3 on the first
139  * insert to it. INCLUDE indexes cannot use version 2.
140  */
141 #define BTREE_METAPAGE 0 /* first page is meta */
142 #define BTREE_MAGIC 0x053162 /* magic number in metapage */
143 #define BTREE_VERSION 4 /* current version number */
144 #define BTREE_MIN_VERSION 2 /* minimum supported version */
145 #define BTREE_NOVAC_VERSION 3 /* version with all meta fields set */
146 
147 /*
148  * Maximum size of a btree index entry, including its tuple header.
149  *
150  * We actually need to be able to fit three items on every page,
151  * so restrict any one item to 1/3 the per-page available space.
152  *
153  * There are rare cases where _bt_truncate() will need to enlarge
154  * a heap index tuple to make space for a tiebreaker heap TID
155  * attribute, which we account for here.
156  */
157 #define BTMaxItemSize(page) \
158  MAXALIGN_DOWN((PageGetPageSize(page) - \
159  MAXALIGN(SizeOfPageHeaderData + \
160  3*sizeof(ItemIdData) + \
161  3*sizeof(ItemPointerData)) - \
162  MAXALIGN(sizeof(BTPageOpaqueData))) / 3)
163 #define BTMaxItemSizeNoHeapTid(page) \
164  MAXALIGN_DOWN((PageGetPageSize(page) - \
165  MAXALIGN(SizeOfPageHeaderData + 3*sizeof(ItemIdData)) - \
166  MAXALIGN(sizeof(BTPageOpaqueData))) / 3)
167 
168 /*
169  * MaxTIDsPerBTreePage is an upper bound on the number of heap TIDs tuples
170  * that may be stored on a btree leaf page. It is used to size the
171  * per-page temporary buffers used by index scans.
172  *
173  * Note: we don't bother considering per-tuple overheads here to keep
174  * things simple (value is based on how many elements a single array of
175  * heap TIDs must have to fill the space between the page header and
176  * special area). The value is slightly higher (i.e. more conservative)
177  * than necessary as a result, which is considered acceptable.
178  */
179 #define MaxTIDsPerBTreePage \
180  (int) ((BLCKSZ - SizeOfPageHeaderData - sizeof(BTPageOpaqueData)) / \
181  sizeof(ItemPointerData))
182 
183 /*
184  * The leaf-page fillfactor defaults to 90% but is user-adjustable.
185  * For pages above the leaf level, we use a fixed 70% fillfactor.
186  * The fillfactor is applied during index build and when splitting
187  * a rightmost page; when splitting non-rightmost pages we try to
188  * divide the data equally. When splitting a page that's entirely
189  * filled with a single value (duplicates), the effective leaf-page
190  * fillfactor is 96%, regardless of whether the page is a rightmost
191  * page.
192  */
193 #define BTREE_MIN_FILLFACTOR 10
194 #define BTREE_DEFAULT_FILLFACTOR 90
195 #define BTREE_NONLEAF_FILLFACTOR 70
196 #define BTREE_SINGLEVAL_FILLFACTOR 96
197 
198 /*
199  * In general, the btree code tries to localize its knowledge about
200  * page layout to a couple of routines. However, we need a special
201  * value to indicate "no page number" in those places where we expect
202  * page numbers. We can use zero for this because we never need to
203  * make a pointer to the metadata page.
204  */
205 
206 #define P_NONE 0
207 
208 /*
209  * Macros to test whether a page is leftmost or rightmost on its tree level,
210  * as well as other state info kept in the opaque data.
211  */
212 #define P_LEFTMOST(opaque) ((opaque)->btpo_prev == P_NONE)
213 #define P_RIGHTMOST(opaque) ((opaque)->btpo_next == P_NONE)
214 #define P_ISLEAF(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_LEAF) != 0)
215 #define P_ISROOT(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_ROOT) != 0)
216 #define P_ISDELETED(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_DELETED) != 0)
217 #define P_ISMETA(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_META) != 0)
218 #define P_ISHALFDEAD(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_HALF_DEAD) != 0)
219 #define P_IGNORE(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & (BTP_DELETED|BTP_HALF_DEAD)) != 0)
220 #define P_HAS_GARBAGE(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_HAS_GARBAGE) != 0)
221 #define P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(opaque) (((opaque)->btpo_flags & BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT) != 0)
222 
223 /*
224  * Lehman and Yao's algorithm requires a ``high key'' on every non-rightmost
225  * page. The high key is not a tuple that is used to visit the heap. It is
226  * a pivot tuple (see "Notes on B-Tree tuple format" below for definition).
227  * The high key on a page is required to be greater than or equal to any
228  * other key that appears on the page. If we find ourselves trying to
229  * insert a key that is strictly > high key, we know we need to move right
230  * (this should only happen if the page was split since we examined the
231  * parent page).
232  *
233  * Our insertion algorithm guarantees that we can use the initial least key
234  * on our right sibling as the high key. Once a page is created, its high
235  * key changes only if the page is split.
236  *
237  * On a non-rightmost page, the high key lives in item 1 and data items
238  * start in item 2. Rightmost pages have no high key, so we store data
239  * items beginning in item 1.
240  */
241 
242 #define P_HIKEY ((OffsetNumber) 1)
243 #define P_FIRSTKEY ((OffsetNumber) 2)
244 #define P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque) (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque) ? P_HIKEY : P_FIRSTKEY)
245 
246 /*
247  * Notes on B-Tree tuple format, and key and non-key attributes:
248  *
249  * INCLUDE B-Tree indexes have non-key attributes. These are extra
250  * attributes that may be returned by index-only scans, but do not influence
251  * the order of items in the index (formally, non-key attributes are not
252  * considered to be part of the key space). Non-key attributes are only
253  * present in leaf index tuples whose item pointers actually point to heap
254  * tuples (non-pivot tuples). _bt_check_natts() enforces the rules
255  * described here.
256  *
257  * Non-pivot tuple format (plain/non-posting variant):
258  *
259  * t_tid | t_info | key values | INCLUDE columns, if any
260  *
261  * t_tid points to the heap TID, which is a tiebreaker key column as of
262  * BTREE_VERSION 4.
263  *
264  * Non-pivot tuples complement pivot tuples, which only have key columns.
265  * The sole purpose of pivot tuples is to represent how the key space is
266  * separated. In general, any B-Tree index that has more than one level
267  * (i.e. any index that does not just consist of a metapage and a single
268  * leaf root page) must have some number of pivot tuples, since pivot
269  * tuples are used for traversing the tree. Suffix truncation can omit
270  * trailing key columns when a new pivot is formed, which makes minus
271  * infinity their logical value. Since BTREE_VERSION 4 indexes treat heap
272  * TID as a trailing key column that ensures that all index tuples are
273  * physically unique, it is necessary to represent heap TID as a trailing
274  * key column in pivot tuples, though very often this can be truncated
275  * away, just like any other key column. (Actually, the heap TID is
276  * omitted rather than truncated, since its representation is different to
277  * the non-pivot representation.)
278  *
279  * Pivot tuple format:
280  *
281  * t_tid | t_info | key values | [heap TID]
282  *
283  * We store the number of columns present inside pivot tuples by abusing
284  * their t_tid offset field, since pivot tuples never need to store a real
285  * offset (pivot tuples generally store a downlink in t_tid, though). The
286  * offset field only stores the number of columns/attributes when the
287  * INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK bit is set, which doesn't count the trailing heap
288  * TID column sometimes stored in pivot tuples -- that's represented by
289  * the presence of BT_PIVOT_HEAP_TID_ATTR. The INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK bit in
290  * t_info is always set on BTREE_VERSION 4 pivot tuples, since
291  * BTreeTupleIsPivot() must work reliably on heapkeyspace versions.
292  *
293  * In version 2 or version 3 (!heapkeyspace) indexes, INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK
294  * might not be set in pivot tuples. BTreeTupleIsPivot() won't work
295  * reliably as a result. The number of columns stored is implicitly the
296  * same as the number of columns in the index, just like any non-pivot
297  * tuple. (The number of columns stored should not vary, since suffix
298  * truncation of key columns is unsafe within any !heapkeyspace index.)
299  *
300  * The 12 least significant bits from t_tid's offset number are used to
301  * represent the number of key columns within a pivot tuple. This leaves 4
302  * status bits (BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK bits), which are shared by all tuples
303  * that have the INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK bit set (set in t_info) to store basic
304  * tuple metadata. BTreeTupleIsPivot() and BTreeTupleIsPosting() use the
305  * BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK bits.
306  *
307  * Sometimes non-pivot tuples also use a representation that repurposes
308  * t_tid to store metadata rather than a TID. PostgreSQL v13 introduced a
309  * new non-pivot tuple format to support deduplication: posting list
310  * tuples. Deduplication merges together multiple equal non-pivot tuples
311  * into a logically equivalent, space efficient representation. A posting
312  * list is an array of ItemPointerData elements. Non-pivot tuples are
313  * merged together to form posting list tuples lazily, at the point where
314  * we'd otherwise have to split a leaf page.
315  *
316  * Posting tuple format (alternative non-pivot tuple representation):
317  *
318  * t_tid | t_info | key values | posting list (TID array)
319  *
320  * Posting list tuples are recognized as such by having the
321  * INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK status bit set in t_info and the BT_IS_POSTING status
322  * bit set in t_tid's offset number. These flags redefine the content of
323  * the posting tuple's t_tid to store the location of the posting list
324  * (instead of a block number), as well as the total number of heap TIDs
325  * present in the tuple (instead of a real offset number).
326  *
327  * The 12 least significant bits from t_tid's offset number are used to
328  * represent the number of heap TIDs present in the tuple, leaving 4 status
329  * bits (the BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK bits). Like any non-pivot tuple, the
330  * number of columns stored is always implicitly the total number in the
331  * index (in practice there can never be non-key columns stored, since
332  * deduplication is not supported with INCLUDE indexes).
333  */
334 #define INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK INDEX_AM_RESERVED_BIT
335 
336 /* Item pointer offset bit masks */
337 #define BT_OFFSET_MASK 0x0FFF
338 #define BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK 0xF000
339 /* BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK status bits */
340 #define BT_PIVOT_HEAP_TID_ATTR 0x1000
341 #define BT_IS_POSTING 0x2000
342 
343 /*
344  * Note: BTreeTupleIsPivot() can have false negatives (but not false
345  * positives) when used with !heapkeyspace indexes
346  */
347 static inline bool
349 {
350  if ((itup->t_info & INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK) == 0)
351  return false;
352  /* absence of BT_IS_POSTING in offset number indicates pivot tuple */
354  return false;
355 
356  return true;
357 }
358 
359 static inline bool
361 {
362  if ((itup->t_info & INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK) == 0)
363  return false;
364  /* presence of BT_IS_POSTING in offset number indicates posting tuple */
366  return false;
367 
368  return true;
369 }
370 
371 static inline void
372 BTreeTupleSetPosting(IndexTuple itup, uint16 nhtids, int postingoffset)
373 {
374  Assert(nhtids > 1);
375  Assert((nhtids & BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK) == 0);
376  Assert((size_t) postingoffset == MAXALIGN(postingoffset));
377  Assert(postingoffset < INDEX_SIZE_MASK);
378  Assert(!BTreeTupleIsPivot(itup));
379 
380  itup->t_info |= INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK;
381  ItemPointerSetOffsetNumber(&itup->t_tid, (nhtids | BT_IS_POSTING));
382  ItemPointerSetBlockNumber(&itup->t_tid, postingoffset);
383 }
384 
385 static inline uint16
387 {
388  OffsetNumber existing;
389 
390  Assert(BTreeTupleIsPosting(posting));
391 
392  existing = ItemPointerGetOffsetNumberNoCheck(&posting->t_tid);
393  return (existing & BT_OFFSET_MASK);
394 }
395 
396 static inline uint32
398 {
399  Assert(BTreeTupleIsPosting(posting));
400 
401  return ItemPointerGetBlockNumberNoCheck(&posting->t_tid);
402 }
403 
404 static inline ItemPointer
406 {
407  return (ItemPointer) ((char *) posting +
408  BTreeTupleGetPostingOffset(posting));
409 }
410 
411 static inline ItemPointer
413 {
414  return BTreeTupleGetPosting(posting) + n;
415 }
416 
417 /*
418  * Get/set downlink block number in pivot tuple.
419  *
420  * Note: Cannot assert that tuple is a pivot tuple. If we did so then
421  * !heapkeyspace indexes would exhibit false positive assertion failures.
422  */
423 static inline BlockNumber
425 {
426  return ItemPointerGetBlockNumberNoCheck(&pivot->t_tid);
427 }
428 
429 static inline void
431 {
432  ItemPointerSetBlockNumber(&pivot->t_tid, blkno);
433 }
434 
435 /*
436  * Get number of attributes within tuple.
437  *
438  * Note that this does not include an implicit tiebreaker heap TID
439  * attribute, if any. Note also that the number of key attributes must be
440  * explicitly represented in all heapkeyspace pivot tuples.
441  *
442  * Note: This is defined as a macro rather than an inline function to
443  * avoid including rel.h.
444  */
445 #define BTreeTupleGetNAtts(itup, rel) \
446  ( \
447  (BTreeTupleIsPivot(itup)) ? \
448  ( \
449  ItemPointerGetOffsetNumberNoCheck(&(itup)->t_tid) & BT_OFFSET_MASK \
450  ) \
451  : \
452  IndexRelationGetNumberOfAttributes(rel) \
453  )
454 
455 /*
456  * Set number of key attributes in tuple.
457  *
458  * The heap TID tiebreaker attribute bit may also be set here, indicating that
459  * a heap TID value will be stored at the end of the tuple (i.e. using the
460  * special pivot tuple representation).
461  */
462 static inline void
463 BTreeTupleSetNAtts(IndexTuple itup, uint16 nkeyatts, bool heaptid)
464 {
465  Assert(nkeyatts <= INDEX_MAX_KEYS);
466  Assert((nkeyatts & BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK) == 0);
467  Assert(!heaptid || nkeyatts > 0);
468  Assert(!BTreeTupleIsPivot(itup) || nkeyatts == 0);
469 
470  itup->t_info |= INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK;
471 
472  if (heaptid)
473  nkeyatts |= BT_PIVOT_HEAP_TID_ATTR;
474 
475  /* BT_IS_POSTING bit is deliberately unset here */
476  ItemPointerSetOffsetNumber(&itup->t_tid, nkeyatts);
477  Assert(BTreeTupleIsPivot(itup));
478 }
479 
480 /*
481  * Get/set leaf page's "top parent" link from its high key. Used during page
482  * deletion.
483  *
484  * Note: Cannot assert that tuple is a pivot tuple. If we did so then
485  * !heapkeyspace indexes would exhibit false positive assertion failures.
486  */
487 static inline BlockNumber
489 {
490  return ItemPointerGetBlockNumberNoCheck(&leafhikey->t_tid);
491 }
492 
493 static inline void
495 {
496  ItemPointerSetBlockNumber(&leafhikey->t_tid, blkno);
497  BTreeTupleSetNAtts(leafhikey, 0, false);
498 }
499 
500 /*
501  * Get tiebreaker heap TID attribute, if any.
502  *
503  * This returns the first/lowest heap TID in the case of a posting list tuple.
504  */
505 static inline ItemPointer
507 {
508  if (BTreeTupleIsPivot(itup))
509  {
510  /* Pivot tuple heap TID representation? */
513  return (ItemPointer) ((char *) itup + IndexTupleSize(itup) -
514  sizeof(ItemPointerData));
515 
516  /* Heap TID attribute was truncated */
517  return NULL;
518  }
519  else if (BTreeTupleIsPosting(itup))
520  return BTreeTupleGetPosting(itup);
521 
522  return &itup->t_tid;
523 }
524 
525 /*
526  * Get maximum heap TID attribute, which could be the only TID in the case of
527  * a non-pivot tuple that does not have a posting list tuple.
528  *
529  * Works with non-pivot tuples only.
530  */
531 static inline ItemPointer
533 {
534  Assert(!BTreeTupleIsPivot(itup));
535 
536  if (BTreeTupleIsPosting(itup))
537  {
538  uint16 nposting = BTreeTupleGetNPosting(itup);
539 
540  return BTreeTupleGetPostingN(itup, nposting - 1);
541  }
542 
543  return &itup->t_tid;
544 }
545 
546 /*
547  * Operator strategy numbers for B-tree have been moved to access/stratnum.h,
548  * because many places need to use them in ScanKeyInit() calls.
549  *
550  * The strategy numbers are chosen so that we can commute them by
551  * subtraction, thus:
552  */
553 #define BTCommuteStrategyNumber(strat) (BTMaxStrategyNumber + 1 - (strat))
554 
555 /*
556  * When a new operator class is declared, we require that the user
557  * supply us with an amproc procedure (BTORDER_PROC) for determining
558  * whether, for two keys a and b, a < b, a = b, or a > b. This routine
559  * must return < 0, 0, > 0, respectively, in these three cases.
560  *
561  * To facilitate accelerated sorting, an operator class may choose to
562  * offer a second procedure (BTSORTSUPPORT_PROC). For full details, see
563  * src/include/utils/sortsupport.h.
564  *
565  * To support window frames defined by "RANGE offset PRECEDING/FOLLOWING",
566  * an operator class may choose to offer a third amproc procedure
567  * (BTINRANGE_PROC), independently of whether it offers sortsupport.
568  * For full details, see doc/src/sgml/btree.sgml.
569  *
570  * To facilitate B-Tree deduplication, an operator class may choose to
571  * offer a forth amproc procedure (BTEQUALIMAGE_PROC). For full details,
572  * see doc/src/sgml/btree.sgml.
573  */
574 
575 #define BTORDER_PROC 1
576 #define BTSORTSUPPORT_PROC 2
577 #define BTINRANGE_PROC 3
578 #define BTEQUALIMAGE_PROC 4
579 #define BTOPTIONS_PROC 5
580 #define BTNProcs 5
581 
582 /*
583  * We need to be able to tell the difference between read and write
584  * requests for pages, in order to do locking correctly.
585  */
586 
587 #define BT_READ BUFFER_LOCK_SHARE
588 #define BT_WRITE BUFFER_LOCK_EXCLUSIVE
589 
590 /*
591  * BTStackData -- As we descend a tree, we push the location of pivot
592  * tuples whose downlink we are about to follow onto a private stack. If
593  * we split a leaf, we use this stack to walk back up the tree and insert
594  * data into its parent page at the correct location. We also have to
595  * recursively insert into the grandparent page if and when the parent page
596  * splits. Our private stack can become stale due to concurrent page
597  * splits and page deletions, but it should never give us an irredeemably
598  * bad picture.
599  */
600 typedef struct BTStackData
601 {
605 } BTStackData;
606 
608 
609 /*
610  * BTScanInsertData is the btree-private state needed to find an initial
611  * position for an indexscan, or to insert new tuples -- an "insertion
612  * scankey" (not to be confused with a search scankey). It's used to descend
613  * a B-Tree using _bt_search.
614  *
615  * heapkeyspace indicates if we expect all keys in the index to be physically
616  * unique because heap TID is used as a tiebreaker attribute, and if index may
617  * have truncated key attributes in pivot tuples. This is actually a property
618  * of the index relation itself (not an indexscan). heapkeyspace indexes are
619  * indexes whose version is >= version 4. It's convenient to keep this close
620  * by, rather than accessing the metapage repeatedly.
621  *
622  * allequalimage is set to indicate that deduplication is safe for the index.
623  * This is also a property of the index relation rather than an indexscan.
624  *
625  * anynullkeys indicates if any of the keys had NULL value when scankey was
626  * built from index tuple (note that already-truncated tuple key attributes
627  * set NULL as a placeholder key value, which also affects value of
628  * anynullkeys). This is a convenience for unique index non-pivot tuple
629  * insertion, which usually temporarily unsets scantid, but shouldn't iff
630  * anynullkeys is true. Value generally matches non-pivot tuple's HasNulls
631  * bit, but may not when inserting into an INCLUDE index (tuple header value
632  * is affected by the NULL-ness of both key and non-key attributes).
633  *
634  * When nextkey is false (the usual case), _bt_search and _bt_binsrch will
635  * locate the first item >= scankey. When nextkey is true, they will locate
636  * the first item > scan key.
637  *
638  * pivotsearch is set to true by callers that want to re-find a leaf page
639  * using a scankey built from a leaf page's high key. Most callers set this
640  * to false.
641  *
642  * scantid is the heap TID that is used as a final tiebreaker attribute. It
643  * is set to NULL when index scan doesn't need to find a position for a
644  * specific physical tuple. Must be set when inserting new tuples into
645  * heapkeyspace indexes, since every tuple in the tree unambiguously belongs
646  * in one exact position (it's never set with !heapkeyspace indexes, though).
647  * Despite the representational difference, nbtree search code considers
648  * scantid to be just another insertion scankey attribute.
649  *
650  * scankeys is an array of scan key entries for attributes that are compared
651  * before scantid (user-visible attributes). keysz is the size of the array.
652  * During insertion, there must be a scan key for every attribute, but when
653  * starting a regular index scan some can be omitted. The array is used as a
654  * flexible array member, though it's sized in a way that makes it possible to
655  * use stack allocations. See nbtree/README for full details.
656  */
657 typedef struct BTScanInsertData
658 {
662  bool nextkey;
664  ItemPointer scantid; /* tiebreaker for scankeys */
665  int keysz; /* Size of scankeys array */
666  ScanKeyData scankeys[INDEX_MAX_KEYS]; /* Must appear last */
668 
670 
671 /*
672  * BTInsertStateData is a working area used during insertion.
673  *
674  * This is filled in after descending the tree to the first leaf page the new
675  * tuple might belong on. Tracks the current position while performing
676  * uniqueness check, before we have determined which exact page to insert
677  * to.
678  *
679  * (This should be private to nbtinsert.c, but it's also used by
680  * _bt_binsrch_insert)
681  */
682 typedef struct BTInsertStateData
683 {
684  IndexTuple itup; /* Item we're inserting */
685  Size itemsz; /* Size of itup -- should be MAXALIGN()'d */
686  BTScanInsert itup_key; /* Insertion scankey */
687 
688  /* Buffer containing leaf page we're likely to insert itup on */
690 
691  /*
692  * Cache of bounds within the current buffer. Only used for insertions
693  * where _bt_check_unique is called. See _bt_binsrch_insert and
694  * _bt_findinsertloc for details.
695  */
699 
700  /*
701  * if _bt_binsrch_insert found the location inside existing posting list,
702  * save the position inside the list. -1 sentinel value indicates overlap
703  * with an existing posting list tuple that has its LP_DEAD bit set.
704  */
707 
709 
710 /*
711  * State used to representing an individual pending tuple during
712  * deduplication.
713  */
714 typedef struct BTDedupInterval
715 {
719 
720 /*
721  * BTDedupStateData is a working area used during deduplication.
722  *
723  * The status info fields track the state of a whole-page deduplication pass.
724  * State about the current pending posting list is also tracked.
725  *
726  * A pending posting list is comprised of a contiguous group of equal items
727  * from the page, starting from page offset number 'baseoff'. This is the
728  * offset number of the "base" tuple for new posting list. 'nitems' is the
729  * current total number of existing items from the page that will be merged to
730  * make a new posting list tuple, including the base tuple item. (Existing
731  * items may themselves be posting list tuples, or regular non-pivot tuples.)
732  *
733  * The total size of the existing tuples to be freed when pending posting list
734  * is processed gets tracked by 'phystupsize'. This information allows
735  * deduplication to calculate the space saving for each new posting list
736  * tuple, and for the entire pass over the page as a whole.
737  */
738 typedef struct BTDedupStateData
739 {
740  /* Deduplication status info for entire pass over page */
741  bool deduplicate; /* Still deduplicating page? */
742  int nmaxitems; /* Number of max-sized tuples so far */
743  Size maxpostingsize; /* Limit on size of final tuple */
744 
745  /* Metadata about base tuple of current pending posting list */
746  IndexTuple base; /* Use to form new posting list */
747  OffsetNumber baseoff; /* page offset of base */
748  Size basetupsize; /* base size without original posting list */
749 
750  /* Other metadata about pending posting list */
751  ItemPointer htids; /* Heap TIDs in pending posting list */
752  int nhtids; /* Number of heap TIDs in htids array */
753  int nitems; /* Number of existing tuples/line pointers */
754  Size phystupsize; /* Includes line pointer overhead */
755 
756  /*
757  * Array of tuples to go on new version of the page. Contains one entry
758  * for each group of consecutive items. Note that existing tuples that
759  * will not become posting list tuples do not appear in the array (they
760  * are implicitly unchanged by deduplication pass).
761  */
762  int nintervals; /* current number of intervals in array */
765 
767 
768 /*
769  * BTVacuumPostingData is state that represents how to VACUUM a posting list
770  * tuple when some (though not all) of its TIDs are to be deleted.
771  *
772  * Convention is that itup field is the original posting list tuple on input,
773  * and palloc()'d final tuple used to overwrite existing tuple on output.
774  */
775 typedef struct BTVacuumPostingData
776 {
777  /* Tuple that will be/was updated */
780 
781  /* State needed to describe final itup in WAL */
785 
787 
788 /*
789  * BTScanOpaqueData is the btree-private state needed for an indexscan.
790  * This consists of preprocessed scan keys (see _bt_preprocess_keys() for
791  * details of the preprocessing), information about the current location
792  * of the scan, and information about the marked location, if any. (We use
793  * BTScanPosData to represent the data needed for each of current and marked
794  * locations.) In addition we can remember some known-killed index entries
795  * that must be marked before we can move off the current page.
796  *
797  * Index scans work a page at a time: we pin and read-lock the page, identify
798  * all the matching items on the page and save them in BTScanPosData, then
799  * release the read-lock while returning the items to the caller for
800  * processing. This approach minimizes lock/unlock traffic. Note that we
801  * keep the pin on the index page until the caller is done with all the items
802  * (this is needed for VACUUM synchronization, see nbtree/README). When we
803  * are ready to step to the next page, if the caller has told us any of the
804  * items were killed, we re-lock the page to mark them killed, then unlock.
805  * Finally we drop the pin and step to the next page in the appropriate
806  * direction.
807  *
808  * If we are doing an index-only scan, we save the entire IndexTuple for each
809  * matched item, otherwise only its heap TID and offset. The IndexTuples go
810  * into a separate workspace array; each BTScanPosItem stores its tuple's
811  * offset within that array. Posting list tuples store a "base" tuple once,
812  * allowing the same key to be returned for each TID in the posting list
813  * tuple.
814  */
815 
816 typedef struct BTScanPosItem /* what we remember about each match */
817 {
818  ItemPointerData heapTid; /* TID of referenced heap item */
819  OffsetNumber indexOffset; /* index item's location within page */
820  LocationIndex tupleOffset; /* IndexTuple's offset in workspace, if any */
821 } BTScanPosItem;
822 
823 typedef struct BTScanPosData
824 {
825  Buffer buf; /* if valid, the buffer is pinned */
826 
827  XLogRecPtr lsn; /* pos in the WAL stream when page was read */
828  BlockNumber currPage; /* page referenced by items array */
829  BlockNumber nextPage; /* page's right link when we scanned it */
830 
831  /*
832  * moreLeft and moreRight track whether we think there may be matching
833  * index entries to the left and right of the current page, respectively.
834  * We can clear the appropriate one of these flags when _bt_checkkeys()
835  * returns continuescan = false.
836  */
837  bool moreLeft;
838  bool moreRight;
839 
840  /*
841  * If we are doing an index-only scan, nextTupleOffset is the first free
842  * location in the associated tuple storage workspace.
843  */
845 
846  /*
847  * The items array is always ordered in index order (ie, increasing
848  * indexoffset). When scanning backwards it is convenient to fill the
849  * array back-to-front, so we start at the last slot and fill downwards.
850  * Hence we need both a first-valid-entry and a last-valid-entry counter.
851  * itemIndex is a cursor showing which entry was last returned to caller.
852  */
853  int firstItem; /* first valid index in items[] */
854  int lastItem; /* last valid index in items[] */
855  int itemIndex; /* current index in items[] */
856 
857  BTScanPosItem items[MaxTIDsPerBTreePage]; /* MUST BE LAST */
858 } BTScanPosData;
859 
861 
862 #define BTScanPosIsPinned(scanpos) \
863 ( \
864  AssertMacro(BlockNumberIsValid((scanpos).currPage) || \
865  !BufferIsValid((scanpos).buf)), \
866  BufferIsValid((scanpos).buf) \
867 )
868 #define BTScanPosUnpin(scanpos) \
869  do { \
870  ReleaseBuffer((scanpos).buf); \
871  (scanpos).buf = InvalidBuffer; \
872  } while (0)
873 #define BTScanPosUnpinIfPinned(scanpos) \
874  do { \
875  if (BTScanPosIsPinned(scanpos)) \
876  BTScanPosUnpin(scanpos); \
877  } while (0)
878 
879 #define BTScanPosIsValid(scanpos) \
880 ( \
881  AssertMacro(BlockNumberIsValid((scanpos).currPage) || \
882  !BufferIsValid((scanpos).buf)), \
883  BlockNumberIsValid((scanpos).currPage) \
884 )
885 #define BTScanPosInvalidate(scanpos) \
886  do { \
887  (scanpos).currPage = InvalidBlockNumber; \
888  (scanpos).nextPage = InvalidBlockNumber; \
889  (scanpos).buf = InvalidBuffer; \
890  (scanpos).lsn = InvalidXLogRecPtr; \
891  (scanpos).nextTupleOffset = 0; \
892  } while (0)
893 
894 /* We need one of these for each equality-type SK_SEARCHARRAY scan key */
895 typedef struct BTArrayKeyInfo
896 {
897  int scan_key; /* index of associated key in arrayKeyData */
898  int cur_elem; /* index of current element in elem_values */
899  int mark_elem; /* index of marked element in elem_values */
900  int num_elems; /* number of elems in current array value */
901  Datum *elem_values; /* array of num_elems Datums */
903 
904 typedef struct BTScanOpaqueData
905 {
906  /* these fields are set by _bt_preprocess_keys(): */
907  bool qual_ok; /* false if qual can never be satisfied */
908  int numberOfKeys; /* number of preprocessed scan keys */
909  ScanKey keyData; /* array of preprocessed scan keys */
910 
911  /* workspace for SK_SEARCHARRAY support */
912  ScanKey arrayKeyData; /* modified copy of scan->keyData */
913  int numArrayKeys; /* number of equality-type array keys (-1 if
914  * there are any unsatisfiable array keys) */
915  int arrayKeyCount; /* count indicating number of array scan keys
916  * processed */
917  BTArrayKeyInfo *arrayKeys; /* info about each equality-type array key */
918  MemoryContext arrayContext; /* scan-lifespan context for array data */
919 
920  /* info about killed items if any (killedItems is NULL if never used) */
921  int *killedItems; /* currPos.items indexes of killed items */
922  int numKilled; /* number of currently stored items */
923 
924  /*
925  * If we are doing an index-only scan, these are the tuple storage
926  * workspaces for the currPos and markPos respectively. Each is of size
927  * BLCKSZ, so it can hold as much as a full page's worth of tuples.
928  */
929  char *currTuples; /* tuple storage for currPos */
930  char *markTuples; /* tuple storage for markPos */
931 
932  /*
933  * If the marked position is on the same page as current position, we
934  * don't use markPos, but just keep the marked itemIndex in markItemIndex
935  * (all the rest of currPos is valid for the mark position). Hence, to
936  * determine if there is a mark, first look at markItemIndex, then at
937  * markPos.
938  */
939  int markItemIndex; /* itemIndex, or -1 if not valid */
940 
941  /* keep these last in struct for efficiency */
942  BTScanPosData currPos; /* current position data */
943  BTScanPosData markPos; /* marked position, if any */
945 
947 
948 /*
949  * We use some private sk_flags bits in preprocessed scan keys. We're allowed
950  * to use bits 16-31 (see skey.h). The uppermost bits are copied from the
951  * index's indoption[] array entry for the index attribute.
952  */
953 #define SK_BT_REQFWD 0x00010000 /* required to continue forward scan */
954 #define SK_BT_REQBKWD 0x00020000 /* required to continue backward scan */
955 #define SK_BT_INDOPTION_SHIFT 24 /* must clear the above bits */
956 #define SK_BT_DESC (INDOPTION_DESC << SK_BT_INDOPTION_SHIFT)
957 #define SK_BT_NULLS_FIRST (INDOPTION_NULLS_FIRST << SK_BT_INDOPTION_SHIFT)
958 
959 typedef struct BTOptions
960 {
961  int32 varlena_header_; /* varlena header (do not touch directly!) */
962  int fillfactor; /* page fill factor in percent (0..100) */
963  /* fraction of newly inserted tuples prior to trigger index cleanup */
965  bool deduplicate_items; /* Try to deduplicate items? */
966 } BTOptions;
967 
968 #define BTGetFillFactor(relation) \
969  (AssertMacro(relation->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_INDEX && \
970  relation->rd_rel->relam == BTREE_AM_OID), \
971  (relation)->rd_options ? \
972  ((BTOptions *) (relation)->rd_options)->fillfactor : \
973  BTREE_DEFAULT_FILLFACTOR)
974 #define BTGetTargetPageFreeSpace(relation) \
975  (BLCKSZ * (100 - BTGetFillFactor(relation)) / 100)
976 #define BTGetDeduplicateItems(relation) \
977  (AssertMacro(relation->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_INDEX && \
978  relation->rd_rel->relam == BTREE_AM_OID), \
979  ((relation)->rd_options ? \
980  ((BTOptions *) (relation)->rd_options)->deduplicate_items : true))
981 
982 /*
983  * Constant definition for progress reporting. Phase numbers must match
984  * btbuildphasename.
985  */
986 /* PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_SUBPHASE_INITIALIZE is 1 (see progress.h) */
987 #define PROGRESS_BTREE_PHASE_INDEXBUILD_TABLESCAN 2
988 #define PROGRESS_BTREE_PHASE_PERFORMSORT_1 3
989 #define PROGRESS_BTREE_PHASE_PERFORMSORT_2 4
990 #define PROGRESS_BTREE_PHASE_LEAF_LOAD 5
991 
992 /*
993  * external entry points for btree, in nbtree.c
994  */
995 extern void btbuildempty(Relation index);
996 extern bool btinsert(Relation rel, Datum *values, bool *isnull,
997  ItemPointer ht_ctid, Relation heapRel,
998  IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique,
999  struct IndexInfo *indexInfo);
1000 extern IndexScanDesc btbeginscan(Relation rel, int nkeys, int norderbys);
1001 extern Size btestimateparallelscan(void);
1002 extern void btinitparallelscan(void *target);
1003 extern bool btgettuple(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir);
1004 extern int64 btgetbitmap(IndexScanDesc scan, TIDBitmap *tbm);
1005 extern void btrescan(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanKey scankey, int nscankeys,
1006  ScanKey orderbys, int norderbys);
1007 extern void btparallelrescan(IndexScanDesc scan);
1008 extern void btendscan(IndexScanDesc scan);
1009 extern void btmarkpos(IndexScanDesc scan);
1010 extern void btrestrpos(IndexScanDesc scan);
1012  IndexBulkDeleteResult *stats,
1014  void *callback_state);
1016  IndexBulkDeleteResult *stats);
1017 extern bool btcanreturn(Relation index, int attno);
1018 
1019 /*
1020  * prototypes for internal functions in nbtree.c
1021  */
1022 extern bool _bt_parallel_seize(IndexScanDesc scan, BlockNumber *pageno);
1023 extern void _bt_parallel_release(IndexScanDesc scan, BlockNumber scan_page);
1024 extern void _bt_parallel_done(IndexScanDesc scan);
1026 
1027 /*
1028  * prototypes for functions in nbtdedup.c
1029  */
1030 extern void _bt_dedup_pass(Relation rel, Buffer buf, Relation heapRel,
1031  IndexTuple newitem, Size newitemsz,
1032  bool checkingunique);
1034  OffsetNumber baseoff);
1038  int nhtids);
1039 extern void _bt_update_posting(BTVacuumPosting vacposting);
1040 extern IndexTuple _bt_swap_posting(IndexTuple newitem, IndexTuple oposting,
1041  int postingoff);
1042 
1043 /*
1044  * prototypes for functions in nbtinsert.c
1045  */
1046 extern bool _bt_doinsert(Relation rel, IndexTuple itup,
1047  IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, Relation heapRel);
1048 extern void _bt_finish_split(Relation rel, Buffer lbuf, BTStack stack);
1049 extern Buffer _bt_getstackbuf(Relation rel, BTStack stack, BlockNumber child);
1050 
1051 /*
1052  * prototypes for functions in nbtsplitloc.c
1053  */
1054 extern OffsetNumber _bt_findsplitloc(Relation rel, Page origpage,
1055  OffsetNumber newitemoff, Size newitemsz, IndexTuple newitem,
1056  bool *newitemonleft);
1057 
1058 /*
1059  * prototypes for functions in nbtpage.c
1060  */
1061 extern void _bt_initmetapage(Page page, BlockNumber rootbknum, uint32 level,
1062  bool allequalimage);
1063 extern void _bt_update_meta_cleanup_info(Relation rel,
1064  TransactionId oldestBtpoXact, float8 numHeapTuples);
1065 extern void _bt_upgrademetapage(Page page);
1066 extern Buffer _bt_getroot(Relation rel, int access);
1067 extern Buffer _bt_gettrueroot(Relation rel);
1068 extern int _bt_getrootheight(Relation rel);
1069 extern void _bt_metaversion(Relation rel, bool *heapkeyspace,
1070  bool *allequalimage);
1071 extern void _bt_checkpage(Relation rel, Buffer buf);
1072 extern Buffer _bt_getbuf(Relation rel, BlockNumber blkno, int access);
1073 extern Buffer _bt_relandgetbuf(Relation rel, Buffer obuf,
1074  BlockNumber blkno, int access);
1075 extern void _bt_relbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf);
1076 extern void _bt_lockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf, int access);
1077 extern void _bt_unlockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf);
1078 extern bool _bt_conditionallockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf);
1079 extern void _bt_upgradelockbufcleanup(Relation rel, Buffer buf);
1080 extern void _bt_pageinit(Page page, Size size);
1081 extern bool _bt_page_recyclable(Page page);
1082 extern void _bt_delitems_vacuum(Relation rel, Buffer buf,
1083  OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable,
1084  BTVacuumPosting *updatable, int nupdatable);
1085 extern void _bt_delitems_delete(Relation rel, Buffer buf,
1086  OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable,
1087  Relation heapRel);
1088 extern uint32 _bt_pagedel(Relation rel, Buffer leafbuf,
1089  TransactionId *oldestBtpoXact);
1090 
1091 /*
1092  * prototypes for functions in nbtsearch.c
1093  */
1094 extern BTStack _bt_search(Relation rel, BTScanInsert key, Buffer *bufP,
1095  int access, Snapshot snapshot);
1097  bool forupdate, BTStack stack, int access, Snapshot snapshot);
1098 extern OffsetNumber _bt_binsrch_insert(Relation rel, BTInsertState insertstate);
1099 extern int32 _bt_compare(Relation rel, BTScanInsert key, Page page, OffsetNumber offnum);
1100 extern bool _bt_first(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir);
1101 extern bool _bt_next(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir);
1102 extern Buffer _bt_get_endpoint(Relation rel, uint32 level, bool rightmost,
1103  Snapshot snapshot);
1104 
1105 /*
1106  * prototypes for functions in nbtutils.c
1107  */
1108 extern BTScanInsert _bt_mkscankey(Relation rel, IndexTuple itup);
1109 extern void _bt_freestack(BTStack stack);
1110 extern void _bt_preprocess_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan);
1111 extern void _bt_start_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir);
1112 extern bool _bt_advance_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir);
1113 extern void _bt_mark_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan);
1114 extern void _bt_restore_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan);
1115 extern void _bt_preprocess_keys(IndexScanDesc scan);
1116 extern bool _bt_checkkeys(IndexScanDesc scan, IndexTuple tuple,
1117  int tupnatts, ScanDirection dir, bool *continuescan);
1118 extern void _bt_killitems(IndexScanDesc scan);
1120 extern BTCycleId _bt_start_vacuum(Relation rel);
1121 extern void _bt_end_vacuum(Relation rel);
1122 extern void _bt_end_vacuum_callback(int code, Datum arg);
1123 extern Size BTreeShmemSize(void);
1124 extern void BTreeShmemInit(void);
1125 extern bytea *btoptions(Datum reloptions, bool validate);
1126 extern bool btproperty(Oid index_oid, int attno,
1127  IndexAMProperty prop, const char *propname,
1128  bool *res, bool *isnull);
1129 extern char *btbuildphasename(int64 phasenum);
1130 extern IndexTuple _bt_truncate(Relation rel, IndexTuple lastleft,
1131  IndexTuple firstright, BTScanInsert itup_key);
1132 extern int _bt_keep_natts_fast(Relation rel, IndexTuple lastleft,
1133  IndexTuple firstright);
1134 extern bool _bt_check_natts(Relation rel, bool heapkeyspace, Page page,
1135  OffsetNumber offnum);
1136 extern void _bt_check_third_page(Relation rel, Relation heap,
1137  bool needheaptidspace, Page page, IndexTuple newtup);
1138 extern bool _bt_allequalimage(Relation rel, bool debugmessage);
1139 
1140 /*
1141  * prototypes for functions in nbtvalidate.c
1142  */
1143 extern bool btvalidate(Oid opclassoid);
1144 extern void btadjustmembers(Oid opfamilyoid,
1145  Oid opclassoid,
1146  List *operators,
1147  List *functions);
1148 
1149 /*
1150  * prototypes for functions in nbtsort.c
1151  */
1153  struct IndexInfo *indexInfo);
1154 extern void _bt_parallel_build_main(dsm_segment *seg, shm_toc *toc);
1155 
1156 #endif /* NBTREE_H */
void btparallelrescan(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtree.c:606
BTInsertStateData * BTInsertState
Definition: nbtree.h:708
BTCycleId _bt_start_vacuum(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtutils.c:1969
char * intervals[]
struct BTInsertStateData BTInsertStateData
void btendscan(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtree.c:460
#define ItemPointerGetOffsetNumberNoCheck(pointer)
Definition: itemptr.h:108
bool _bt_page_recyclable(Page page)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1081
struct BTMetaPageData BTMetaPageData
IndexTuple base
Definition: nbtree.h:746
uint16 ndeletedtids
Definition: nbtree.h:782
uint32 _bt_pagedel(Relation rel, Buffer leafbuf, TransactionId *oldestBtpoXact)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1548
bool _bt_first(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:848
bool _bt_advance_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir)
Definition: nbtutils.c:544
BlockNumber btpo_next
Definition: nbtree.h:59
struct BTOptions BTOptions
void _bt_update_meta_cleanup_info(Relation rel, TransactionId oldestBtpoXact, float8 numHeapTuples)
Definition: nbtpage.c:174
bool _bt_check_natts(Relation rel, bool heapkeyspace, Page page, OffsetNumber offnum)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2466
void _bt_preprocess_keys(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtutils.c:742
IndexAMProperty
Definition: amapi.h:34
int _bt_getrootheight(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtpage.c:604
BTStack _bt_search(Relation rel, BTScanInsert key, Buffer *bufP, int access, Snapshot snapshot)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:101
static bool BTreeTupleIsPivot(IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtree.h:348
bool moreRight
Definition: nbtree.h:838
bool bounds_valid
Definition: nbtree.h:696
OffsetNumber baseoff
Definition: nbtree.h:747
uint32 TransactionId
Definition: c.h:575
uint32 btm_version
Definition: nbtree.h:101
static ItemPointer BTreeTupleGetHeapTID(IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtree.h:506
void _bt_pageinit(Page page, Size size)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1066
int mark_elem
Definition: nbtree.h:899
ItemPointer scantid
Definition: nbtree.h:664
bool _bt_checkkeys(IndexScanDesc scan, IndexTuple tuple, int tupnatts, ScanDirection dir, bool *continuescan)
Definition: nbtutils.c:1355
MemoryContext arrayContext
Definition: nbtree.h:918
void _bt_checkpage(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:726
static ItemPointer BTreeTupleGetPosting(IndexTuple posting)
Definition: nbtree.h:405
int itemIndex
Definition: nbtree.h:855
char * currTuples
Definition: nbtree.h:929
OffsetNumber updatedoffset
Definition: nbtree.h:779
uint32 btm_magic
Definition: nbtree.h:100
ItemPointerData t_tid
Definition: itup.h:37
IndexTuple itup
Definition: nbtree.h:778
union BTPageOpaqueData::@45 btpo
bool deduplicate_items
Definition: nbtree.h:965
static BlockNumber BTreeTupleGetDownLink(IndexTuple pivot)
Definition: nbtree.h:424
BlockNumber currPage
Definition: nbtree.h:828
#define FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER
Definition: c.h:338
Buffer _bt_getstackbuf(Relation rel, BTStack stack, BlockNumber child)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2273
IndexBulkDeleteResult * btbulkdelete(IndexVacuumInfo *info, IndexBulkDeleteResult *stats, IndexBulkDeleteCallback callback, void *callback_state)
Definition: nbtree.c:875
#define INDEX_SIZE_MASK
Definition: itup.h:65
#define BT_IS_POSTING
Definition: nbtree.h:341
OffsetNumber stricthigh
Definition: nbtree.h:698
bool allequalimage
Definition: nbtree.h:660
int32 varlena_header_
Definition: nbtree.h:961
BTStackData * BTStack
Definition: nbtree.h:607
struct BTDedupInterval BTDedupInterval
BTVacuumPostingData * BTVacuumPosting
Definition: nbtree.h:786
OffsetNumber indexOffset
Definition: nbtree.h:819
Buffer _bt_getbuf(Relation rel, BlockNumber blkno, int access)
Definition: nbtpage.c:803
uint32 BlockNumber
Definition: block.h:31
void _bt_check_third_page(Relation rel, Relation heap, bool needheaptidspace, Page page, IndexTuple newtup)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2634
void btinitparallelscan(void *target)
Definition: nbtree.c:591
void _bt_end_vacuum_callback(int code, Datum arg)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2054
OffsetNumber low
Definition: nbtree.h:697
#define MaxTIDsPerBTreePage
Definition: nbtree.h:179
IndexTuple _bt_swap_posting(IndexTuple newitem, IndexTuple oposting, int postingoff)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:730
unsigned int Oid
Definition: postgres_ext.h:31
Datum * elem_values
Definition: nbtree.h:901
#define BT_OFFSET_MASK
Definition: nbtree.h:337
void _bt_delitems_vacuum(Relation rel, Buffer buf, OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable, BTVacuumPosting *updatable, int nupdatable)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1124
bool moreLeft
Definition: nbtree.h:837
TransactionId xact
Definition: nbtree.h:63
void btrescan(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanKey scankey, int nscankeys, ScanKey orderbys, int norderbys)
Definition: nbtree.c:400
BTPageOpaqueData * BTPageOpaque
Definition: nbtree.h:69
IndexTuple _bt_truncate(Relation rel, IndexTuple lastleft, IndexTuple firstright, BTScanInsert itup_key)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2200
struct BTScanPosData BTScanPosData
char * btbuildphasename(int64 phasenum)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2152
signed int int32
Definition: c.h:417
uint16 OffsetNumber
Definition: off.h:24
IndexBuildResult * btbuild(Relation heap, Relation index, struct IndexInfo *indexInfo)
Definition: nbtsort.c:299
int fillfactor
Definition: nbtree.h:962
Definition: type.h:89
void _bt_update_posting(BTVacuumPosting vacposting)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:632
void _bt_parallel_done(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtree.c:728
IndexUniqueCheck
Definition: genam.h:112
static void BTreeTupleSetNAtts(IndexTuple itup, uint16 nkeyatts, bool heaptid)
Definition: nbtree.h:463
bool _bt_doinsert(Relation rel, IndexTuple itup, IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, Relation heapRel)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:85
void btadjustmembers(Oid opfamilyoid, Oid opclassoid, List *operators, List *functions)
Definition: nbtvalidate.c:293
int nextTupleOffset
Definition: nbtree.h:844
ItemPointer htids
Definition: nbtree.h:751
int lastItem
Definition: nbtree.h:854
struct BTPageOpaqueData BTPageOpaqueData
bool btcanreturn(Relation index, int attno)
Definition: nbtree.c:1509
BlockNumber btm_fastroot
Definition: nbtree.h:104
void _bt_mark_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtutils.c:603
float8 vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor
Definition: nbtree.h:964
unsigned short uint16
Definition: c.h:428
BTScanPosData markPos
Definition: nbtree.h:943
Size phystupsize
Definition: nbtree.h:754
double float8
Definition: c.h:553
uint16 BTCycleId
Definition: nbtree.h:28
#define INDEX_ALT_TID_MASK
Definition: nbtree.h:334
void _bt_upgradelockbufcleanup(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1046
void _bt_parallel_advance_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtree.c:769
int32 _bt_compare(Relation rel, BTScanInsert key, Page page, OffsetNumber offnum)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:644
void _bt_initmetapage(Page page, BlockNumber rootbknum, uint32 level, bool allequalimage)
Definition: nbtpage.c:61
BTScanOpaqueData * BTScanOpaque
Definition: nbtree.h:946
struct BTArrayKeyInfo BTArrayKeyInfo
void _bt_metaversion(Relation rel, bool *heapkeyspace, bool *allequalimage)
Definition: nbtpage.c:668
BTCycleId btpo_cycleid
Definition: nbtree.h:66
static void callback(struct sockaddr *addr, struct sockaddr *mask, void *unused)
Definition: test_ifaddrs.c:48
struct BTScanPosItem BTScanPosItem
int cur_elem
Definition: nbtree.h:898
void _bt_delitems_delete(Relation rel, Buffer buf, OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable, Relation heapRel)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1282
static void BTreeTupleSetPosting(IndexTuple itup, uint16 nhtids, int postingoffset)
Definition: nbtree.h:372
int numArrayKeys
Definition: nbtree.h:913
void _bt_parallel_build_main(dsm_segment *seg, shm_toc *toc)
Definition: nbtsort.c:1796
bool btm_allequalimage
Definition: nbtree.h:111
BlockNumber btpo_prev
Definition: nbtree.h:58
struct BTScanInsertData BTScanInsertData
OffsetNumber bts_offset
Definition: nbtree.h:603
static char * buf
Definition: pg_test_fsync.c:68
bool btvalidate(Oid opclassoid)
Definition: nbtvalidate.c:41
Buffer _bt_moveright(Relation rel, BTScanInsert key, Buffer buf, bool forupdate, BTStack stack, int access, Snapshot snapshot)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:241
IndexScanDesc btbeginscan(Relation rel, int nkeys, int norderbys)
Definition: nbtree.c:354
int arrayKeyCount
Definition: nbtree.h:915
ScanDirection
Definition: sdir.h:22
void _bt_unlockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1006
void BTreeShmemInit(void)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2076
char * markTuples
Definition: nbtree.h:930
void btrestrpos(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtree.c:526
unsigned int uint32
Definition: c.h:429
int firstItem
Definition: nbtree.h:853
IndexTuple itup
Definition: nbtree.h:684
BTCycleId _bt_vacuum_cycleid(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtutils.c:1935
Size btestimateparallelscan(void)
Definition: nbtree.c:582
static void BTreeTupleSetDownLink(IndexTuple pivot, BlockNumber blkno)
Definition: nbtree.h:430
void _bt_end_vacuum(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2026
void _bt_freestack(BTStack stack)
Definition: nbtutils.c:175
ScanKey arrayKeyData
Definition: nbtree.h:912
void _bt_upgrademetapage(Page page)
Definition: nbtpage.c:101
bool pivotsearch
Definition: nbtree.h:663
void _bt_parallel_release(IndexScanDesc scan, BlockNumber scan_page)
Definition: nbtree.c:705
BTScanPosData * BTScanPos
Definition: nbtree.h:860
uint32 btm_fastlevel
Definition: nbtree.h:105
static ItemPointer BTreeTupleGetMaxHeapTID(IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtree.h:532
bool anynullkeys
Definition: nbtree.h:661
uint32 level
Definition: nbtree.h:62
bool _bt_next(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:1454
IndexBulkDeleteResult * btvacuumcleanup(IndexVacuumInfo *info, IndexBulkDeleteResult *stats)
Definition: nbtree.c:905
bool _bt_conditionallockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1029
void _bt_dedup_pass(Relation rel, Buffer buf, Relation heapRel, IndexTuple newitem, Size newitemsz, bool checkingunique)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:52
uintptr_t Datum
Definition: postgres.h:367
int num_elems
Definition: nbtree.h:900
uint16 LocationIndex
Definition: bufpage.h:87
BlockNumber btm_root
Definition: nbtree.h:102
Size _bt_dedup_finish_pending(Page newpage, BTDedupState state)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:402
bool _bt_dedup_save_htid(BTDedupState state, IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:331
int _bt_keep_natts_fast(Relation rel, IndexTuple lastleft, IndexTuple firstright)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2419
bool btproperty(Oid index_oid, int attno, IndexAMProperty prop, const char *propname, bool *res, bool *isnull)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2129
BlockNumber bts_blkno
Definition: nbtree.h:602
void _bt_relbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:959
int markItemIndex
Definition: nbtree.h:939
static ItemPointer BTreeTupleGetPostingN(IndexTuple posting, int n)
Definition: nbtree.h:412
OffsetNumber _bt_binsrch_insert(Relation rel, BTInsertState insertstate)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:447
static bool BTreeTupleIsPosting(IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtree.h:360
static uint32 BTreeTupleGetPostingOffset(IndexTuple posting)
Definition: nbtree.h:397
uint16 nitems
Definition: nbtree.h:717
void _bt_killitems(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtutils.c:1718
int * killedItems
Definition: nbtree.h:921
uint64 XLogRecPtr
Definition: xlogdefs.h:21
BTScanInsert itup_key
Definition: nbtree.h:686
#define Assert(condition)
Definition: c.h:800
IndexTuple _bt_form_posting(IndexTuple base, ItemPointer htids, int nhtids)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:572
void _bt_dedup_start_pending(BTDedupState state, IndexTuple base, OffsetNumber baseoff)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:280
Definition: regguts.h:298
void _bt_restore_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtutils.c:622
bool _bt_allequalimage(Relation rel, bool debugmessage)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2692
Buffer _bt_getroot(Relation rel, int access)
Definition: nbtpage.c:272
void _bt_finish_split(Relation rel, Buffer lbuf, BTStack stack)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2196
#define BT_STATUS_OFFSET_MASK
Definition: nbtree.h:338
Buffer _bt_relandgetbuf(Relation rel, Buffer obuf, BlockNumber blkno, int access)
Definition: nbtpage.c:939
bool heapkeyspace
Definition: nbtree.h:659
struct ItemPointerData ItemPointerData
#define INDEX_MAX_KEYS
size_t Size
Definition: c.h:528
void _bt_lockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf, int access)
Definition: nbtpage.c:975
float8 btm_last_cleanup_num_heap_tuples
Definition: nbtree.h:109
int numberOfKeys
Definition: nbtree.h:908
static const struct fns functions
Definition: regcomp.c:298
#define MAXALIGN(LEN)
Definition: c.h:753
struct BTStackData * bts_parent
Definition: nbtree.h:604
Size basetupsize
Definition: nbtree.h:748
#define ItemPointerSetBlockNumber(pointer, blockNumber)
Definition: itemptr.h:138
Size maxpostingsize
Definition: nbtree.h:743
ItemPointerData heapTid
Definition: nbtree.h:818
OffsetNumber _bt_findsplitloc(Relation rel, Page origpage, OffsetNumber newitemoff, Size newitemsz, IndexTuple newitem, bool *newitemonleft)
Definition: nbtsplitloc.c:130
#define ItemPointerSetOffsetNumber(pointer, offsetNumber)
Definition: itemptr.h:148
BlockNumber nextPage
Definition: nbtree.h:829
static Datum values[MAXATTR]
Definition: bootstrap.c:165
struct BTVacuumPostingData BTVacuumPostingData
int64 btgetbitmap(IndexScanDesc scan, TIDBitmap *tbm)
Definition: nbtree.c:296
BTScanPosData currPos
Definition: nbtree.h:942
bool btgettuple(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir)
Definition: nbtree.c:222
#define MaxIndexTuplesPerPage
Definition: itup.h:145
ScanKey keyData
Definition: nbtree.h:909
void btmarkpos(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtree.c:496
bool deduplicate
Definition: nbtree.h:741
#define ItemPointerGetBlockNumberNoCheck(pointer)
Definition: itemptr.h:89
uint32 btm_level
Definition: nbtree.h:103
Buffer _bt_get_endpoint(Relation rel, uint32 level, bool rightmost, Snapshot snapshot)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:2295
BTArrayKeyInfo * arrayKeys
Definition: nbtree.h:917
void _bt_start_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan, ScanDirection dir)
Definition: nbtutils.c:518
BTScanInsert _bt_mkscankey(Relation rel, IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtutils.c:90
static BlockNumber BTreeTupleGetTopParent(IndexTuple leafhikey)
Definition: nbtree.h:488
void * arg
static uint16 BTreeTupleGetNPosting(IndexTuple posting)
Definition: nbtree.h:386
Size BTreeShmemSize(void)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2063
Definition: c.h:617
struct BTDedupStateData BTDedupStateData
TransactionId btm_oldest_btpo_xact
Definition: nbtree.h:107
XLogRecPtr lsn
Definition: nbtree.h:827
Buffer buf
Definition: nbtree.h:825
unsigned short t_info
Definition: itup.h:49
BTDedupStateData * BTDedupState
Definition: nbtree.h:766
bool btinsert(Relation rel, Datum *values, bool *isnull, ItemPointer ht_ctid, Relation heapRel, IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, struct IndexInfo *indexInfo)
Definition: nbtree.c:199
#define BT_PIVOT_HEAP_TID_ATTR
Definition: nbtree.h:340
bool _bt_parallel_seize(IndexScanDesc scan, BlockNumber *pageno)
Definition: nbtree.c:647
BTScanInsertData * BTScanInsert
Definition: nbtree.h:669
OffsetNumber baseoff
Definition: nbtree.h:716
LocationIndex tupleOffset
Definition: nbtree.h:820
uint16 btpo_flags
Definition: nbtree.h:65
Definition: pg_list.h:50
bytea * btoptions(Datum reloptions, bool validate)
Definition: nbtutils.c:2104
int Buffer
Definition: buf.h:23
struct BTStackData BTStackData
int scan_key
Definition: nbtree.h:897
void btbuildempty(Relation index)
Definition: nbtree.c:163
static void BTreeTupleSetTopParent(IndexTuple leafhikey, BlockNumber blkno)
Definition: nbtree.h:494
struct BTScanOpaqueData BTScanOpaqueData
void _bt_preprocess_array_keys(IndexScanDesc scan)
Definition: nbtutils.c:203
Pointer Page
Definition: bufpage.h:78
#define IndexTupleSize(itup)
Definition: itup.h:71
bool(* IndexBulkDeleteCallback)(ItemPointer itemptr, void *state)
Definition: genam.h:84
Buffer _bt_gettrueroot(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtpage.c:508