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nbtinsert.c
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * nbtinsert.c
4  * Item insertion in Lehman and Yao btrees for Postgres.
5  *
6  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2024, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
8  *
9  *
10  * IDENTIFICATION
11  * src/backend/access/nbtree/nbtinsert.c
12  *
13  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
14  */
15 
16 #include "postgres.h"
17 
18 #include "access/nbtree.h"
19 #include "access/nbtxlog.h"
20 #include "access/transam.h"
21 #include "access/xloginsert.h"
22 #include "common/int.h"
23 #include "common/pg_prng.h"
24 #include "lib/qunique.h"
25 #include "miscadmin.h"
26 #include "storage/lmgr.h"
27 #include "storage/predicate.h"
28 
29 /* Minimum tree height for application of fastpath optimization */
30 #define BTREE_FASTPATH_MIN_LEVEL 2
31 
32 
33 static BTStack _bt_search_insert(Relation rel, Relation heaprel,
34  BTInsertState insertstate);
36  Relation heapRel,
37  IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, bool *is_unique,
38  uint32 *speculativeToken);
40  BTInsertState insertstate,
41  bool checkingunique,
42  bool indexUnchanged,
43  BTStack stack,
44  Relation heapRel);
45 static void _bt_stepright(Relation rel, Relation heaprel,
46  BTInsertState insertstate, BTStack stack);
47 static void _bt_insertonpg(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTScanInsert itup_key,
48  Buffer buf,
49  Buffer cbuf,
50  BTStack stack,
51  IndexTuple itup,
52  Size itemsz,
53  OffsetNumber newitemoff,
54  int postingoff,
55  bool split_only_page);
56 static Buffer _bt_split(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTScanInsert itup_key,
57  Buffer buf, Buffer cbuf, OffsetNumber newitemoff,
58  Size newitemsz, IndexTuple newitem, IndexTuple orignewitem,
59  IndexTuple nposting, uint16 postingoff);
60 static void _bt_insert_parent(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, Buffer buf,
61  Buffer rbuf, BTStack stack, bool isroot, bool isonly);
62 static Buffer _bt_newlevel(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, Buffer lbuf, Buffer rbuf);
63 static inline bool _bt_pgaddtup(Page page, Size itemsize, IndexTuple itup,
64  OffsetNumber itup_off, bool newfirstdataitem);
65 static void _bt_delete_or_dedup_one_page(Relation rel, Relation heapRel,
66  BTInsertState insertstate,
67  bool simpleonly, bool checkingunique,
68  bool uniquedup, bool indexUnchanged);
69 static void _bt_simpledel_pass(Relation rel, Buffer buffer, Relation heapRel,
70  OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable,
71  IndexTuple newitem, OffsetNumber minoff,
72  OffsetNumber maxoff);
73 static BlockNumber *_bt_deadblocks(Page page, OffsetNumber *deletable,
74  int ndeletable, IndexTuple newitem,
75  int *nblocks);
76 static inline int _bt_blk_cmp(const void *arg1, const void *arg2);
77 
78 /*
79  * _bt_doinsert() -- Handle insertion of a single index tuple in the tree.
80  *
81  * This routine is called by the public interface routine, btinsert.
82  * By here, itup is filled in, including the TID.
83  *
84  * If checkUnique is UNIQUE_CHECK_NO or UNIQUE_CHECK_PARTIAL, this
85  * will allow duplicates. Otherwise (UNIQUE_CHECK_YES or
86  * UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING) it will throw error for a duplicate.
87  * For UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING we merely run the duplicate check, and
88  * don't actually insert.
89  *
90  * indexUnchanged executor hint indicates if itup is from an
91  * UPDATE that didn't logically change the indexed value, but
92  * must nevertheless have a new entry to point to a successor
93  * version.
94  *
95  * The result value is only significant for UNIQUE_CHECK_PARTIAL:
96  * it must be true if the entry is known unique, else false.
97  * (In the current implementation we'll also return true after a
98  * successful UNIQUE_CHECK_YES or UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING call, but
99  * that's just a coding artifact.)
100  */
101 bool
103  IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, bool indexUnchanged,
104  Relation heapRel)
105 {
106  bool is_unique = false;
107  BTInsertStateData insertstate;
108  BTScanInsert itup_key;
109  BTStack stack;
110  bool checkingunique = (checkUnique != UNIQUE_CHECK_NO);
111 
112  /* we need an insertion scan key to do our search, so build one */
113  itup_key = _bt_mkscankey(rel, itup);
114 
115  if (checkingunique)
116  {
117  if (!itup_key->anynullkeys)
118  {
119  /* No (heapkeyspace) scantid until uniqueness established */
120  itup_key->scantid = NULL;
121  }
122  else
123  {
124  /*
125  * Scan key for new tuple contains NULL key values. Bypass
126  * checkingunique steps. They are unnecessary because core code
127  * considers NULL unequal to every value, including NULL.
128  *
129  * This optimization avoids O(N^2) behavior within the
130  * _bt_findinsertloc() heapkeyspace path when a unique index has a
131  * large number of "duplicates" with NULL key values.
132  */
133  checkingunique = false;
134  /* Tuple is unique in the sense that core code cares about */
135  Assert(checkUnique != UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING);
136  is_unique = true;
137  }
138  }
139 
140  /*
141  * Fill in the BTInsertState working area, to track the current page and
142  * position within the page to insert on.
143  *
144  * Note that itemsz is passed down to lower level code that deals with
145  * inserting the item. It must be MAXALIGN()'d. This ensures that space
146  * accounting code consistently considers the alignment overhead that we
147  * expect PageAddItem() will add later. (Actually, index_form_tuple() is
148  * already conservative about alignment, but we don't rely on that from
149  * this distance. Besides, preserving the "true" tuple size in index
150  * tuple headers for the benefit of nbtsplitloc.c might happen someday.
151  * Note that heapam does not MAXALIGN() each heap tuple's lp_len field.)
152  */
153  insertstate.itup = itup;
154  insertstate.itemsz = MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(itup));
155  insertstate.itup_key = itup_key;
156  insertstate.bounds_valid = false;
157  insertstate.buf = InvalidBuffer;
158  insertstate.postingoff = 0;
159 
160 search:
161 
162  /*
163  * Find and lock the leaf page that the tuple should be added to by
164  * searching from the root page. insertstate.buf will hold a buffer that
165  * is locked in exclusive mode afterwards.
166  */
167  stack = _bt_search_insert(rel, heapRel, &insertstate);
168 
169  /*
170  * checkingunique inserts are not allowed to go ahead when two tuples with
171  * equal key attribute values would be visible to new MVCC snapshots once
172  * the xact commits. Check for conflicts in the locked page/buffer (if
173  * needed) here.
174  *
175  * It might be necessary to check a page to the right in _bt_check_unique,
176  * though that should be very rare. In practice the first page the value
177  * could be on (with scantid omitted) is almost always also the only page
178  * that a matching tuple might be found on. This is due to the behavior
179  * of _bt_findsplitloc with duplicate tuples -- a group of duplicates can
180  * only be allowed to cross a page boundary when there is no candidate
181  * leaf page split point that avoids it. Also, _bt_check_unique can use
182  * the leaf page high key to determine that there will be no duplicates on
183  * the right sibling without actually visiting it (it uses the high key in
184  * cases where the new item happens to belong at the far right of the leaf
185  * page).
186  *
187  * NOTE: obviously, _bt_check_unique can only detect keys that are already
188  * in the index; so it cannot defend against concurrent insertions of the
189  * same key. We protect against that by means of holding a write lock on
190  * the first page the value could be on, with omitted/-inf value for the
191  * implicit heap TID tiebreaker attribute. Any other would-be inserter of
192  * the same key must acquire a write lock on the same page, so only one
193  * would-be inserter can be making the check at one time. Furthermore,
194  * once we are past the check we hold write locks continuously until we
195  * have performed our insertion, so no later inserter can fail to see our
196  * insertion. (This requires some care in _bt_findinsertloc.)
197  *
198  * If we must wait for another xact, we release the lock while waiting,
199  * and then must perform a new search.
200  *
201  * For a partial uniqueness check, we don't wait for the other xact. Just
202  * let the tuple in and return false for possibly non-unique, or true for
203  * definitely unique.
204  */
205  if (checkingunique)
206  {
207  TransactionId xwait;
208  uint32 speculativeToken;
209 
210  xwait = _bt_check_unique(rel, &insertstate, heapRel, checkUnique,
211  &is_unique, &speculativeToken);
212 
213  if (unlikely(TransactionIdIsValid(xwait)))
214  {
215  /* Have to wait for the other guy ... */
216  _bt_relbuf(rel, insertstate.buf);
217  insertstate.buf = InvalidBuffer;
218 
219  /*
220  * If it's a speculative insertion, wait for it to finish (ie. to
221  * go ahead with the insertion, or kill the tuple). Otherwise
222  * wait for the transaction to finish as usual.
223  */
224  if (speculativeToken)
225  SpeculativeInsertionWait(xwait, speculativeToken);
226  else
227  XactLockTableWait(xwait, rel, &itup->t_tid, XLTW_InsertIndex);
228 
229  /* start over... */
230  if (stack)
231  _bt_freestack(stack);
232  goto search;
233  }
234 
235  /* Uniqueness is established -- restore heap tid as scantid */
236  if (itup_key->heapkeyspace)
237  itup_key->scantid = &itup->t_tid;
238  }
239 
240  if (checkUnique != UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING)
241  {
242  OffsetNumber newitemoff;
243 
244  /*
245  * The only conflict predicate locking cares about for indexes is when
246  * an index tuple insert conflicts with an existing lock. We don't
247  * know the actual page we're going to insert on for sure just yet in
248  * checkingunique and !heapkeyspace cases, but it's okay to use the
249  * first page the value could be on (with scantid omitted) instead.
250  */
252 
253  /*
254  * Do the insertion. Note that insertstate contains cached binary
255  * search bounds established within _bt_check_unique when insertion is
256  * checkingunique.
257  */
258  newitemoff = _bt_findinsertloc(rel, &insertstate, checkingunique,
259  indexUnchanged, stack, heapRel);
260  _bt_insertonpg(rel, heapRel, itup_key, insertstate.buf, InvalidBuffer,
261  stack, itup, insertstate.itemsz, newitemoff,
262  insertstate.postingoff, false);
263  }
264  else
265  {
266  /* just release the buffer */
267  _bt_relbuf(rel, insertstate.buf);
268  }
269 
270  /* be tidy */
271  if (stack)
272  _bt_freestack(stack);
273  pfree(itup_key);
274 
275  return is_unique;
276 }
277 
278 /*
279  * _bt_search_insert() -- _bt_search() wrapper for inserts
280  *
281  * Search the tree for a particular scankey, or more precisely for the first
282  * leaf page it could be on. Try to make use of the fastpath optimization's
283  * rightmost leaf page cache before actually searching the tree from the root
284  * page, though.
285  *
286  * Return value is a stack of parent-page pointers (though see notes about
287  * fastpath optimization and page splits below). insertstate->buf is set to
288  * the address of the leaf-page buffer, which is write-locked and pinned in
289  * all cases (if necessary by creating a new empty root page for caller).
290  *
291  * The fastpath optimization avoids most of the work of searching the tree
292  * repeatedly when a single backend inserts successive new tuples on the
293  * rightmost leaf page of an index. A backend cache of the rightmost leaf
294  * page is maintained within _bt_insertonpg(), and used here. The cache is
295  * invalidated here when an insert of a non-pivot tuple must take place on a
296  * non-rightmost leaf page.
297  *
298  * The optimization helps with indexes on an auto-incremented field. It also
299  * helps with indexes on datetime columns, as well as indexes with lots of
300  * NULL values. (NULLs usually get inserted in the rightmost page for single
301  * column indexes, since they usually get treated as coming after everything
302  * else in the key space. Individual NULL tuples will generally be placed on
303  * the rightmost leaf page due to the influence of the heap TID column.)
304  *
305  * Note that we avoid applying the optimization when there is insufficient
306  * space on the rightmost page to fit caller's new item. This is necessary
307  * because we'll need to return a real descent stack when a page split is
308  * expected (actually, caller can cope with a leaf page split that uses a NULL
309  * stack, but that's very slow and so must be avoided). Note also that the
310  * fastpath optimization acquires the lock on the page conditionally as a way
311  * of reducing extra contention when there are concurrent insertions into the
312  * rightmost page (we give up if we'd have to wait for the lock). We assume
313  * that it isn't useful to apply the optimization when there is contention,
314  * since each per-backend cache won't stay valid for long.
315  */
316 static BTStack
318 {
319  Assert(insertstate->buf == InvalidBuffer);
320  Assert(!insertstate->bounds_valid);
321  Assert(insertstate->postingoff == 0);
322 
324  {
325  /* Simulate a _bt_getbuf() call with conditional locking */
326  insertstate->buf = ReadBuffer(rel, RelationGetTargetBlock(rel));
327  if (_bt_conditionallockbuf(rel, insertstate->buf))
328  {
329  Page page;
330  BTPageOpaque opaque;
331 
332  _bt_checkpage(rel, insertstate->buf);
333  page = BufferGetPage(insertstate->buf);
334  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
335 
336  /*
337  * Check if the page is still the rightmost leaf page and has
338  * enough free space to accommodate the new tuple. Also check
339  * that the insertion scan key is strictly greater than the first
340  * non-pivot tuple on the page. (Note that we expect itup_key's
341  * scantid to be unset when our caller is a checkingunique
342  * inserter.)
343  */
344  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque) &&
345  P_ISLEAF(opaque) &&
346  !P_IGNORE(opaque) &&
347  PageGetFreeSpace(page) > insertstate->itemsz &&
348  PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page) >= P_HIKEY &&
349  _bt_compare(rel, insertstate->itup_key, page, P_HIKEY) > 0)
350  {
351  /*
352  * Caller can use the fastpath optimization because cached
353  * block is still rightmost leaf page, which can fit caller's
354  * new tuple without splitting. Keep block in local cache for
355  * next insert, and have caller use NULL stack.
356  *
357  * Note that _bt_insert_parent() has an assertion that catches
358  * leaf page splits that somehow follow from a fastpath insert
359  * (it should only be passed a NULL stack when it must deal
360  * with a concurrent root page split, and never because a NULL
361  * stack was returned here).
362  */
363  return NULL;
364  }
365 
366  /* Page unsuitable for caller, drop lock and pin */
367  _bt_relbuf(rel, insertstate->buf);
368  }
369  else
370  {
371  /* Lock unavailable, drop pin */
372  ReleaseBuffer(insertstate->buf);
373  }
374 
375  /* Forget block, since cache doesn't appear to be useful */
377  }
378 
379  /* Cannot use optimization -- descend tree, return proper descent stack */
380  return _bt_search(rel, heaprel, insertstate->itup_key, &insertstate->buf,
381  BT_WRITE);
382 }
383 
384 /*
385  * _bt_check_unique() -- Check for violation of unique index constraint
386  *
387  * Returns InvalidTransactionId if there is no conflict, else an xact ID
388  * we must wait for to see if it commits a conflicting tuple. If an actual
389  * conflict is detected, no return --- just ereport(). If an xact ID is
390  * returned, and the conflicting tuple still has a speculative insertion in
391  * progress, *speculativeToken is set to non-zero, and the caller can wait for
392  * the verdict on the insertion using SpeculativeInsertionWait().
393  *
394  * However, if checkUnique == UNIQUE_CHECK_PARTIAL, we always return
395  * InvalidTransactionId because we don't want to wait. In this case we
396  * set *is_unique to false if there is a potential conflict, and the
397  * core code must redo the uniqueness check later.
398  *
399  * As a side-effect, sets state in insertstate that can later be used by
400  * _bt_findinsertloc() to reuse most of the binary search work we do
401  * here.
402  *
403  * This code treats NULLs as equal, unlike the default semantics for unique
404  * indexes. So do not call here when there are NULL values in scan key and
405  * the index uses the default NULLS DISTINCT mode.
406  */
407 static TransactionId
409  IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, bool *is_unique,
410  uint32 *speculativeToken)
411 {
412  IndexTuple itup = insertstate->itup;
413  IndexTuple curitup = NULL;
414  ItemId curitemid = NULL;
415  BTScanInsert itup_key = insertstate->itup_key;
416  SnapshotData SnapshotDirty;
417  OffsetNumber offset;
418  OffsetNumber maxoff;
419  Page page;
420  BTPageOpaque opaque;
421  Buffer nbuf = InvalidBuffer;
422  bool found = false;
423  bool inposting = false;
424  bool prevalldead = true;
425  int curposti = 0;
426 
427  /* Assume unique until we find a duplicate */
428  *is_unique = true;
429 
430  InitDirtySnapshot(SnapshotDirty);
431 
432  page = BufferGetPage(insertstate->buf);
433  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
434  maxoff = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page);
435 
436  /*
437  * Find the first tuple with the same key.
438  *
439  * This also saves the binary search bounds in insertstate. We use them
440  * in the fastpath below, but also in the _bt_findinsertloc() call later.
441  */
442  Assert(!insertstate->bounds_valid);
443  offset = _bt_binsrch_insert(rel, insertstate);
444 
445  /*
446  * Scan over all equal tuples, looking for live conflicts.
447  */
448  Assert(!insertstate->bounds_valid || insertstate->low == offset);
449  Assert(!itup_key->anynullkeys);
450  Assert(itup_key->scantid == NULL);
451  for (;;)
452  {
453  /*
454  * Each iteration of the loop processes one heap TID, not one index
455  * tuple. Current offset number for page isn't usually advanced on
456  * iterations that process heap TIDs from posting list tuples.
457  *
458  * "inposting" state is set when _inside_ a posting list --- not when
459  * we're at the start (or end) of a posting list. We advance curposti
460  * at the end of the iteration when inside a posting list tuple. In
461  * general, every loop iteration either advances the page offset or
462  * advances curposti --- an iteration that handles the rightmost/max
463  * heap TID in a posting list finally advances the page offset (and
464  * unsets "inposting").
465  *
466  * Make sure the offset points to an actual index tuple before trying
467  * to examine it...
468  */
469  if (offset <= maxoff)
470  {
471  /*
472  * Fastpath: In most cases, we can use cached search bounds to
473  * limit our consideration to items that are definitely
474  * duplicates. This fastpath doesn't apply when the original page
475  * is empty, or when initial offset is past the end of the
476  * original page, which may indicate that we need to examine a
477  * second or subsequent page.
478  *
479  * Note that this optimization allows us to avoid calling
480  * _bt_compare() directly when there are no duplicates, as long as
481  * the offset where the key will go is not at the end of the page.
482  */
483  if (nbuf == InvalidBuffer && offset == insertstate->stricthigh)
484  {
485  Assert(insertstate->bounds_valid);
486  Assert(insertstate->low >= P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque));
487  Assert(insertstate->low <= insertstate->stricthigh);
488  Assert(_bt_compare(rel, itup_key, page, offset) < 0);
489  break;
490  }
491 
492  /*
493  * We can skip items that are already marked killed.
494  *
495  * In the presence of heavy update activity an index may contain
496  * many killed items with the same key; running _bt_compare() on
497  * each killed item gets expensive. Just advance over killed
498  * items as quickly as we can. We only apply _bt_compare() when
499  * we get to a non-killed item. We could reuse the bounds to
500  * avoid _bt_compare() calls for known equal tuples, but it
501  * doesn't seem worth it.
502  */
503  if (!inposting)
504  curitemid = PageGetItemId(page, offset);
505  if (inposting || !ItemIdIsDead(curitemid))
506  {
507  ItemPointerData htid;
508  bool all_dead = false;
509 
510  if (!inposting)
511  {
512  /* Plain tuple, or first TID in posting list tuple */
513  if (_bt_compare(rel, itup_key, page, offset) != 0)
514  break; /* we're past all the equal tuples */
515 
516  /* Advanced curitup */
517  curitup = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page, curitemid);
518  Assert(!BTreeTupleIsPivot(curitup));
519  }
520 
521  /* okay, we gotta fetch the heap tuple using htid ... */
522  if (!BTreeTupleIsPosting(curitup))
523  {
524  /* ... htid is from simple non-pivot tuple */
525  Assert(!inposting);
526  htid = curitup->t_tid;
527  }
528  else if (!inposting)
529  {
530  /* ... htid is first TID in new posting list */
531  inposting = true;
532  prevalldead = true;
533  curposti = 0;
534  htid = *BTreeTupleGetPostingN(curitup, 0);
535  }
536  else
537  {
538  /* ... htid is second or subsequent TID in posting list */
539  Assert(curposti > 0);
540  htid = *BTreeTupleGetPostingN(curitup, curposti);
541  }
542 
543  /*
544  * If we are doing a recheck, we expect to find the tuple we
545  * are rechecking. It's not a duplicate, but we have to keep
546  * scanning.
547  */
548  if (checkUnique == UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING &&
549  ItemPointerCompare(&htid, &itup->t_tid) == 0)
550  {
551  found = true;
552  }
553 
554  /*
555  * Check if there's any table tuples for this index entry
556  * satisfying SnapshotDirty. This is necessary because for AMs
557  * with optimizations like heap's HOT, we have just a single
558  * index entry for the entire chain.
559  */
560  else if (table_index_fetch_tuple_check(heapRel, &htid,
561  &SnapshotDirty,
562  &all_dead))
563  {
564  TransactionId xwait;
565 
566  /*
567  * It is a duplicate. If we are only doing a partial
568  * check, then don't bother checking if the tuple is being
569  * updated in another transaction. Just return the fact
570  * that it is a potential conflict and leave the full
571  * check till later. Don't invalidate binary search
572  * bounds.
573  */
574  if (checkUnique == UNIQUE_CHECK_PARTIAL)
575  {
576  if (nbuf != InvalidBuffer)
577  _bt_relbuf(rel, nbuf);
578  *is_unique = false;
579  return InvalidTransactionId;
580  }
581 
582  /*
583  * If this tuple is being updated by other transaction
584  * then we have to wait for its commit/abort.
585  */
586  xwait = (TransactionIdIsValid(SnapshotDirty.xmin)) ?
587  SnapshotDirty.xmin : SnapshotDirty.xmax;
588 
589  if (TransactionIdIsValid(xwait))
590  {
591  if (nbuf != InvalidBuffer)
592  _bt_relbuf(rel, nbuf);
593  /* Tell _bt_doinsert to wait... */
594  *speculativeToken = SnapshotDirty.speculativeToken;
595  /* Caller releases lock on buf immediately */
596  insertstate->bounds_valid = false;
597  return xwait;
598  }
599 
600  /*
601  * Otherwise we have a definite conflict. But before
602  * complaining, look to see if the tuple we want to insert
603  * is itself now committed dead --- if so, don't complain.
604  * This is a waste of time in normal scenarios but we must
605  * do it to support CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY.
606  *
607  * We must follow HOT-chains here because during
608  * concurrent index build, we insert the root TID though
609  * the actual tuple may be somewhere in the HOT-chain.
610  * While following the chain we might not stop at the
611  * exact tuple which triggered the insert, but that's OK
612  * because if we find a live tuple anywhere in this chain,
613  * we have a unique key conflict. The other live tuple is
614  * not part of this chain because it had a different index
615  * entry.
616  */
617  htid = itup->t_tid;
618  if (table_index_fetch_tuple_check(heapRel, &htid,
619  SnapshotSelf, NULL))
620  {
621  /* Normal case --- it's still live */
622  }
623  else
624  {
625  /*
626  * It's been deleted, so no error, and no need to
627  * continue searching
628  */
629  break;
630  }
631 
632  /*
633  * Check for a conflict-in as we would if we were going to
634  * write to this page. We aren't actually going to write,
635  * but we want a chance to report SSI conflicts that would
636  * otherwise be masked by this unique constraint
637  * violation.
638  */
639  CheckForSerializableConflictIn(rel, NULL, BufferGetBlockNumber(insertstate->buf));
640 
641  /*
642  * This is a definite conflict. Break the tuple down into
643  * datums and report the error. But first, make sure we
644  * release the buffer locks we're holding ---
645  * BuildIndexValueDescription could make catalog accesses,
646  * which in the worst case might touch this same index and
647  * cause deadlocks.
648  */
649  if (nbuf != InvalidBuffer)
650  _bt_relbuf(rel, nbuf);
651  _bt_relbuf(rel, insertstate->buf);
652  insertstate->buf = InvalidBuffer;
653  insertstate->bounds_valid = false;
654 
655  {
657  bool isnull[INDEX_MAX_KEYS];
658  char *key_desc;
659 
661  values, isnull);
662 
663  key_desc = BuildIndexValueDescription(rel, values,
664  isnull);
665 
666  ereport(ERROR,
667  (errcode(ERRCODE_UNIQUE_VIOLATION),
668  errmsg("duplicate key value violates unique constraint \"%s\"",
670  key_desc ? errdetail("Key %s already exists.",
671  key_desc) : 0,
672  errtableconstraint(heapRel,
673  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
674  }
675  }
676  else if (all_dead && (!inposting ||
677  (prevalldead &&
678  curposti == BTreeTupleGetNPosting(curitup) - 1)))
679  {
680  /*
681  * The conflicting tuple (or all HOT chains pointed to by
682  * all posting list TIDs) is dead to everyone, so mark the
683  * index entry killed.
684  */
685  ItemIdMarkDead(curitemid);
686  opaque->btpo_flags |= BTP_HAS_GARBAGE;
687 
688  /*
689  * Mark buffer with a dirty hint, since state is not
690  * crucial. Be sure to mark the proper buffer dirty.
691  */
692  if (nbuf != InvalidBuffer)
693  MarkBufferDirtyHint(nbuf, true);
694  else
695  MarkBufferDirtyHint(insertstate->buf, true);
696  }
697 
698  /*
699  * Remember if posting list tuple has even a single HOT chain
700  * whose members are not all dead
701  */
702  if (!all_dead && inposting)
703  prevalldead = false;
704  }
705  }
706 
707  if (inposting && curposti < BTreeTupleGetNPosting(curitup) - 1)
708  {
709  /* Advance to next TID in same posting list */
710  curposti++;
711  continue;
712  }
713  else if (offset < maxoff)
714  {
715  /* Advance to next tuple */
716  curposti = 0;
717  inposting = false;
718  offset = OffsetNumberNext(offset);
719  }
720  else
721  {
722  int highkeycmp;
723 
724  /* If scankey == hikey we gotta check the next page too */
725  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque))
726  break;
727  highkeycmp = _bt_compare(rel, itup_key, page, P_HIKEY);
728  Assert(highkeycmp <= 0);
729  if (highkeycmp != 0)
730  break;
731  /* Advance to next non-dead page --- there must be one */
732  for (;;)
733  {
734  BlockNumber nblkno = opaque->btpo_next;
735 
736  nbuf = _bt_relandgetbuf(rel, nbuf, nblkno, BT_READ);
737  page = BufferGetPage(nbuf);
738  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
739  if (!P_IGNORE(opaque))
740  break;
741  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque))
742  elog(ERROR, "fell off the end of index \"%s\"",
744  }
745  /* Will also advance to next tuple */
746  curposti = 0;
747  inposting = false;
748  maxoff = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page);
749  offset = P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque);
750  /* Don't invalidate binary search bounds */
751  }
752  }
753 
754  /*
755  * If we are doing a recheck then we should have found the tuple we are
756  * checking. Otherwise there's something very wrong --- probably, the
757  * index is on a non-immutable expression.
758  */
759  if (checkUnique == UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING && !found)
760  ereport(ERROR,
761  (errcode(ERRCODE_INTERNAL_ERROR),
762  errmsg("failed to re-find tuple within index \"%s\"",
764  errhint("This may be because of a non-immutable index expression."),
765  errtableconstraint(heapRel,
766  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
767 
768  if (nbuf != InvalidBuffer)
769  _bt_relbuf(rel, nbuf);
770 
771  return InvalidTransactionId;
772 }
773 
774 
775 /*
776  * _bt_findinsertloc() -- Finds an insert location for a tuple
777  *
778  * On entry, insertstate buffer contains the page the new tuple belongs
779  * on. It is exclusive-locked and pinned by the caller.
780  *
781  * If 'checkingunique' is true, the buffer on entry is the first page
782  * that contains duplicates of the new key. If there are duplicates on
783  * multiple pages, the correct insertion position might be some page to
784  * the right, rather than the first page. In that case, this function
785  * moves right to the correct target page.
786  *
787  * (In a !heapkeyspace index, there can be multiple pages with the same
788  * high key, where the new tuple could legitimately be placed on. In
789  * that case, the caller passes the first page containing duplicates,
790  * just like when checkingunique=true. If that page doesn't have enough
791  * room for the new tuple, this function moves right, trying to find a
792  * legal page that does.)
793  *
794  * If 'indexUnchanged' is true, this is for an UPDATE that didn't
795  * logically change the indexed value, but must nevertheless have a new
796  * entry to point to a successor version. This hint from the executor
797  * will influence our behavior when the page might have to be split and
798  * we must consider our options. Bottom-up index deletion can avoid
799  * pathological version-driven page splits, but we only want to go to the
800  * trouble of trying it when we already have moderate confidence that
801  * it's appropriate. The hint should not significantly affect our
802  * behavior over time unless practically all inserts on to the leaf page
803  * get the hint.
804  *
805  * On exit, insertstate buffer contains the chosen insertion page, and
806  * the offset within that page is returned. If _bt_findinsertloc needed
807  * to move right, the lock and pin on the original page are released, and
808  * the new buffer is exclusively locked and pinned instead.
809  *
810  * If insertstate contains cached binary search bounds, we will take
811  * advantage of them. This avoids repeating comparisons that we made in
812  * _bt_check_unique() already.
813  */
814 static OffsetNumber
816  BTInsertState insertstate,
817  bool checkingunique,
818  bool indexUnchanged,
819  BTStack stack,
820  Relation heapRel)
821 {
822  BTScanInsert itup_key = insertstate->itup_key;
823  Page page = BufferGetPage(insertstate->buf);
824  BTPageOpaque opaque;
825  OffsetNumber newitemoff;
826 
827  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
828 
829  /* Check 1/3 of a page restriction */
830  if (unlikely(insertstate->itemsz > BTMaxItemSize(page)))
831  _bt_check_third_page(rel, heapRel, itup_key->heapkeyspace, page,
832  insertstate->itup);
833 
834  Assert(P_ISLEAF(opaque) && !P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(opaque));
835  Assert(!insertstate->bounds_valid || checkingunique);
836  Assert(!itup_key->heapkeyspace || itup_key->scantid != NULL);
837  Assert(itup_key->heapkeyspace || itup_key->scantid == NULL);
838  Assert(!itup_key->allequalimage || itup_key->heapkeyspace);
839 
840  if (itup_key->heapkeyspace)
841  {
842  /* Keep track of whether checkingunique duplicate seen */
843  bool uniquedup = indexUnchanged;
844 
845  /*
846  * If we're inserting into a unique index, we may have to walk right
847  * through leaf pages to find the one leaf page that we must insert on
848  * to.
849  *
850  * This is needed for checkingunique callers because a scantid was not
851  * used when we called _bt_search(). scantid can only be set after
852  * _bt_check_unique() has checked for duplicates. The buffer
853  * initially stored in insertstate->buf has the page where the first
854  * duplicate key might be found, which isn't always the page that new
855  * tuple belongs on. The heap TID attribute for new tuple (scantid)
856  * could force us to insert on a sibling page, though that should be
857  * very rare in practice.
858  */
859  if (checkingunique)
860  {
861  if (insertstate->low < insertstate->stricthigh)
862  {
863  /* Encountered a duplicate in _bt_check_unique() */
864  Assert(insertstate->bounds_valid);
865  uniquedup = true;
866  }
867 
868  for (;;)
869  {
870  /*
871  * Does the new tuple belong on this page?
872  *
873  * The earlier _bt_check_unique() call may well have
874  * established a strict upper bound on the offset for the new
875  * item. If it's not the last item of the page (i.e. if there
876  * is at least one tuple on the page that goes after the tuple
877  * we're inserting) then we know that the tuple belongs on
878  * this page. We can skip the high key check.
879  */
880  if (insertstate->bounds_valid &&
881  insertstate->low <= insertstate->stricthigh &&
882  insertstate->stricthigh <= PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page))
883  break;
884 
885  /* Test '<=', not '!=', since scantid is set now */
886  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque) ||
887  _bt_compare(rel, itup_key, page, P_HIKEY) <= 0)
888  break;
889 
890  _bt_stepright(rel, heapRel, insertstate, stack);
891  /* Update local state after stepping right */
892  page = BufferGetPage(insertstate->buf);
893  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
894  /* Assume duplicates (if checkingunique) */
895  uniquedup = true;
896  }
897  }
898 
899  /*
900  * If the target page cannot fit newitem, try to avoid splitting the
901  * page on insert by performing deletion or deduplication now
902  */
903  if (PageGetFreeSpace(page) < insertstate->itemsz)
904  _bt_delete_or_dedup_one_page(rel, heapRel, insertstate, false,
905  checkingunique, uniquedup,
906  indexUnchanged);
907  }
908  else
909  {
910  /*----------
911  * This is a !heapkeyspace (version 2 or 3) index. The current page
912  * is the first page that we could insert the new tuple to, but there
913  * may be other pages to the right that we could opt to use instead.
914  *
915  * If the new key is equal to one or more existing keys, we can
916  * legitimately place it anywhere in the series of equal keys. In
917  * fact, if the new key is equal to the page's "high key" we can place
918  * it on the next page. If it is equal to the high key, and there's
919  * not room to insert the new tuple on the current page without
920  * splitting, then we move right hoping to find more free space and
921  * avoid a split.
922  *
923  * Keep scanning right until we
924  * (a) find a page with enough free space,
925  * (b) reach the last page where the tuple can legally go, or
926  * (c) get tired of searching.
927  * (c) is not flippant; it is important because if there are many
928  * pages' worth of equal keys, it's better to split one of the early
929  * pages than to scan all the way to the end of the run of equal keys
930  * on every insert. We implement "get tired" as a random choice,
931  * since stopping after scanning a fixed number of pages wouldn't work
932  * well (we'd never reach the right-hand side of previously split
933  * pages). The probability of moving right is set at 0.99, which may
934  * seem too high to change the behavior much, but it does an excellent
935  * job of preventing O(N^2) behavior with many equal keys.
936  *----------
937  */
938  while (PageGetFreeSpace(page) < insertstate->itemsz)
939  {
940  /*
941  * Before considering moving right, see if we can obtain enough
942  * space by erasing LP_DEAD items
943  */
944  if (P_HAS_GARBAGE(opaque))
945  {
946  /* Perform simple deletion */
947  _bt_delete_or_dedup_one_page(rel, heapRel, insertstate, true,
948  false, false, false);
949 
950  if (PageGetFreeSpace(page) >= insertstate->itemsz)
951  break; /* OK, now we have enough space */
952  }
953 
954  /*
955  * Nope, so check conditions (b) and (c) enumerated above
956  *
957  * The earlier _bt_check_unique() call may well have established a
958  * strict upper bound on the offset for the new item. If it's not
959  * the last item of the page (i.e. if there is at least one tuple
960  * on the page that's greater than the tuple we're inserting to)
961  * then we know that the tuple belongs on this page. We can skip
962  * the high key check.
963  */
964  if (insertstate->bounds_valid &&
965  insertstate->low <= insertstate->stricthigh &&
966  insertstate->stricthigh <= PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page))
967  break;
968 
969  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque) ||
970  _bt_compare(rel, itup_key, page, P_HIKEY) != 0 ||
972  break;
973 
974  _bt_stepright(rel, heapRel, insertstate, stack);
975  /* Update local state after stepping right */
976  page = BufferGetPage(insertstate->buf);
977  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
978  }
979  }
980 
981  /*
982  * We should now be on the correct page. Find the offset within the page
983  * for the new tuple. (Possibly reusing earlier search bounds.)
984  */
985  Assert(P_RIGHTMOST(opaque) ||
986  _bt_compare(rel, itup_key, page, P_HIKEY) <= 0);
987 
988  newitemoff = _bt_binsrch_insert(rel, insertstate);
989 
990  if (insertstate->postingoff == -1)
991  {
992  /*
993  * There is an overlapping posting list tuple with its LP_DEAD bit
994  * set. We don't want to unnecessarily unset its LP_DEAD bit while
995  * performing a posting list split, so perform simple index tuple
996  * deletion early.
997  */
998  _bt_delete_or_dedup_one_page(rel, heapRel, insertstate, true,
999  false, false, false);
1000 
1001  /*
1002  * Do new binary search. New insert location cannot overlap with any
1003  * posting list now.
1004  */
1005  Assert(!insertstate->bounds_valid);
1006  insertstate->postingoff = 0;
1007  newitemoff = _bt_binsrch_insert(rel, insertstate);
1008  Assert(insertstate->postingoff == 0);
1009  }
1010 
1011  return newitemoff;
1012 }
1013 
1014 /*
1015  * Step right to next non-dead page, during insertion.
1016  *
1017  * This is a bit more complicated than moving right in a search. We must
1018  * write-lock the target page before releasing write lock on current page;
1019  * else someone else's _bt_check_unique scan could fail to see our insertion.
1020  * Write locks on intermediate dead pages won't do because we don't know when
1021  * they will get de-linked from the tree.
1022  *
1023  * This is more aggressive than it needs to be for non-unique !heapkeyspace
1024  * indexes.
1025  */
1026 static void
1027 _bt_stepright(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTInsertState insertstate,
1028  BTStack stack)
1029 {
1030  Page page;
1031  BTPageOpaque opaque;
1032  Buffer rbuf;
1033  BlockNumber rblkno;
1034 
1035  Assert(heaprel != NULL);
1036  page = BufferGetPage(insertstate->buf);
1037  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
1038 
1039  rbuf = InvalidBuffer;
1040  rblkno = opaque->btpo_next;
1041  for (;;)
1042  {
1043  rbuf = _bt_relandgetbuf(rel, rbuf, rblkno, BT_WRITE);
1044  page = BufferGetPage(rbuf);
1045  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
1046 
1047  /*
1048  * If this page was incompletely split, finish the split now. We do
1049  * this while holding a lock on the left sibling, which is not good
1050  * because finishing the split could be a fairly lengthy operation.
1051  * But this should happen very seldom.
1052  */
1053  if (P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(opaque))
1054  {
1055  _bt_finish_split(rel, heaprel, rbuf, stack);
1056  rbuf = InvalidBuffer;
1057  continue;
1058  }
1059 
1060  if (!P_IGNORE(opaque))
1061  break;
1062  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque))
1063  elog(ERROR, "fell off the end of index \"%s\"",
1065 
1066  rblkno = opaque->btpo_next;
1067  }
1068  /* rbuf locked; unlock buf, update state for caller */
1069  _bt_relbuf(rel, insertstate->buf);
1070  insertstate->buf = rbuf;
1071  insertstate->bounds_valid = false;
1072 }
1073 
1074 /*----------
1075  * _bt_insertonpg() -- Insert a tuple on a particular page in the index.
1076  *
1077  * This recursive procedure does the following things:
1078  *
1079  * + if postingoff != 0, splits existing posting list tuple
1080  * (since it overlaps with new 'itup' tuple).
1081  * + if necessary, splits the target page, using 'itup_key' for
1082  * suffix truncation on leaf pages (caller passes NULL for
1083  * non-leaf pages).
1084  * + inserts the new tuple (might be split from posting list).
1085  * + if the page was split, pops the parent stack, and finds the
1086  * right place to insert the new child pointer (by walking
1087  * right using information stored in the parent stack).
1088  * + invokes itself with the appropriate tuple for the right
1089  * child page on the parent.
1090  * + updates the metapage if a true root or fast root is split.
1091  *
1092  * On entry, we must have the correct buffer in which to do the
1093  * insertion, and the buffer must be pinned and write-locked. On return,
1094  * we will have dropped both the pin and the lock on the buffer.
1095  *
1096  * This routine only performs retail tuple insertions. 'itup' should
1097  * always be either a non-highkey leaf item, or a downlink (new high
1098  * key items are created indirectly, when a page is split). When
1099  * inserting to a non-leaf page, 'cbuf' is the left-sibling of the page
1100  * we're inserting the downlink for. This function will clear the
1101  * INCOMPLETE_SPLIT flag on it, and release the buffer.
1102  *----------
1103  */
1104 static void
1106  Relation heaprel,
1107  BTScanInsert itup_key,
1108  Buffer buf,
1109  Buffer cbuf,
1110  BTStack stack,
1111  IndexTuple itup,
1112  Size itemsz,
1113  OffsetNumber newitemoff,
1114  int postingoff,
1115  bool split_only_page)
1116 {
1117  Page page;
1118  BTPageOpaque opaque;
1119  bool isleaf,
1120  isroot,
1121  isrightmost,
1122  isonly;
1123  IndexTuple oposting = NULL;
1124  IndexTuple origitup = NULL;
1125  IndexTuple nposting = NULL;
1126 
1127  page = BufferGetPage(buf);
1128  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
1129  isleaf = P_ISLEAF(opaque);
1130  isroot = P_ISROOT(opaque);
1131  isrightmost = P_RIGHTMOST(opaque);
1132  isonly = P_LEFTMOST(opaque) && P_RIGHTMOST(opaque);
1133 
1134  /* child buffer must be given iff inserting on an internal page */
1135  Assert(isleaf == !BufferIsValid(cbuf));
1136  /* tuple must have appropriate number of attributes */
1137  Assert(!isleaf ||
1138  BTreeTupleGetNAtts(itup, rel) ==
1140  Assert(isleaf ||
1141  BTreeTupleGetNAtts(itup, rel) <=
1143  Assert(!BTreeTupleIsPosting(itup));
1144  Assert(MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(itup)) == itemsz);
1145  /* Caller must always finish incomplete split for us */
1146  Assert(!P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(opaque));
1147 
1148  /*
1149  * Every internal page should have exactly one negative infinity item at
1150  * all times. Only _bt_split() and _bt_newlevel() should add items that
1151  * become negative infinity items through truncation, since they're the
1152  * only routines that allocate new internal pages.
1153  */
1154  Assert(isleaf || newitemoff > P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque));
1155 
1156  /*
1157  * Do we need to split an existing posting list item?
1158  */
1159  if (postingoff != 0)
1160  {
1161  ItemId itemid = PageGetItemId(page, newitemoff);
1162 
1163  /*
1164  * The new tuple is a duplicate with a heap TID that falls inside the
1165  * range of an existing posting list tuple on a leaf page. Prepare to
1166  * split an existing posting list. Overwriting the posting list with
1167  * its post-split version is treated as an extra step in either the
1168  * insert or page split critical section.
1169  */
1170  Assert(isleaf && itup_key->heapkeyspace && itup_key->allequalimage);
1171  oposting = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page, itemid);
1172 
1173  /*
1174  * postingoff value comes from earlier call to _bt_binsrch_posting().
1175  * Its binary search might think that a plain tuple must be a posting
1176  * list tuple that needs to be split. This can happen with corruption
1177  * involving an existing plain tuple that is a duplicate of the new
1178  * item, up to and including its table TID. Check for that here in
1179  * passing.
1180  *
1181  * Also verify that our caller has made sure that the existing posting
1182  * list tuple does not have its LP_DEAD bit set.
1183  */
1184  if (!BTreeTupleIsPosting(oposting) || ItemIdIsDead(itemid))
1185  ereport(ERROR,
1186  (errcode(ERRCODE_INDEX_CORRUPTED),
1187  errmsg_internal("table tid from new index tuple (%u,%u) overlaps with invalid duplicate tuple at offset %u of block %u in index \"%s\"",
1190  newitemoff, BufferGetBlockNumber(buf),
1191  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
1192 
1193  /* use a mutable copy of itup as our itup from here on */
1194  origitup = itup;
1195  itup = CopyIndexTuple(origitup);
1196  nposting = _bt_swap_posting(itup, oposting, postingoff);
1197  /* itup now contains rightmost/max TID from oposting */
1198 
1199  /* Alter offset so that newitem goes after posting list */
1200  newitemoff = OffsetNumberNext(newitemoff);
1201  }
1202 
1203  /*
1204  * Do we need to split the page to fit the item on it?
1205  *
1206  * Note: PageGetFreeSpace() subtracts sizeof(ItemIdData) from its result,
1207  * so this comparison is correct even though we appear to be accounting
1208  * only for the item and not for its line pointer.
1209  */
1210  if (PageGetFreeSpace(page) < itemsz)
1211  {
1212  Buffer rbuf;
1213 
1214  Assert(!split_only_page);
1215 
1216  /* split the buffer into left and right halves */
1217  rbuf = _bt_split(rel, heaprel, itup_key, buf, cbuf, newitemoff, itemsz,
1218  itup, origitup, nposting, postingoff);
1221  BufferGetBlockNumber(rbuf));
1222 
1223  /*----------
1224  * By here,
1225  *
1226  * + our target page has been split;
1227  * + the original tuple has been inserted;
1228  * + we have write locks on both the old (left half)
1229  * and new (right half) buffers, after the split; and
1230  * + we know the key we want to insert into the parent
1231  * (it's the "high key" on the left child page).
1232  *
1233  * We're ready to do the parent insertion. We need to hold onto the
1234  * locks for the child pages until we locate the parent, but we can
1235  * at least release the lock on the right child before doing the
1236  * actual insertion. The lock on the left child will be released
1237  * last of all by parent insertion, where it is the 'cbuf' of parent
1238  * page.
1239  *----------
1240  */
1241  _bt_insert_parent(rel, heaprel, buf, rbuf, stack, isroot, isonly);
1242  }
1243  else
1244  {
1245  Buffer metabuf = InvalidBuffer;
1246  Page metapg = NULL;
1247  BTMetaPageData *metad = NULL;
1248  BlockNumber blockcache;
1249 
1250  /*
1251  * If we are doing this insert because we split a page that was the
1252  * only one on its tree level, but was not the root, it may have been
1253  * the "fast root". We need to ensure that the fast root link points
1254  * at or above the current page. We can safely acquire a lock on the
1255  * metapage here --- see comments for _bt_newlevel().
1256  */
1257  if (unlikely(split_only_page))
1258  {
1259  Assert(!isleaf);
1260  Assert(BufferIsValid(cbuf));
1261 
1262  metabuf = _bt_getbuf(rel, BTREE_METAPAGE, BT_WRITE);
1263  metapg = BufferGetPage(metabuf);
1264  metad = BTPageGetMeta(metapg);
1265 
1266  if (metad->btm_fastlevel >= opaque->btpo_level)
1267  {
1268  /* no update wanted */
1269  _bt_relbuf(rel, metabuf);
1270  metabuf = InvalidBuffer;
1271  }
1272  }
1273 
1274  /* Do the update. No ereport(ERROR) until changes are logged */
1276 
1277  if (postingoff != 0)
1278  memcpy(oposting, nposting, MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(nposting)));
1279 
1280  if (PageAddItem(page, (Item) itup, itemsz, newitemoff, false,
1281  false) == InvalidOffsetNumber)
1282  elog(PANIC, "failed to add new item to block %u in index \"%s\"",
1284 
1286 
1287  if (BufferIsValid(metabuf))
1288  {
1289  /* upgrade meta-page if needed */
1290  if (metad->btm_version < BTREE_NOVAC_VERSION)
1291  _bt_upgrademetapage(metapg);
1293  metad->btm_fastlevel = opaque->btpo_level;
1294  MarkBufferDirty(metabuf);
1295  }
1296 
1297  /*
1298  * Clear INCOMPLETE_SPLIT flag on child if inserting the new item
1299  * finishes a split
1300  */
1301  if (!isleaf)
1302  {
1303  Page cpage = BufferGetPage(cbuf);
1304  BTPageOpaque cpageop = BTPageGetOpaque(cpage);
1305 
1306  Assert(P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(cpageop));
1307  cpageop->btpo_flags &= ~BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT;
1308  MarkBufferDirty(cbuf);
1309  }
1310 
1311  /* XLOG stuff */
1312  if (RelationNeedsWAL(rel))
1313  {
1314  xl_btree_insert xlrec;
1315  xl_btree_metadata xlmeta;
1316  uint8 xlinfo;
1317  XLogRecPtr recptr;
1318  uint16 upostingoff;
1319 
1320  xlrec.offnum = newitemoff;
1321 
1322  XLogBeginInsert();
1323  XLogRegisterData((char *) &xlrec, SizeOfBtreeInsert);
1324 
1325  if (isleaf && postingoff == 0)
1326  {
1327  /* Simple leaf insert */
1328  xlinfo = XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_LEAF;
1329  }
1330  else if (postingoff != 0)
1331  {
1332  /*
1333  * Leaf insert with posting list split. Must include
1334  * postingoff field before newitem/orignewitem.
1335  */
1336  Assert(isleaf);
1337  xlinfo = XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_POST;
1338  }
1339  else
1340  {
1341  /* Internal page insert, which finishes a split on cbuf */
1342  xlinfo = XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_UPPER;
1344 
1345  if (BufferIsValid(metabuf))
1346  {
1347  /* Actually, it's an internal page insert + meta update */
1348  xlinfo = XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_META;
1349 
1351  xlmeta.version = metad->btm_version;
1352  xlmeta.root = metad->btm_root;
1353  xlmeta.level = metad->btm_level;
1354  xlmeta.fastroot = metad->btm_fastroot;
1355  xlmeta.fastlevel = metad->btm_fastlevel;
1357  xlmeta.allequalimage = metad->btm_allequalimage;
1358 
1359  XLogRegisterBuffer(2, metabuf,
1361  XLogRegisterBufData(2, (char *) &xlmeta,
1362  sizeof(xl_btree_metadata));
1363  }
1364  }
1365 
1367  if (postingoff == 0)
1368  {
1369  /* Just log itup from caller */
1370  XLogRegisterBufData(0, (char *) itup, IndexTupleSize(itup));
1371  }
1372  else
1373  {
1374  /*
1375  * Insert with posting list split (XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_POST
1376  * record) case.
1377  *
1378  * Log postingoff. Also log origitup, not itup. REDO routine
1379  * must reconstruct final itup (as well as nposting) using
1380  * _bt_swap_posting().
1381  */
1382  upostingoff = postingoff;
1383 
1384  XLogRegisterBufData(0, (char *) &upostingoff, sizeof(uint16));
1385  XLogRegisterBufData(0, (char *) origitup,
1386  IndexTupleSize(origitup));
1387  }
1388 
1389  recptr = XLogInsert(RM_BTREE_ID, xlinfo);
1390 
1391  if (BufferIsValid(metabuf))
1392  PageSetLSN(metapg, recptr);
1393  if (!isleaf)
1394  PageSetLSN(BufferGetPage(cbuf), recptr);
1395 
1396  PageSetLSN(page, recptr);
1397  }
1398 
1399  END_CRIT_SECTION();
1400 
1401  /* Release subsidiary buffers */
1402  if (BufferIsValid(metabuf))
1403  _bt_relbuf(rel, metabuf);
1404  if (!isleaf)
1405  _bt_relbuf(rel, cbuf);
1406 
1407  /*
1408  * Cache the block number if this is the rightmost leaf page. Cache
1409  * may be used by a future inserter within _bt_search_insert().
1410  */
1411  blockcache = InvalidBlockNumber;
1412  if (isrightmost && isleaf && !isroot)
1413  blockcache = BufferGetBlockNumber(buf);
1414 
1415  /* Release buffer for insertion target block */
1416  _bt_relbuf(rel, buf);
1417 
1418  /*
1419  * If we decided to cache the insertion target block before releasing
1420  * its buffer lock, then cache it now. Check the height of the tree
1421  * first, though. We don't go for the optimization with small
1422  * indexes. Defer final check to this point to ensure that we don't
1423  * call _bt_getrootheight while holding a buffer lock.
1424  */
1425  if (BlockNumberIsValid(blockcache) &&
1427  RelationSetTargetBlock(rel, blockcache);
1428  }
1429 
1430  /* be tidy */
1431  if (postingoff != 0)
1432  {
1433  /* itup is actually a modified copy of caller's original */
1434  pfree(nposting);
1435  pfree(itup);
1436  }
1437 }
1438 
1439 /*
1440  * _bt_split() -- split a page in the btree.
1441  *
1442  * On entry, buf is the page to split, and is pinned and write-locked.
1443  * newitemoff etc. tell us about the new item that must be inserted
1444  * along with the data from the original page.
1445  *
1446  * itup_key is used for suffix truncation on leaf pages (internal
1447  * page callers pass NULL). When splitting a non-leaf page, 'cbuf'
1448  * is the left-sibling of the page we're inserting the downlink for.
1449  * This function will clear the INCOMPLETE_SPLIT flag on it, and
1450  * release the buffer.
1451  *
1452  * orignewitem, nposting, and postingoff are needed when an insert of
1453  * orignewitem results in both a posting list split and a page split.
1454  * These extra posting list split details are used here in the same
1455  * way as they are used in the more common case where a posting list
1456  * split does not coincide with a page split. We need to deal with
1457  * posting list splits directly in order to ensure that everything
1458  * that follows from the insert of orignewitem is handled as a single
1459  * atomic operation (though caller's insert of a new pivot/downlink
1460  * into parent page will still be a separate operation). See
1461  * nbtree/README for details on the design of posting list splits.
1462  *
1463  * Returns the new right sibling of buf, pinned and write-locked.
1464  * The pin and lock on buf are maintained.
1465  */
1466 static Buffer
1468  Buffer cbuf, OffsetNumber newitemoff, Size newitemsz, IndexTuple newitem,
1469  IndexTuple orignewitem, IndexTuple nposting, uint16 postingoff)
1470 {
1471  Buffer rbuf;
1472  Page origpage;
1473  Page leftpage,
1474  rightpage;
1475  BlockNumber origpagenumber,
1476  rightpagenumber;
1477  BTPageOpaque ropaque,
1478  lopaque,
1479  oopaque;
1480  Buffer sbuf = InvalidBuffer;
1481  Page spage = NULL;
1482  BTPageOpaque sopaque = NULL;
1483  Size itemsz;
1484  ItemId itemid;
1485  IndexTuple firstright,
1486  lefthighkey;
1487  OffsetNumber firstrightoff;
1488  OffsetNumber afterleftoff,
1489  afterrightoff,
1490  minusinfoff;
1491  OffsetNumber origpagepostingoff;
1492  OffsetNumber maxoff;
1493  OffsetNumber i;
1494  bool newitemonleft,
1495  isleaf,
1496  isrightmost;
1497 
1498  /*
1499  * origpage is the original page to be split. leftpage is a temporary
1500  * buffer that receives the left-sibling data, which will be copied back
1501  * into origpage on success. rightpage is the new page that will receive
1502  * the right-sibling data.
1503  *
1504  * leftpage is allocated after choosing a split point. rightpage's new
1505  * buffer isn't acquired until after leftpage is initialized and has new
1506  * high key, the last point where splitting the page may fail (barring
1507  * corruption). Failing before acquiring new buffer won't have lasting
1508  * consequences, since origpage won't have been modified and leftpage is
1509  * only workspace.
1510  */
1511  origpage = BufferGetPage(buf);
1512  oopaque = BTPageGetOpaque(origpage);
1513  isleaf = P_ISLEAF(oopaque);
1514  isrightmost = P_RIGHTMOST(oopaque);
1515  maxoff = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(origpage);
1516  origpagenumber = BufferGetBlockNumber(buf);
1517 
1518  /*
1519  * Choose a point to split origpage at.
1520  *
1521  * A split point can be thought of as a point _between_ two existing data
1522  * items on origpage (the lastleft and firstright tuples), provided you
1523  * pretend that the new item that didn't fit is already on origpage.
1524  *
1525  * Since origpage does not actually contain newitem, the representation of
1526  * split points needs to work with two boundary cases: splits where
1527  * newitem is lastleft, and splits where newitem is firstright.
1528  * newitemonleft resolves the ambiguity that would otherwise exist when
1529  * newitemoff == firstrightoff. In all other cases it's clear which side
1530  * of the split every tuple goes on from context. newitemonleft is
1531  * usually (but not always) redundant information.
1532  *
1533  * firstrightoff is supposed to be an origpage offset number, but it's
1534  * possible that its value will be maxoff+1, which is "past the end" of
1535  * origpage. This happens in the rare case where newitem goes after all
1536  * existing items (i.e. newitemoff is maxoff+1) and we end up splitting
1537  * origpage at the point that leaves newitem alone on new right page. Any
1538  * "!newitemonleft && newitemoff == firstrightoff" split point makes
1539  * newitem the firstright tuple, though, so this case isn't a special
1540  * case.
1541  */
1542  firstrightoff = _bt_findsplitloc(rel, origpage, newitemoff, newitemsz,
1543  newitem, &newitemonleft);
1544 
1545  /* Allocate temp buffer for leftpage */
1546  leftpage = PageGetTempPage(origpage);
1547  _bt_pageinit(leftpage, BufferGetPageSize(buf));
1548  lopaque = BTPageGetOpaque(leftpage);
1549 
1550  /*
1551  * leftpage won't be the root when we're done. Also, clear the SPLIT_END
1552  * and HAS_GARBAGE flags.
1553  */
1554  lopaque->btpo_flags = oopaque->btpo_flags;
1555  lopaque->btpo_flags &= ~(BTP_ROOT | BTP_SPLIT_END | BTP_HAS_GARBAGE);
1556  /* set flag in leftpage indicating that rightpage has no downlink yet */
1557  lopaque->btpo_flags |= BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT;
1558  lopaque->btpo_prev = oopaque->btpo_prev;
1559  /* handle btpo_next after rightpage buffer acquired */
1560  lopaque->btpo_level = oopaque->btpo_level;
1561  /* handle btpo_cycleid after rightpage buffer acquired */
1562 
1563  /*
1564  * Copy the original page's LSN into leftpage, which will become the
1565  * updated version of the page. We need this because XLogInsert will
1566  * examine the LSN and possibly dump it in a page image.
1567  */
1568  PageSetLSN(leftpage, PageGetLSN(origpage));
1569 
1570  /*
1571  * Determine page offset number of existing overlapped-with-orignewitem
1572  * posting list when it is necessary to perform a posting list split in
1573  * passing. Note that newitem was already changed by caller (newitem no
1574  * longer has the orignewitem TID).
1575  *
1576  * This page offset number (origpagepostingoff) will be used to pretend
1577  * that the posting split has already taken place, even though the
1578  * required modifications to origpage won't occur until we reach the
1579  * critical section. The lastleft and firstright tuples of our page split
1580  * point should, in effect, come from an imaginary version of origpage
1581  * that has the nposting tuple instead of the original posting list tuple.
1582  *
1583  * Note: _bt_findsplitloc() should have compensated for coinciding posting
1584  * list splits in just the same way, at least in theory. It doesn't
1585  * bother with that, though. In practice it won't affect its choice of
1586  * split point.
1587  */
1588  origpagepostingoff = InvalidOffsetNumber;
1589  if (postingoff != 0)
1590  {
1591  Assert(isleaf);
1592  Assert(ItemPointerCompare(&orignewitem->t_tid,
1593  &newitem->t_tid) < 0);
1594  Assert(BTreeTupleIsPosting(nposting));
1595  origpagepostingoff = OffsetNumberPrev(newitemoff);
1596  }
1597 
1598  /*
1599  * The high key for the new left page is a possibly-truncated copy of
1600  * firstright on the leaf level (it's "firstright itself" on internal
1601  * pages; see !isleaf comments below). This may seem to be contrary to
1602  * Lehman & Yao's approach of using a copy of lastleft as the new high key
1603  * when splitting on the leaf level. It isn't, though.
1604  *
1605  * Suffix truncation will leave the left page's high key fully equal to
1606  * lastleft when lastleft and firstright are equal prior to heap TID (that
1607  * is, the tiebreaker TID value comes from lastleft). It isn't actually
1608  * necessary for a new leaf high key to be a copy of lastleft for the L&Y
1609  * "subtree" invariant to hold. It's sufficient to make sure that the new
1610  * leaf high key is strictly less than firstright, and greater than or
1611  * equal to (not necessarily equal to) lastleft. In other words, when
1612  * suffix truncation isn't possible during a leaf page split, we take
1613  * L&Y's exact approach to generating a new high key for the left page.
1614  * (Actually, that is slightly inaccurate. We don't just use a copy of
1615  * lastleft. A tuple with all the keys from firstright but the max heap
1616  * TID from lastleft is used, to avoid introducing a special case.)
1617  */
1618  if (!newitemonleft && newitemoff == firstrightoff)
1619  {
1620  /* incoming tuple becomes firstright */
1621  itemsz = newitemsz;
1622  firstright = newitem;
1623  }
1624  else
1625  {
1626  /* existing item at firstrightoff becomes firstright */
1627  itemid = PageGetItemId(origpage, firstrightoff);
1628  itemsz = ItemIdGetLength(itemid);
1629  firstright = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(origpage, itemid);
1630  if (firstrightoff == origpagepostingoff)
1631  firstright = nposting;
1632  }
1633 
1634  if (isleaf)
1635  {
1636  IndexTuple lastleft;
1637 
1638  /* Attempt suffix truncation for leaf page splits */
1639  if (newitemonleft && newitemoff == firstrightoff)
1640  {
1641  /* incoming tuple becomes lastleft */
1642  lastleft = newitem;
1643  }
1644  else
1645  {
1646  OffsetNumber lastleftoff;
1647 
1648  /* existing item before firstrightoff becomes lastleft */
1649  lastleftoff = OffsetNumberPrev(firstrightoff);
1650  Assert(lastleftoff >= P_FIRSTDATAKEY(oopaque));
1651  itemid = PageGetItemId(origpage, lastleftoff);
1652  lastleft = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(origpage, itemid);
1653  if (lastleftoff == origpagepostingoff)
1654  lastleft = nposting;
1655  }
1656 
1657  lefthighkey = _bt_truncate(rel, lastleft, firstright, itup_key);
1658  itemsz = IndexTupleSize(lefthighkey);
1659  }
1660  else
1661  {
1662  /*
1663  * Don't perform suffix truncation on a copy of firstright to make
1664  * left page high key for internal page splits. Must use firstright
1665  * as new high key directly.
1666  *
1667  * Each distinct separator key value originates as a leaf level high
1668  * key; all other separator keys/pivot tuples are copied from one
1669  * level down. A separator key in a grandparent page must be
1670  * identical to high key in rightmost parent page of the subtree to
1671  * its left, which must itself be identical to high key in rightmost
1672  * child page of that same subtree (this even applies to separator
1673  * from grandparent's high key). There must always be an unbroken
1674  * "seam" of identical separator keys that guide index scans at every
1675  * level, starting from the grandparent. That's why suffix truncation
1676  * is unsafe here.
1677  *
1678  * Internal page splits will truncate firstright into a "negative
1679  * infinity" data item when it gets inserted on the new right page
1680  * below, though. This happens during the call to _bt_pgaddtup() for
1681  * the new first data item for right page. Do not confuse this
1682  * mechanism with suffix truncation. It is just a convenient way of
1683  * implementing page splits that split the internal page "inside"
1684  * firstright. The lefthighkey separator key cannot appear a second
1685  * time in the right page (only firstright's downlink goes in right
1686  * page).
1687  */
1688  lefthighkey = firstright;
1689  }
1690 
1691  /*
1692  * Add new high key to leftpage
1693  */
1694  afterleftoff = P_HIKEY;
1695 
1696  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(lefthighkey, rel) > 0);
1697  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(lefthighkey, rel) <=
1699  Assert(itemsz == MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(lefthighkey)));
1700  if (PageAddItem(leftpage, (Item) lefthighkey, itemsz, afterleftoff, false,
1701  false) == InvalidOffsetNumber)
1702  elog(ERROR, "failed to add high key to the left sibling"
1703  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1704  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1705  afterleftoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterleftoff);
1706 
1707  /*
1708  * Acquire a new right page to split into, now that left page has a new
1709  * high key. From here on, it's not okay to throw an error without
1710  * zeroing rightpage first. This coding rule ensures that we won't
1711  * confuse future VACUUM operations, which might otherwise try to re-find
1712  * a downlink to a leftover junk page as the page undergoes deletion.
1713  *
1714  * It would be reasonable to start the critical section just after the new
1715  * rightpage buffer is acquired instead; that would allow us to avoid
1716  * leftover junk pages without bothering to zero rightpage. We do it this
1717  * way because it avoids an unnecessary PANIC when either origpage or its
1718  * existing sibling page are corrupt.
1719  */
1720  rbuf = _bt_allocbuf(rel, heaprel);
1721  rightpage = BufferGetPage(rbuf);
1722  rightpagenumber = BufferGetBlockNumber(rbuf);
1723  /* rightpage was initialized by _bt_getbuf */
1724  ropaque = BTPageGetOpaque(rightpage);
1725 
1726  /*
1727  * Finish off remaining leftpage special area fields. They cannot be set
1728  * before both origpage (leftpage) and rightpage buffers are acquired and
1729  * locked.
1730  *
1731  * btpo_cycleid is only used with leaf pages, though we set it here in all
1732  * cases just to be consistent.
1733  */
1734  lopaque->btpo_next = rightpagenumber;
1735  lopaque->btpo_cycleid = _bt_vacuum_cycleid(rel);
1736 
1737  /*
1738  * rightpage won't be the root when we're done. Also, clear the SPLIT_END
1739  * and HAS_GARBAGE flags.
1740  */
1741  ropaque->btpo_flags = oopaque->btpo_flags;
1742  ropaque->btpo_flags &= ~(BTP_ROOT | BTP_SPLIT_END | BTP_HAS_GARBAGE);
1743  ropaque->btpo_prev = origpagenumber;
1744  ropaque->btpo_next = oopaque->btpo_next;
1745  ropaque->btpo_level = oopaque->btpo_level;
1746  ropaque->btpo_cycleid = lopaque->btpo_cycleid;
1747 
1748  /*
1749  * Add new high key to rightpage where necessary.
1750  *
1751  * If the page we're splitting is not the rightmost page at its level in
1752  * the tree, then the first entry on the page is the high key from
1753  * origpage.
1754  */
1755  afterrightoff = P_HIKEY;
1756 
1757  if (!isrightmost)
1758  {
1759  IndexTuple righthighkey;
1760 
1761  itemid = PageGetItemId(origpage, P_HIKEY);
1762  itemsz = ItemIdGetLength(itemid);
1763  righthighkey = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(origpage, itemid);
1764  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(righthighkey, rel) > 0);
1765  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(righthighkey, rel) <=
1767  if (PageAddItem(rightpage, (Item) righthighkey, itemsz, afterrightoff,
1768  false, false) == InvalidOffsetNumber)
1769  {
1770  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1771  elog(ERROR, "failed to add high key to the right sibling"
1772  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1773  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1774  }
1775  afterrightoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterrightoff);
1776  }
1777 
1778  /*
1779  * Internal page splits truncate first data item on right page -- it
1780  * becomes "minus infinity" item for the page. Set this up here.
1781  */
1782  minusinfoff = InvalidOffsetNumber;
1783  if (!isleaf)
1784  minusinfoff = afterrightoff;
1785 
1786  /*
1787  * Now transfer all the data items (non-pivot tuples in isleaf case, or
1788  * additional pivot tuples in !isleaf case) to the appropriate page.
1789  *
1790  * Note: we *must* insert at least the right page's items in item-number
1791  * order, for the benefit of _bt_restore_page().
1792  */
1793  for (i = P_FIRSTDATAKEY(oopaque); i <= maxoff; i = OffsetNumberNext(i))
1794  {
1795  IndexTuple dataitem;
1796 
1797  itemid = PageGetItemId(origpage, i);
1798  itemsz = ItemIdGetLength(itemid);
1799  dataitem = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(origpage, itemid);
1800 
1801  /* replace original item with nposting due to posting split? */
1802  if (i == origpagepostingoff)
1803  {
1804  Assert(BTreeTupleIsPosting(dataitem));
1805  Assert(itemsz == MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(nposting)));
1806  dataitem = nposting;
1807  }
1808 
1809  /* does new item belong before this one? */
1810  else if (i == newitemoff)
1811  {
1812  if (newitemonleft)
1813  {
1814  Assert(newitemoff <= firstrightoff);
1815  if (!_bt_pgaddtup(leftpage, newitemsz, newitem, afterleftoff,
1816  false))
1817  {
1818  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1819  elog(ERROR, "failed to add new item to the left sibling"
1820  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1821  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1822  }
1823  afterleftoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterleftoff);
1824  }
1825  else
1826  {
1827  Assert(newitemoff >= firstrightoff);
1828  if (!_bt_pgaddtup(rightpage, newitemsz, newitem, afterrightoff,
1829  afterrightoff == minusinfoff))
1830  {
1831  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1832  elog(ERROR, "failed to add new item to the right sibling"
1833  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1834  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1835  }
1836  afterrightoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterrightoff);
1837  }
1838  }
1839 
1840  /* decide which page to put it on */
1841  if (i < firstrightoff)
1842  {
1843  if (!_bt_pgaddtup(leftpage, itemsz, dataitem, afterleftoff, false))
1844  {
1845  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1846  elog(ERROR, "failed to add old item to the left sibling"
1847  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1848  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1849  }
1850  afterleftoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterleftoff);
1851  }
1852  else
1853  {
1854  if (!_bt_pgaddtup(rightpage, itemsz, dataitem, afterrightoff,
1855  afterrightoff == minusinfoff))
1856  {
1857  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1858  elog(ERROR, "failed to add old item to the right sibling"
1859  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1860  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1861  }
1862  afterrightoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterrightoff);
1863  }
1864  }
1865 
1866  /* Handle case where newitem goes at the end of rightpage */
1867  if (i <= newitemoff)
1868  {
1869  /*
1870  * Can't have newitemonleft here; that would imply we were told to put
1871  * *everything* on the left page, which cannot fit (if it could, we'd
1872  * not be splitting the page).
1873  */
1874  Assert(!newitemonleft && newitemoff == maxoff + 1);
1875  if (!_bt_pgaddtup(rightpage, newitemsz, newitem, afterrightoff,
1876  afterrightoff == minusinfoff))
1877  {
1878  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1879  elog(ERROR, "failed to add new item to the right sibling"
1880  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
1881  origpagenumber, RelationGetRelationName(rel));
1882  }
1883  afterrightoff = OffsetNumberNext(afterrightoff);
1884  }
1885 
1886  /*
1887  * We have to grab the original right sibling (if any) and update its prev
1888  * link. We are guaranteed that this is deadlock-free, since we couple
1889  * the locks in the standard order: left to right.
1890  */
1891  if (!isrightmost)
1892  {
1893  sbuf = _bt_getbuf(rel, oopaque->btpo_next, BT_WRITE);
1894  spage = BufferGetPage(sbuf);
1895  sopaque = BTPageGetOpaque(spage);
1896  if (sopaque->btpo_prev != origpagenumber)
1897  {
1898  memset(rightpage, 0, BufferGetPageSize(rbuf));
1899  ereport(ERROR,
1900  (errcode(ERRCODE_INDEX_CORRUPTED),
1901  errmsg_internal("right sibling's left-link doesn't match: "
1902  "block %u links to %u instead of expected %u in index \"%s\"",
1903  oopaque->btpo_next, sopaque->btpo_prev, origpagenumber,
1904  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
1905  }
1906 
1907  /*
1908  * Check to see if we can set the SPLIT_END flag in the right-hand
1909  * split page; this can save some I/O for vacuum since it need not
1910  * proceed to the right sibling. We can set the flag if the right
1911  * sibling has a different cycleid: that means it could not be part of
1912  * a group of pages that were all split off from the same ancestor
1913  * page. If you're confused, imagine that page A splits to A B and
1914  * then again, yielding A C B, while vacuum is in progress. Tuples
1915  * originally in A could now be in either B or C, hence vacuum must
1916  * examine both pages. But if D, our right sibling, has a different
1917  * cycleid then it could not contain any tuples that were in A when
1918  * the vacuum started.
1919  */
1920  if (sopaque->btpo_cycleid != ropaque->btpo_cycleid)
1921  ropaque->btpo_flags |= BTP_SPLIT_END;
1922  }
1923 
1924  /*
1925  * Right sibling is locked, new siblings are prepared, but original page
1926  * is not updated yet.
1927  *
1928  * NO EREPORT(ERROR) till right sibling is updated. We can get away with
1929  * not starting the critical section till here because we haven't been
1930  * scribbling on the original page yet; see comments above.
1931  */
1933 
1934  /*
1935  * By here, the original data page has been split into two new halves, and
1936  * these are correct. The algorithm requires that the left page never
1937  * move during a split, so we copy the new left page back on top of the
1938  * original. We need to do this before writing the WAL record, so that
1939  * XLogInsert can WAL log an image of the page if necessary.
1940  */
1941  PageRestoreTempPage(leftpage, origpage);
1942  /* leftpage, lopaque must not be used below here */
1943 
1945  MarkBufferDirty(rbuf);
1946 
1947  if (!isrightmost)
1948  {
1949  sopaque->btpo_prev = rightpagenumber;
1950  MarkBufferDirty(sbuf);
1951  }
1952 
1953  /*
1954  * Clear INCOMPLETE_SPLIT flag on child if inserting the new item finishes
1955  * a split
1956  */
1957  if (!isleaf)
1958  {
1959  Page cpage = BufferGetPage(cbuf);
1960  BTPageOpaque cpageop = BTPageGetOpaque(cpage);
1961 
1962  cpageop->btpo_flags &= ~BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT;
1963  MarkBufferDirty(cbuf);
1964  }
1965 
1966  /* XLOG stuff */
1967  if (RelationNeedsWAL(rel))
1968  {
1969  xl_btree_split xlrec;
1970  uint8 xlinfo;
1971  XLogRecPtr recptr;
1972 
1973  xlrec.level = ropaque->btpo_level;
1974  /* See comments below on newitem, orignewitem, and posting lists */
1975  xlrec.firstrightoff = firstrightoff;
1976  xlrec.newitemoff = newitemoff;
1977  xlrec.postingoff = 0;
1978  if (postingoff != 0 && origpagepostingoff < firstrightoff)
1979  xlrec.postingoff = postingoff;
1980 
1981  XLogBeginInsert();
1982  XLogRegisterData((char *) &xlrec, SizeOfBtreeSplit);
1983 
1986  /* Log original right sibling, since we've changed its prev-pointer */
1987  if (!isrightmost)
1989  if (!isleaf)
1991 
1992  /*
1993  * Log the new item, if it was inserted on the left page. (If it was
1994  * put on the right page, we don't need to explicitly WAL log it
1995  * because it's included with all the other items on the right page.)
1996  * Show the new item as belonging to the left page buffer, so that it
1997  * is not stored if XLogInsert decides it needs a full-page image of
1998  * the left page. We always store newitemoff in the record, though.
1999  *
2000  * The details are sometimes slightly different for page splits that
2001  * coincide with a posting list split. If both the replacement
2002  * posting list and newitem go on the right page, then we don't need
2003  * to log anything extra, just like the simple !newitemonleft
2004  * no-posting-split case (postingoff is set to zero in the WAL record,
2005  * so recovery doesn't need to process a posting list split at all).
2006  * Otherwise, we set postingoff and log orignewitem instead of
2007  * newitem, despite having actually inserted newitem. REDO routine
2008  * must reconstruct nposting and newitem using _bt_swap_posting().
2009  *
2010  * Note: It's possible that our page split point is the point that
2011  * makes the posting list lastleft and newitem firstright. This is
2012  * the only case where we log orignewitem/newitem despite newitem
2013  * going on the right page. If XLogInsert decides that it can omit
2014  * orignewitem due to logging a full-page image of the left page,
2015  * everything still works out, since recovery only needs to log
2016  * orignewitem for items on the left page (just like the regular
2017  * newitem-logged case).
2018  */
2019  if (newitemonleft && xlrec.postingoff == 0)
2020  XLogRegisterBufData(0, (char *) newitem, newitemsz);
2021  else if (xlrec.postingoff != 0)
2022  {
2023  Assert(isleaf);
2024  Assert(newitemonleft || firstrightoff == newitemoff);
2025  Assert(newitemsz == IndexTupleSize(orignewitem));
2026  XLogRegisterBufData(0, (char *) orignewitem, newitemsz);
2027  }
2028 
2029  /* Log the left page's new high key */
2030  if (!isleaf)
2031  {
2032  /* lefthighkey isn't local copy, get current pointer */
2033  itemid = PageGetItemId(origpage, P_HIKEY);
2034  lefthighkey = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(origpage, itemid);
2035  }
2036  XLogRegisterBufData(0, (char *) lefthighkey,
2037  MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(lefthighkey)));
2038 
2039  /*
2040  * Log the contents of the right page in the format understood by
2041  * _bt_restore_page(). The whole right page will be recreated.
2042  *
2043  * Direct access to page is not good but faster - we should implement
2044  * some new func in page API. Note we only store the tuples
2045  * themselves, knowing that they were inserted in item-number order
2046  * and so the line pointers can be reconstructed. See comments for
2047  * _bt_restore_page().
2048  */
2050  (char *) rightpage + ((PageHeader) rightpage)->pd_upper,
2051  ((PageHeader) rightpage)->pd_special - ((PageHeader) rightpage)->pd_upper);
2052 
2053  xlinfo = newitemonleft ? XLOG_BTREE_SPLIT_L : XLOG_BTREE_SPLIT_R;
2054  recptr = XLogInsert(RM_BTREE_ID, xlinfo);
2055 
2056  PageSetLSN(origpage, recptr);
2057  PageSetLSN(rightpage, recptr);
2058  if (!isrightmost)
2059  PageSetLSN(spage, recptr);
2060  if (!isleaf)
2061  PageSetLSN(BufferGetPage(cbuf), recptr);
2062  }
2063 
2064  END_CRIT_SECTION();
2065 
2066  /* release the old right sibling */
2067  if (!isrightmost)
2068  _bt_relbuf(rel, sbuf);
2069 
2070  /* release the child */
2071  if (!isleaf)
2072  _bt_relbuf(rel, cbuf);
2073 
2074  /* be tidy */
2075  if (isleaf)
2076  pfree(lefthighkey);
2077 
2078  /* split's done */
2079  return rbuf;
2080 }
2081 
2082 /*
2083  * _bt_insert_parent() -- Insert downlink into parent, completing split.
2084  *
2085  * On entry, buf and rbuf are the left and right split pages, which we
2086  * still hold write locks on. Both locks will be released here. We
2087  * release the rbuf lock once we have a write lock on the page that we
2088  * intend to insert a downlink to rbuf on (i.e. buf's current parent page).
2089  * The lock on buf is released at the same point as the lock on the parent
2090  * page, since buf's INCOMPLETE_SPLIT flag must be cleared by the same
2091  * atomic operation that completes the split by inserting a new downlink.
2092  *
2093  * stack - stack showing how we got here. Will be NULL when splitting true
2094  * root, or during concurrent root split, where we can be inefficient
2095  * isroot - we split the true root
2096  * isonly - we split a page alone on its level (might have been fast root)
2097  */
2098 static void
2100  Relation heaprel,
2101  Buffer buf,
2102  Buffer rbuf,
2103  BTStack stack,
2104  bool isroot,
2105  bool isonly)
2106 {
2107  Assert(heaprel != NULL);
2108 
2109  /*
2110  * Here we have to do something Lehman and Yao don't talk about: deal with
2111  * a root split and construction of a new root. If our stack is empty
2112  * then we have just split a node on what had been the root level when we
2113  * descended the tree. If it was still the root then we perform a
2114  * new-root construction. If it *wasn't* the root anymore, search to find
2115  * the next higher level that someone constructed meanwhile, and find the
2116  * right place to insert as for the normal case.
2117  *
2118  * If we have to search for the parent level, we do so by re-descending
2119  * from the root. This is not super-efficient, but it's rare enough not
2120  * to matter.
2121  */
2122  if (isroot)
2123  {
2124  Buffer rootbuf;
2125 
2126  Assert(stack == NULL);
2127  Assert(isonly);
2128  /* create a new root node one level up and update the metapage */
2129  rootbuf = _bt_newlevel(rel, heaprel, buf, rbuf);
2130  /* release the split buffers */
2131  _bt_relbuf(rel, rootbuf);
2132  _bt_relbuf(rel, rbuf);
2133  _bt_relbuf(rel, buf);
2134  }
2135  else
2136  {
2138  BlockNumber rbknum = BufferGetBlockNumber(rbuf);
2139  Page page = BufferGetPage(buf);
2140  IndexTuple new_item;
2141  BTStackData fakestack;
2142  IndexTuple ritem;
2143  Buffer pbuf;
2144 
2145  if (stack == NULL)
2146  {
2147  BTPageOpaque opaque;
2148 
2149  elog(DEBUG2, "concurrent ROOT page split");
2150  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
2151 
2152  /*
2153  * We should never reach here when a leaf page split takes place
2154  * despite the insert of newitem being able to apply the fastpath
2155  * optimization. Make sure of that with an assertion.
2156  *
2157  * This is more of a performance issue than a correctness issue.
2158  * The fastpath won't have a descent stack. Using a phony stack
2159  * here works, but never rely on that. The fastpath should be
2160  * rejected within _bt_search_insert() when the rightmost leaf
2161  * page will split, since it's faster to go through _bt_search()
2162  * and get a stack in the usual way.
2163  */
2164  Assert(!(P_ISLEAF(opaque) &&
2166 
2167  /* Find the leftmost page at the next level up */
2168  pbuf = _bt_get_endpoint(rel, opaque->btpo_level + 1, false);
2169  /* Set up a phony stack entry pointing there */
2170  stack = &fakestack;
2171  stack->bts_blkno = BufferGetBlockNumber(pbuf);
2173  stack->bts_parent = NULL;
2174  _bt_relbuf(rel, pbuf);
2175  }
2176 
2177  /* get high key from left, a strict lower bound for new right page */
2178  ritem = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page,
2179  PageGetItemId(page, P_HIKEY));
2180 
2181  /* form an index tuple that points at the new right page */
2182  new_item = CopyIndexTuple(ritem);
2183  BTreeTupleSetDownLink(new_item, rbknum);
2184 
2185  /*
2186  * Re-find and write lock the parent of buf.
2187  *
2188  * It's possible that the location of buf's downlink has changed since
2189  * our initial _bt_search() descent. _bt_getstackbuf() will detect
2190  * and recover from this, updating the stack, which ensures that the
2191  * new downlink will be inserted at the correct offset. Even buf's
2192  * parent may have changed.
2193  */
2194  pbuf = _bt_getstackbuf(rel, heaprel, stack, bknum);
2195 
2196  /*
2197  * Unlock the right child. The left child will be unlocked in
2198  * _bt_insertonpg().
2199  *
2200  * Unlocking the right child must be delayed until here to ensure that
2201  * no concurrent VACUUM operation can become confused. Page deletion
2202  * cannot be allowed to fail to re-find a downlink for the rbuf page.
2203  * (Actually, this is just a vestige of how things used to work. The
2204  * page deletion code is expected to check for the INCOMPLETE_SPLIT
2205  * flag on the left child. It won't attempt deletion of the right
2206  * child until the split is complete. Despite all this, we opt to
2207  * conservatively delay unlocking the right child until here.)
2208  */
2209  _bt_relbuf(rel, rbuf);
2210 
2211  if (pbuf == InvalidBuffer)
2212  ereport(ERROR,
2213  (errcode(ERRCODE_INDEX_CORRUPTED),
2214  errmsg_internal("failed to re-find parent key in index \"%s\" for split pages %u/%u",
2215  RelationGetRelationName(rel), bknum, rbknum)));
2216 
2217  /* Recursively insert into the parent */
2218  _bt_insertonpg(rel, heaprel, NULL, pbuf, buf, stack->bts_parent,
2219  new_item, MAXALIGN(IndexTupleSize(new_item)),
2220  stack->bts_offset + 1, 0, isonly);
2221 
2222  /* be tidy */
2223  pfree(new_item);
2224  }
2225 }
2226 
2227 /*
2228  * _bt_finish_split() -- Finish an incomplete split
2229  *
2230  * A crash or other failure can leave a split incomplete. The insertion
2231  * routines won't allow to insert on a page that is incompletely split.
2232  * Before inserting on such a page, call _bt_finish_split().
2233  *
2234  * On entry, 'lbuf' must be locked in write-mode. On exit, it is unlocked
2235  * and unpinned.
2236  *
2237  * Caller must provide a valid heaprel, since finishing a page split requires
2238  * allocating a new page if and when the parent page splits in turn.
2239  */
2240 void
2242 {
2243  Page lpage = BufferGetPage(lbuf);
2244  BTPageOpaque lpageop = BTPageGetOpaque(lpage);
2245  Buffer rbuf;
2246  Page rpage;
2247  BTPageOpaque rpageop;
2248  bool wasroot;
2249  bool wasonly;
2250 
2251  Assert(P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(lpageop));
2252  Assert(heaprel != NULL);
2253 
2254  /* Lock right sibling, the one missing the downlink */
2255  rbuf = _bt_getbuf(rel, lpageop->btpo_next, BT_WRITE);
2256  rpage = BufferGetPage(rbuf);
2257  rpageop = BTPageGetOpaque(rpage);
2258 
2259  /* Could this be a root split? */
2260  if (!stack)
2261  {
2262  Buffer metabuf;
2263  Page metapg;
2264  BTMetaPageData *metad;
2265 
2266  /* acquire lock on the metapage */
2267  metabuf = _bt_getbuf(rel, BTREE_METAPAGE, BT_WRITE);
2268  metapg = BufferGetPage(metabuf);
2269  metad = BTPageGetMeta(metapg);
2270 
2271  wasroot = (metad->btm_root == BufferGetBlockNumber(lbuf));
2272 
2273  _bt_relbuf(rel, metabuf);
2274  }
2275  else
2276  wasroot = false;
2277 
2278  /* Was this the only page on the level before split? */
2279  wasonly = (P_LEFTMOST(lpageop) && P_RIGHTMOST(rpageop));
2280 
2281  elog(DEBUG1, "finishing incomplete split of %u/%u",
2283 
2284  _bt_insert_parent(rel, heaprel, lbuf, rbuf, stack, wasroot, wasonly);
2285 }
2286 
2287 /*
2288  * _bt_getstackbuf() -- Walk back up the tree one step, and find the pivot
2289  * tuple whose downlink points to child page.
2290  *
2291  * Caller passes child's block number, which is used to identify
2292  * associated pivot tuple in parent page using a linear search that
2293  * matches on pivot's downlink/block number. The expected location of
2294  * the pivot tuple is taken from the stack one level above the child
2295  * page. This is used as a starting point. Insertions into the
2296  * parent level could cause the pivot tuple to move right; deletions
2297  * could cause it to move left, but not left of the page we previously
2298  * found it on.
2299  *
2300  * Caller can use its stack to relocate the pivot tuple/downlink for
2301  * any same-level page to the right of the page found by its initial
2302  * descent. This is necessary because of the possibility that caller
2303  * moved right to recover from a concurrent page split. It's also
2304  * convenient for certain callers to be able to step right when there
2305  * wasn't a concurrent page split, while still using their original
2306  * stack. For example, the checkingunique _bt_doinsert() case may
2307  * have to step right when there are many physical duplicates, and its
2308  * scantid forces an insertion to the right of the "first page the
2309  * value could be on". (This is also relied on by all of our callers
2310  * when dealing with !heapkeyspace indexes.)
2311  *
2312  * Returns write-locked parent page buffer, or InvalidBuffer if pivot
2313  * tuple not found (should not happen). Adjusts bts_blkno &
2314  * bts_offset if changed. Page split caller should insert its new
2315  * pivot tuple for its new right sibling page on parent page, at the
2316  * offset number bts_offset + 1.
2317  */
2318 Buffer
2320 {
2321  BlockNumber blkno;
2323 
2324  blkno = stack->bts_blkno;
2325  start = stack->bts_offset;
2326 
2327  for (;;)
2328  {
2329  Buffer buf;
2330  Page page;
2331  BTPageOpaque opaque;
2332 
2333  buf = _bt_getbuf(rel, blkno, BT_WRITE);
2334  page = BufferGetPage(buf);
2335  opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
2336 
2337  Assert(heaprel != NULL);
2338  if (P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(opaque))
2339  {
2340  _bt_finish_split(rel, heaprel, buf, stack->bts_parent);
2341  continue;
2342  }
2343 
2344  if (!P_IGNORE(opaque))
2345  {
2346  OffsetNumber offnum,
2347  minoff,
2348  maxoff;
2349  ItemId itemid;
2350  IndexTuple item;
2351 
2352  minoff = P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque);
2353  maxoff = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page);
2354 
2355  /*
2356  * start = InvalidOffsetNumber means "search the whole page". We
2357  * need this test anyway due to possibility that page has a high
2358  * key now when it didn't before.
2359  */
2360  if (start < minoff)
2361  start = minoff;
2362 
2363  /*
2364  * Need this check too, to guard against possibility that page
2365  * split since we visited it originally.
2366  */
2367  if (start > maxoff)
2368  start = OffsetNumberNext(maxoff);
2369 
2370  /*
2371  * These loops will check every item on the page --- but in an
2372  * order that's attuned to the probability of where it actually
2373  * is. Scan to the right first, then to the left.
2374  */
2375  for (offnum = start;
2376  offnum <= maxoff;
2377  offnum = OffsetNumberNext(offnum))
2378  {
2379  itemid = PageGetItemId(page, offnum);
2380  item = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page, itemid);
2381 
2382  if (BTreeTupleGetDownLink(item) == child)
2383  {
2384  /* Return accurate pointer to where link is now */
2385  stack->bts_blkno = blkno;
2386  stack->bts_offset = offnum;
2387  return buf;
2388  }
2389  }
2390 
2391  for (offnum = OffsetNumberPrev(start);
2392  offnum >= minoff;
2393  offnum = OffsetNumberPrev(offnum))
2394  {
2395  itemid = PageGetItemId(page, offnum);
2396  item = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page, itemid);
2397 
2398  if (BTreeTupleGetDownLink(item) == child)
2399  {
2400  /* Return accurate pointer to where link is now */
2401  stack->bts_blkno = blkno;
2402  stack->bts_offset = offnum;
2403  return buf;
2404  }
2405  }
2406  }
2407 
2408  /*
2409  * The item we're looking for moved right at least one page.
2410  *
2411  * Lehman and Yao couple/chain locks when moving right here, which we
2412  * can avoid. See nbtree/README.
2413  */
2414  if (P_RIGHTMOST(opaque))
2415  {
2416  _bt_relbuf(rel, buf);
2417  return InvalidBuffer;
2418  }
2419  blkno = opaque->btpo_next;
2421  _bt_relbuf(rel, buf);
2422  }
2423 }
2424 
2425 /*
2426  * _bt_newlevel() -- Create a new level above root page.
2427  *
2428  * We've just split the old root page and need to create a new one.
2429  * In order to do this, we add a new root page to the file, then lock
2430  * the metadata page and update it. This is guaranteed to be deadlock-
2431  * free, because all readers release their locks on the metadata page
2432  * before trying to lock the root, and all writers lock the root before
2433  * trying to lock the metadata page. We have a write lock on the old
2434  * root page, so we have not introduced any cycles into the waits-for
2435  * graph.
2436  *
2437  * On entry, lbuf (the old root) and rbuf (its new peer) are write-
2438  * locked. On exit, a new root page exists with entries for the
2439  * two new children, metapage is updated and unlocked/unpinned.
2440  * The new root buffer is returned to caller which has to unlock/unpin
2441  * lbuf, rbuf & rootbuf.
2442  */
2443 static Buffer
2444 _bt_newlevel(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, Buffer lbuf, Buffer rbuf)
2445 {
2446  Buffer rootbuf;
2447  Page lpage,
2448  rootpage;
2449  BlockNumber lbkno,
2450  rbkno;
2451  BlockNumber rootblknum;
2452  BTPageOpaque rootopaque;
2453  BTPageOpaque lopaque;
2454  ItemId itemid;
2455  IndexTuple item;
2456  IndexTuple left_item;
2457  Size left_item_sz;
2458  IndexTuple right_item;
2459  Size right_item_sz;
2460  Buffer metabuf;
2461  Page metapg;
2462  BTMetaPageData *metad;
2463 
2464  lbkno = BufferGetBlockNumber(lbuf);
2465  rbkno = BufferGetBlockNumber(rbuf);
2466  lpage = BufferGetPage(lbuf);
2467  lopaque = BTPageGetOpaque(lpage);
2468 
2469  /* get a new root page */
2470  rootbuf = _bt_allocbuf(rel, heaprel);
2471  rootpage = BufferGetPage(rootbuf);
2472  rootblknum = BufferGetBlockNumber(rootbuf);
2473 
2474  /* acquire lock on the metapage */
2475  metabuf = _bt_getbuf(rel, BTREE_METAPAGE, BT_WRITE);
2476  metapg = BufferGetPage(metabuf);
2477  metad = BTPageGetMeta(metapg);
2478 
2479  /*
2480  * Create downlink item for left page (old root). The key value used is
2481  * "minus infinity", a sentinel value that's reliably less than any real
2482  * key value that could appear in the left page.
2483  */
2484  left_item_sz = sizeof(IndexTupleData);
2485  left_item = (IndexTuple) palloc(left_item_sz);
2486  left_item->t_info = left_item_sz;
2487  BTreeTupleSetDownLink(left_item, lbkno);
2488  BTreeTupleSetNAtts(left_item, 0, false);
2489 
2490  /*
2491  * Create downlink item for right page. The key for it is obtained from
2492  * the "high key" position in the left page.
2493  */
2494  itemid = PageGetItemId(lpage, P_HIKEY);
2495  right_item_sz = ItemIdGetLength(itemid);
2496  item = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(lpage, itemid);
2497  right_item = CopyIndexTuple(item);
2498  BTreeTupleSetDownLink(right_item, rbkno);
2499 
2500  /* NO EREPORT(ERROR) from here till newroot op is logged */
2502 
2503  /* upgrade metapage if needed */
2504  if (metad->btm_version < BTREE_NOVAC_VERSION)
2505  _bt_upgrademetapage(metapg);
2506 
2507  /* set btree special data */
2508  rootopaque = BTPageGetOpaque(rootpage);
2509  rootopaque->btpo_prev = rootopaque->btpo_next = P_NONE;
2510  rootopaque->btpo_flags = BTP_ROOT;
2511  rootopaque->btpo_level =
2512  (BTPageGetOpaque(lpage))->btpo_level + 1;
2513  rootopaque->btpo_cycleid = 0;
2514 
2515  /* update metapage data */
2516  metad->btm_root = rootblknum;
2517  metad->btm_level = rootopaque->btpo_level;
2518  metad->btm_fastroot = rootblknum;
2519  metad->btm_fastlevel = rootopaque->btpo_level;
2520 
2521  /*
2522  * Insert the left page pointer into the new root page. The root page is
2523  * the rightmost page on its level so there is no "high key" in it; the
2524  * two items will go into positions P_HIKEY and P_FIRSTKEY.
2525  *
2526  * Note: we *must* insert the two items in item-number order, for the
2527  * benefit of _bt_restore_page().
2528  */
2529  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(left_item, rel) == 0);
2530  if (PageAddItem(rootpage, (Item) left_item, left_item_sz, P_HIKEY,
2531  false, false) == InvalidOffsetNumber)
2532  elog(PANIC, "failed to add leftkey to new root page"
2533  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
2535 
2536  /*
2537  * insert the right page pointer into the new root page.
2538  */
2539  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(right_item, rel) > 0);
2540  Assert(BTreeTupleGetNAtts(right_item, rel) <=
2542  if (PageAddItem(rootpage, (Item) right_item, right_item_sz, P_FIRSTKEY,
2543  false, false) == InvalidOffsetNumber)
2544  elog(PANIC, "failed to add rightkey to new root page"
2545  " while splitting block %u of index \"%s\"",
2547 
2548  /* Clear the incomplete-split flag in the left child */
2549  Assert(P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(lopaque));
2550  lopaque->btpo_flags &= ~BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT;
2551  MarkBufferDirty(lbuf);
2552 
2553  MarkBufferDirty(rootbuf);
2554  MarkBufferDirty(metabuf);
2555 
2556  /* XLOG stuff */
2557  if (RelationNeedsWAL(rel))
2558  {
2559  xl_btree_newroot xlrec;
2560  XLogRecPtr recptr;
2561  xl_btree_metadata md;
2562 
2563  xlrec.rootblk = rootblknum;
2564  xlrec.level = metad->btm_level;
2565 
2566  XLogBeginInsert();
2567  XLogRegisterData((char *) &xlrec, SizeOfBtreeNewroot);
2568 
2569  XLogRegisterBuffer(0, rootbuf, REGBUF_WILL_INIT);
2572 
2574  md.version = metad->btm_version;
2575  md.root = rootblknum;
2576  md.level = metad->btm_level;
2577  md.fastroot = rootblknum;
2578  md.fastlevel = metad->btm_level;
2580  md.allequalimage = metad->btm_allequalimage;
2581 
2582  XLogRegisterBufData(2, (char *) &md, sizeof(xl_btree_metadata));
2583 
2584  /*
2585  * Direct access to page is not good but faster - we should implement
2586  * some new func in page API.
2587  */
2589  (char *) rootpage + ((PageHeader) rootpage)->pd_upper,
2590  ((PageHeader) rootpage)->pd_special -
2591  ((PageHeader) rootpage)->pd_upper);
2592 
2593  recptr = XLogInsert(RM_BTREE_ID, XLOG_BTREE_NEWROOT);
2594 
2595  PageSetLSN(lpage, recptr);
2596  PageSetLSN(rootpage, recptr);
2597  PageSetLSN(metapg, recptr);
2598  }
2599 
2600  END_CRIT_SECTION();
2601 
2602  /* done with metapage */
2603  _bt_relbuf(rel, metabuf);
2604 
2605  pfree(left_item);
2606  pfree(right_item);
2607 
2608  return rootbuf;
2609 }
2610 
2611 /*
2612  * _bt_pgaddtup() -- add a data item to a particular page during split.
2613  *
2614  * The difference between this routine and a bare PageAddItem call is
2615  * that this code can deal with the first data item on an internal btree
2616  * page in passing. This data item (which is called "firstright" within
2617  * _bt_split()) has a key that must be treated as minus infinity after
2618  * the split. Therefore, we truncate away all attributes when caller
2619  * specifies it's the first data item on page (downlink is not changed,
2620  * though). This extra step is only needed for the right page of an
2621  * internal page split. There is no need to do this for the first data
2622  * item on the existing/left page, since that will already have been
2623  * truncated during an earlier page split.
2624  *
2625  * See _bt_split() for a high level explanation of why we truncate here.
2626  * Note that this routine has nothing to do with suffix truncation,
2627  * despite using some of the same infrastructure.
2628  */
2629 static inline bool
2631  Size itemsize,
2632  IndexTuple itup,
2633  OffsetNumber itup_off,
2634  bool newfirstdataitem)
2635 {
2636  IndexTupleData trunctuple;
2637 
2638  if (newfirstdataitem)
2639  {
2640  trunctuple = *itup;
2641  trunctuple.t_info = sizeof(IndexTupleData);
2642  BTreeTupleSetNAtts(&trunctuple, 0, false);
2643  itup = &trunctuple;
2644  itemsize = sizeof(IndexTupleData);
2645  }
2646 
2647  if (unlikely(PageAddItem(page, (Item) itup, itemsize, itup_off, false,
2648  false) == InvalidOffsetNumber))
2649  return false;
2650 
2651  return true;
2652 }
2653 
2654 /*
2655  * _bt_delete_or_dedup_one_page - Try to avoid a leaf page split.
2656  *
2657  * There are three operations performed here: simple index deletion, bottom-up
2658  * index deletion, and deduplication. If all three operations fail to free
2659  * enough space for the incoming item then caller will go on to split the
2660  * page. We always consider simple deletion first. If that doesn't work out
2661  * we consider alternatives. Callers that only want us to consider simple
2662  * deletion (without any fallback) ask for that using the 'simpleonly'
2663  * argument.
2664  *
2665  * We usually pick only one alternative "complex" operation when simple
2666  * deletion alone won't prevent a page split. The 'checkingunique',
2667  * 'uniquedup', and 'indexUnchanged' arguments are used for that.
2668  *
2669  * Note: We used to only delete LP_DEAD items when the BTP_HAS_GARBAGE page
2670  * level flag was found set. The flag was useful back when there wasn't
2671  * necessarily one single page for a duplicate tuple to go on (before heap TID
2672  * became a part of the key space in version 4 indexes). But we don't
2673  * actually look at the flag anymore (it's not a gating condition for our
2674  * caller). That would cause us to miss tuples that are safe to delete,
2675  * without getting any benefit in return. We know that the alternative is to
2676  * split the page; scanning the line pointer array in passing won't have
2677  * noticeable overhead. (We still maintain the BTP_HAS_GARBAGE flag despite
2678  * all this because !heapkeyspace indexes must still do a "getting tired"
2679  * linear search, and so are likely to get some benefit from using it as a
2680  * gating condition.)
2681  */
2682 static void
2684  BTInsertState insertstate,
2685  bool simpleonly, bool checkingunique,
2686  bool uniquedup, bool indexUnchanged)
2687 {
2689  int ndeletable = 0;
2690  OffsetNumber offnum,
2691  minoff,
2692  maxoff;
2693  Buffer buffer = insertstate->buf;
2694  BTScanInsert itup_key = insertstate->itup_key;
2695  Page page = BufferGetPage(buffer);
2696  BTPageOpaque opaque = BTPageGetOpaque(page);
2697 
2698  Assert(P_ISLEAF(opaque));
2699  Assert(simpleonly || itup_key->heapkeyspace);
2700  Assert(!simpleonly || (!checkingunique && !uniquedup && !indexUnchanged));
2701 
2702  /*
2703  * Scan over all items to see which ones need to be deleted according to
2704  * LP_DEAD flags. We'll usually manage to delete a few extra items that
2705  * are not marked LP_DEAD in passing. Often the extra items that actually
2706  * end up getting deleted are items that would have had their LP_DEAD bit
2707  * set before long anyway (if we opted not to include them as extras).
2708  */
2709  minoff = P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque);
2710  maxoff = PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(page);
2711  for (offnum = minoff;
2712  offnum <= maxoff;
2713  offnum = OffsetNumberNext(offnum))
2714  {
2715  ItemId itemId = PageGetItemId(page, offnum);
2716 
2717  if (ItemIdIsDead(itemId))
2718  deletable[ndeletable++] = offnum;
2719  }
2720 
2721  if (ndeletable > 0)
2722  {
2723  _bt_simpledel_pass(rel, buffer, heapRel, deletable, ndeletable,
2724  insertstate->itup, minoff, maxoff);
2725  insertstate->bounds_valid = false;
2726 
2727  /* Return when a page split has already been avoided */
2728  if (PageGetFreeSpace(page) >= insertstate->itemsz)
2729  return;
2730 
2731  /* Might as well assume duplicates (if checkingunique) */
2732  uniquedup = true;
2733  }
2734 
2735  /*
2736  * We're done with simple deletion. Return early with callers that only
2737  * call here so that simple deletion can be considered. This includes
2738  * callers that explicitly ask for this and checkingunique callers that
2739  * probably don't have any version churn duplicates on the page.
2740  *
2741  * Note: The page's BTP_HAS_GARBAGE hint flag may still be set when we
2742  * return at this point (or when we go on the try either or both of our
2743  * other strategies and they also fail). We do not bother expending a
2744  * separate write to clear it, however. Caller will definitely clear it
2745  * when it goes on to split the page (note also that the deduplication
2746  * process will clear the flag in passing, just to keep things tidy).
2747  */
2748  if (simpleonly || (checkingunique && !uniquedup))
2749  {
2750  Assert(!indexUnchanged);
2751  return;
2752  }
2753 
2754  /* Assume bounds about to be invalidated (this is almost certain now) */
2755  insertstate->bounds_valid = false;
2756 
2757  /*
2758  * Perform bottom-up index deletion pass when executor hint indicated that
2759  * incoming item is logically unchanged, or for a unique index that is
2760  * known to have physical duplicates for some other reason. (There is a
2761  * large overlap between these two cases for a unique index. It's worth
2762  * having both triggering conditions in order to apply the optimization in
2763  * the event of successive related INSERT and DELETE statements.)
2764  *
2765  * We'll go on to do a deduplication pass when a bottom-up pass fails to
2766  * delete an acceptable amount of free space (a significant fraction of
2767  * the page, or space for the new item, whichever is greater).
2768  *
2769  * Note: Bottom-up index deletion uses the same equality/equivalence
2770  * routines as deduplication internally. However, it does not merge
2771  * together index tuples, so the same correctness considerations do not
2772  * apply. We deliberately omit an index-is-allequalimage test here.
2773  */
2774  if ((indexUnchanged || uniquedup) &&
2775  _bt_bottomupdel_pass(rel, buffer, heapRel, insertstate->itemsz))
2776  return;
2777 
2778  /* Perform deduplication pass (when enabled and index-is-allequalimage) */
2779  if (BTGetDeduplicateItems(rel) && itup_key->allequalimage)
2780  _bt_dedup_pass(rel, buffer, insertstate->itup, insertstate->itemsz,
2781  (indexUnchanged || uniquedup));
2782 }
2783 
2784 /*
2785  * _bt_simpledel_pass - Simple index tuple deletion pass.
2786  *
2787  * We delete all LP_DEAD-set index tuples on a leaf page. The offset numbers
2788  * of all such tuples are determined by caller (caller passes these to us as
2789  * its 'deletable' argument).
2790  *
2791  * We might also delete extra index tuples that turn out to be safe to delete
2792  * in passing (though they must be cheap to check in passing to begin with).
2793  * There is no certainty that any extra tuples will be deleted, though. The
2794  * high level goal of the approach we take is to get the most out of each call
2795  * here (without noticeably increasing the per-call overhead compared to what
2796  * we need to do just to be able to delete the page's LP_DEAD-marked index
2797  * tuples).
2798  *
2799  * The number of extra index tuples that turn out to be deletable might
2800  * greatly exceed the number of LP_DEAD-marked index tuples due to various
2801  * locality related effects. For example, it's possible that the total number
2802  * of table blocks (pointed to by all TIDs on the leaf page) is naturally
2803  * quite low, in which case we might end up checking if it's possible to
2804  * delete _most_ index tuples on the page (without the tableam needing to
2805  * access additional table blocks). The tableam will sometimes stumble upon
2806  * _many_ extra deletable index tuples in indexes where this pattern is
2807  * common.
2808  *
2809  * See nbtree/README for further details on simple index tuple deletion.
2810  */
2811 static void
2813  OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable, IndexTuple newitem,
2814  OffsetNumber minoff, OffsetNumber maxoff)
2815 {
2816  Page page = BufferGetPage(buffer);
2817  BlockNumber *deadblocks;
2818  int ndeadblocks;
2819  TM_IndexDeleteOp delstate;
2820  OffsetNumber offnum;
2821 
2822  /* Get array of table blocks pointed to by LP_DEAD-set tuples */
2823  deadblocks = _bt_deadblocks(page, deletable, ndeletable, newitem,
2824  &ndeadblocks);
2825 
2826  /* Initialize tableam state that describes index deletion operation */
2827  delstate.irel = rel;
2828  delstate.iblknum = BufferGetBlockNumber(buffer);
2829  delstate.bottomup = false;
2830  delstate.bottomupfreespace = 0;
2831  delstate.ndeltids = 0;
2832  delstate.deltids = palloc(MaxTIDsPerBTreePage * sizeof(TM_IndexDelete));
2833  delstate.status = palloc(MaxTIDsPerBTreePage * sizeof(TM_IndexStatus));
2834 
2835  for (offnum = minoff;
2836  offnum <= maxoff;
2837  offnum = OffsetNumberNext(offnum))
2838  {
2839  ItemId itemid = PageGetItemId(page, offnum);
2840  IndexTuple itup = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page, itemid);
2841  TM_IndexDelete *odeltid = &delstate.deltids[delstate.ndeltids];
2842  TM_IndexStatus *ostatus = &delstate.status[delstate.ndeltids];
2843  BlockNumber tidblock;
2844  void *match;
2845 
2846  if (!BTreeTupleIsPosting(itup))
2847  {
2848  tidblock = ItemPointerGetBlockNumber(&itup->t_tid);
2849  match = bsearch(&tidblock, deadblocks, ndeadblocks,
2850  sizeof(BlockNumber), _bt_blk_cmp);
2851 
2852  if (!match)
2853  {
2854  Assert(!ItemIdIsDead(itemid));
2855  continue;
2856  }
2857 
2858  /*
2859  * TID's table block is among those pointed to by the TIDs from
2860  * LP_DEAD-bit set tuples on page -- add TID to deltids
2861  */
2862  odeltid->tid = itup->t_tid;
2863  odeltid->id = delstate.ndeltids;
2864  ostatus->idxoffnum = offnum;
2865  ostatus->knowndeletable = ItemIdIsDead(itemid);
2866  ostatus->promising = false; /* unused */
2867  ostatus->freespace = 0; /* unused */
2868 
2869  delstate.ndeltids++;
2870  }
2871  else
2872  {
2873  int nitem = BTreeTupleGetNPosting(itup);
2874 
2875  for (int p = 0; p < nitem; p++)
2876  {
2877  ItemPointer tid = BTreeTupleGetPostingN(itup, p);
2878 
2879  tidblock = ItemPointerGetBlockNumber(tid);
2880  match = bsearch(&tidblock, deadblocks, ndeadblocks,
2881  sizeof(BlockNumber), _bt_blk_cmp);
2882 
2883  if (!match)
2884  {
2885  Assert(!ItemIdIsDead(itemid));
2886  continue;
2887  }
2888 
2889  /*
2890  * TID's table block is among those pointed to by the TIDs
2891  * from LP_DEAD-bit set tuples on page -- add TID to deltids
2892  */
2893  odeltid->tid = *tid;
2894  odeltid->id = delstate.ndeltids;
2895  ostatus->idxoffnum = offnum;
2896  ostatus->knowndeletable = ItemIdIsDead(itemid);
2897  ostatus->promising = false; /* unused */
2898  ostatus->freespace = 0; /* unused */
2899 
2900  odeltid++;
2901  ostatus++;
2902  delstate.ndeltids++;
2903  }
2904  }
2905  }
2906 
2907  pfree(deadblocks);
2908 
2909  Assert(delstate.ndeltids >= ndeletable);
2910 
2911  /* Physically delete LP_DEAD tuples (plus any delete-safe extra TIDs) */
2912  _bt_delitems_delete_check(rel, buffer, heapRel, &delstate);
2913 
2914  pfree(delstate.deltids);
2915  pfree(delstate.status);
2916 }
2917 
2918 /*
2919  * _bt_deadblocks() -- Get LP_DEAD related table blocks.
2920  *
2921  * Builds sorted and unique-ified array of table block numbers from index
2922  * tuple TIDs whose line pointers are marked LP_DEAD. Also adds the table
2923  * block from incoming newitem just in case it isn't among the LP_DEAD-related
2924  * table blocks.
2925  *
2926  * Always counting the newitem's table block as an LP_DEAD related block makes
2927  * sense because the cost is consistently low; it is practically certain that
2928  * the table block will not incur a buffer miss in tableam. On the other hand
2929  * the benefit is often quite high. There is a decent chance that there will
2930  * be some deletable items from this block, since in general most garbage
2931  * tuples became garbage in the recent past (in many cases this won't be the
2932  * first logical row that core code added to/modified in table block
2933  * recently).
2934  *
2935  * Returns final array, and sets *nblocks to its final size for caller.
2936  */
2937 static BlockNumber *
2938 _bt_deadblocks(Page page, OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable,
2939  IndexTuple newitem, int *nblocks)
2940 {
2941  int spacentids,
2942  ntids;
2943  BlockNumber *tidblocks;
2944 
2945  /*
2946  * Accumulate each TID's block in array whose initial size has space for
2947  * one table block per LP_DEAD-set tuple (plus space for the newitem table
2948  * block). Array will only need to grow when there are LP_DEAD-marked
2949  * posting list tuples (which is not that common).
2950  */
2951  spacentids = ndeletable + 1;
2952  ntids = 0;
2953  tidblocks = (BlockNumber *) palloc(sizeof(BlockNumber) * spacentids);
2954 
2955  /*
2956  * First add the table block for the incoming newitem. This is the one
2957  * case where simple deletion can visit a table block that doesn't have
2958  * any known deletable items.
2959  */
2960  Assert(!BTreeTupleIsPosting(newitem) && !BTreeTupleIsPivot(newitem));
2961  tidblocks[ntids++] = ItemPointerGetBlockNumber(&newitem->t_tid);
2962 
2963  for (int i = 0; i < ndeletable; i++)
2964  {
2965  ItemId itemid = PageGetItemId(page, deletable[i]);
2966  IndexTuple itup = (IndexTuple) PageGetItem(page, itemid);
2967 
2968  Assert(ItemIdIsDead(itemid));
2969 
2970  if (!BTreeTupleIsPosting(itup))
2971  {
2972  if (ntids + 1 > spacentids)
2973  {
2974  spacentids *= 2;
2975  tidblocks = (BlockNumber *)
2976  repalloc(tidblocks, sizeof(BlockNumber) * spacentids);
2977  }
2978 
2979  tidblocks[ntids++] = ItemPointerGetBlockNumber(&itup->t_tid);
2980  }
2981  else
2982  {
2983  int nposting = BTreeTupleGetNPosting(itup);
2984 
2985  if (ntids + nposting > spacentids)
2986  {
2987  spacentids = Max(spacentids * 2, ntids + nposting);
2988  tidblocks = (BlockNumber *)
2989  repalloc(tidblocks, sizeof(BlockNumber) * spacentids);
2990  }
2991 
2992  for (int j = 0; j < nposting; j++)
2993  {
2994  ItemPointer tid = BTreeTupleGetPostingN(itup, j);
2995 
2996  tidblocks[ntids++] = ItemPointerGetBlockNumber(tid);
2997  }
2998  }
2999  }
3000 
3001  qsort(tidblocks, ntids, sizeof(BlockNumber), _bt_blk_cmp);
3002  *nblocks = qunique(tidblocks, ntids, sizeof(BlockNumber), _bt_blk_cmp);
3003 
3004  return tidblocks;
3005 }
3006 
3007 /*
3008  * _bt_blk_cmp() -- qsort comparison function for _bt_simpledel_pass
3009  */
3010 static inline int
3011 _bt_blk_cmp(const void *arg1, const void *arg2)
3012 {
3013  BlockNumber b1 = *((BlockNumber *) arg1);
3014  BlockNumber b2 = *((BlockNumber *) arg2);
3015 
3016  return pg_cmp_u32(b1, b2);
3017 }
uint32 BlockNumber
Definition: block.h:31
#define InvalidBlockNumber
Definition: block.h:33
static bool BlockNumberIsValid(BlockNumber blockNumber)
Definition: block.h:71
static Datum values[MAXATTR]
Definition: bootstrap.c:152
int Buffer
Definition: buf.h:23
#define InvalidBuffer
Definition: buf.h:25
BlockNumber BufferGetBlockNumber(Buffer buffer)
Definition: bufmgr.c:3713
void ReleaseBuffer(Buffer buffer)
Definition: bufmgr.c:4896
void MarkBufferDirty(Buffer buffer)
Definition: bufmgr.c:2520
void MarkBufferDirtyHint(Buffer buffer, bool buffer_std)
Definition: bufmgr.c:4960
Buffer ReadBuffer(Relation reln, BlockNumber blockNum)
Definition: bufmgr.c:745
static Page BufferGetPage(Buffer buffer)
Definition: bufmgr.h:404
static Size BufferGetPageSize(Buffer buffer)
Definition: bufmgr.h:393
static bool BufferIsValid(Buffer bufnum)
Definition: bufmgr.h:355
void PageRestoreTempPage(Page tempPage, Page oldPage)
Definition: bufpage.c:424
Page PageGetTempPage(Page page)
Definition: bufpage.c:365
Size PageGetFreeSpace(Page page)
Definition: bufpage.c:907
Pointer Page
Definition: bufpage.h:78
static Item PageGetItem(Page page, ItemId itemId)
Definition: bufpage.h:351
static ItemId PageGetItemId(Page page, OffsetNumber offsetNumber)
Definition: bufpage.h:240
static void PageSetLSN(Page page, XLogRecPtr lsn)
Definition: bufpage.h:388
static XLogRecPtr PageGetLSN(Page page)
Definition: bufpage.h:383
static OffsetNumber PageGetMaxOffsetNumber(Page page)
Definition: bufpage.h:369
#define PageAddItem(page, item, size, offsetNumber, overwrite, is_heap)
Definition: bufpage.h:468
unsigned short uint16
Definition: c.h:505
unsigned int uint32
Definition: c.h:506
#define MAXALIGN(LEN)
Definition: c.h:811
#define PG_UINT32_MAX
Definition: c.h:590
#define Max(x, y)
Definition: c.h:998
#define Assert(condition)
Definition: c.h:858
#define unlikely(x)
Definition: c.h:311
unsigned char uint8
Definition: c.h:504
uint32 TransactionId
Definition: c.h:652
size_t Size
Definition: c.h:605
int errmsg_internal(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:1157
int errdetail(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:1203
int errhint(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:1317
int errcode(int sqlerrcode)
Definition: elog.c:857
int errmsg(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:1070
#define DEBUG2
Definition: elog.h:29
#define PANIC
Definition: elog.h:42
#define DEBUG1
Definition: elog.h:30
#define ERROR
Definition: elog.h:39
#define elog(elevel,...)
Definition: elog.h:224
#define ereport(elevel,...)
Definition: elog.h:149
char * BuildIndexValueDescription(Relation indexRelation, const Datum *values, const bool *isnull)
Definition: genam.c:174
IndexUniqueCheck
Definition: genam.h:116
@ UNIQUE_CHECK_NO
Definition: genam.h:117
@ UNIQUE_CHECK_EXISTING
Definition: genam.h:120
@ UNIQUE_CHECK_PARTIAL
Definition: genam.h:119
return str start
void index_deform_tuple(IndexTuple tup, TupleDesc tupleDescriptor, Datum *values, bool *isnull)
Definition: indextuple.c:456
IndexTuple CopyIndexTuple(IndexTuple source)
Definition: indextuple.c:547
static int pg_cmp_u32(uint32 a, uint32 b)
Definition: int.h:489
int j
Definition: isn.c:74
int i
Definition: isn.c:73
if(TABLE==NULL||TABLE_index==NULL)
Definition: isn.c:77
Pointer Item
Definition: item.h:17
#define ItemIdMarkDead(itemId)
Definition: itemid.h:179
#define ItemIdGetLength(itemId)
Definition: itemid.h:59
#define ItemIdIsDead(itemId)
Definition: itemid.h:113
int32 ItemPointerCompare(ItemPointer arg1, ItemPointer arg2)
Definition: itemptr.c:51
static OffsetNumber ItemPointerGetOffsetNumber(const ItemPointerData *pointer)
Definition: itemptr.h:124
static BlockNumber ItemPointerGetBlockNumber(const ItemPointerData *pointer)
Definition: itemptr.h:103
IndexTupleData * IndexTuple
Definition: itup.h:53
#define IndexTupleSize(itup)
Definition: itup.h:70
struct IndexTupleData IndexTupleData
#define MaxIndexTuplesPerPage
Definition: itup.h:165
void XactLockTableWait(TransactionId xid, Relation rel, ItemPointer ctid, XLTW_Oper oper)
Definition: lmgr.c:667
void SpeculativeInsertionWait(TransactionId xid, uint32 token)
Definition: lmgr.c:824
@ XLTW_InsertIndex
Definition: lmgr.h:31
void pfree(void *pointer)
Definition: mcxt.c:1520
void * repalloc(void *pointer, Size size)
Definition: mcxt.c:1540
void * palloc(Size size)
Definition: mcxt.c:1316
#define START_CRIT_SECTION()
Definition: miscadmin.h:149
#define END_CRIT_SECTION()
Definition: miscadmin.h:151
IndexTuple _bt_swap_posting(IndexTuple newitem, IndexTuple oposting, int postingoff)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:1022
void _bt_dedup_pass(Relation rel, Buffer buf, IndexTuple newitem, Size newitemsz, bool bottomupdedup)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:58
bool _bt_bottomupdel_pass(Relation rel, Buffer buf, Relation heapRel, Size newitemsz)
Definition: nbtdedup.c:307
static BTStack _bt_search_insert(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTInsertState insertstate)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:317
#define BTREE_FASTPATH_MIN_LEVEL
Definition: nbtinsert.c:30
static OffsetNumber _bt_findinsertloc(Relation rel, BTInsertState insertstate, bool checkingunique, bool indexUnchanged, BTStack stack, Relation heapRel)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:815
Buffer _bt_getstackbuf(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTStack stack, BlockNumber child)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2319
static void _bt_simpledel_pass(Relation rel, Buffer buffer, Relation heapRel, OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable, IndexTuple newitem, OffsetNumber minoff, OffsetNumber maxoff)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2812
bool _bt_doinsert(Relation rel, IndexTuple itup, IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, bool indexUnchanged, Relation heapRel)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:102
static bool _bt_pgaddtup(Page page, Size itemsize, IndexTuple itup, OffsetNumber itup_off, bool newfirstdataitem)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2630
static Buffer _bt_newlevel(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, Buffer lbuf, Buffer rbuf)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2444
static void _bt_insert_parent(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, Buffer buf, Buffer rbuf, BTStack stack, bool isroot, bool isonly)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2099
static void _bt_delete_or_dedup_one_page(Relation rel, Relation heapRel, BTInsertState insertstate, bool simpleonly, bool checkingunique, bool uniquedup, bool indexUnchanged)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2683
void _bt_finish_split(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, Buffer lbuf, BTStack stack)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2241
static Buffer _bt_split(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTScanInsert itup_key, Buffer buf, Buffer cbuf, OffsetNumber newitemoff, Size newitemsz, IndexTuple newitem, IndexTuple orignewitem, IndexTuple nposting, uint16 postingoff)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:1467
static int _bt_blk_cmp(const void *arg1, const void *arg2)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:3011
static void _bt_stepright(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTInsertState insertstate, BTStack stack)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:1027
static void _bt_insertonpg(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTScanInsert itup_key, Buffer buf, Buffer cbuf, BTStack stack, IndexTuple itup, Size itemsz, OffsetNumber newitemoff, int postingoff, bool split_only_page)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:1105
static TransactionId _bt_check_unique(Relation rel, BTInsertState insertstate, Relation heapRel, IndexUniqueCheck checkUnique, bool *is_unique, uint32 *speculativeToken)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:408
static BlockNumber * _bt_deadblocks(Page page, OffsetNumber *deletable, int ndeletable, IndexTuple newitem, int *nblocks)
Definition: nbtinsert.c:2938
Buffer _bt_relandgetbuf(Relation rel, Buffer obuf, BlockNumber blkno, int access)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1003
void _bt_upgrademetapage(Page page)
Definition: nbtpage.c:107
void _bt_relbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1023
int _bt_getrootheight(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtpage.c:675
void _bt_pageinit(Page page, Size size)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1129
Buffer _bt_allocbuf(Relation rel, Relation heaprel)
Definition: nbtpage.c:869
void _bt_checkpage(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:797
bool _bt_conditionallockbuf(Relation rel, Buffer buf)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1093
Buffer _bt_getbuf(Relation rel, BlockNumber blkno, int access)
Definition: nbtpage.c:845
void _bt_delitems_delete_check(Relation rel, Buffer buf, Relation heapRel, TM_IndexDeleteOp *delstate)
Definition: nbtpage.c:1513
#define BTGetDeduplicateItems(relation)
Definition: nbtree.h:1146
static uint16 BTreeTupleGetNPosting(IndexTuple posting)
Definition: nbtree.h:518
static bool BTreeTupleIsPivot(IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtree.h:480
#define BTPageGetMeta(p)
Definition: nbtree.h:121
#define P_ISLEAF(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:220
#define P_HIKEY
Definition: nbtree.h:367
#define P_HAS_GARBAGE(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:226
#define BTP_HAS_GARBAGE
Definition: nbtree.h:82
#define P_LEFTMOST(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:218
#define BTPageGetOpaque(page)
Definition: nbtree.h:73
#define BTP_ROOT
Definition: nbtree.h:77
#define MaxTIDsPerBTreePage
Definition: nbtree.h:185
static void BTreeTupleSetDownLink(IndexTuple pivot, BlockNumber blkno)
Definition: nbtree.h:562
#define P_FIRSTDATAKEY(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:369
#define P_ISROOT(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:221
#define P_NONE
Definition: nbtree.h:212
#define P_RIGHTMOST(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:219
#define BTMaxItemSize(page)
Definition: nbtree.h:164
#define P_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:227
#define BTREE_METAPAGE
Definition: nbtree.h:148
#define BTP_INCOMPLETE_SPLIT
Definition: nbtree.h:83
static ItemPointer BTreeTupleGetPostingN(IndexTuple posting, int n)
Definition: nbtree.h:544
#define BT_READ
Definition: nbtree.h:719
static BlockNumber BTreeTupleGetDownLink(IndexTuple pivot)
Definition: nbtree.h:556
#define P_IGNORE(opaque)
Definition: nbtree.h:225
static bool BTreeTupleIsPosting(IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtree.h:492
#define BTREE_NOVAC_VERSION
Definition: nbtree.h:152
#define BT_WRITE
Definition: nbtree.h:720
#define P_FIRSTKEY
Definition: nbtree.h:368
static void BTreeTupleSetNAtts(IndexTuple itup, uint16 nkeyatts, bool heaptid)
Definition: nbtree.h:595
#define BTP_SPLIT_END
Definition: nbtree.h:81
#define BTreeTupleGetNAtts(itup, rel)
Definition: nbtree.h:577
Buffer _bt_get_endpoint(Relation rel, uint32 level, bool rightmost)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:2479
BTStack _bt_search(Relation rel, Relation heaprel, BTScanInsert key, Buffer *bufP, int access)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:96
OffsetNumber _bt_binsrch_insert(Relation rel, BTInsertState insertstate)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:468
int32 _bt_compare(Relation rel, BTScanInsert key, Page page, OffsetNumber offnum)
Definition: nbtsearch.c:682
OffsetNumber _bt_findsplitloc(Relation rel, Page origpage, OffsetNumber newitemoff, Size newitemsz, IndexTuple newitem, bool *newitemonleft)
Definition: nbtsplitloc.c:129
void _bt_check_third_page(Relation rel, Relation heap, bool needheaptidspace, Page page, IndexTuple newtup)
Definition: nbtutils.c:5081
void _bt_freestack(BTStack stack)
Definition: nbtutils.c:221
BTCycleId _bt_vacuum_cycleid(Relation rel)
Definition: nbtutils.c:4392
BTScanInsert _bt_mkscankey(Relation rel, IndexTuple itup)
Definition: nbtutils.c:129
IndexTuple _bt_truncate(Relation rel, IndexTuple lastleft, IndexTuple firstright, BTScanInsert itup_key)
Definition: nbtutils.c:4655
#define XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_POST
Definition: nbtxlog.h:32
#define SizeOfBtreeInsert
Definition: nbtxlog.h:84
#define XLOG_BTREE_SPLIT_R
Definition: nbtxlog.h:31
#define XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_LEAF
Definition: nbtxlog.h:27
#define XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_UPPER
Definition: nbtxlog.h:28
#define SizeOfBtreeSplit
Definition: nbtxlog.h:158
#define SizeOfBtreeNewroot
Definition: nbtxlog.h:347
#define XLOG_BTREE_INSERT_META
Definition: nbtxlog.h:29
#define XLOG_BTREE_SPLIT_L
Definition: nbtxlog.h:30
#define XLOG_BTREE_NEWROOT
Definition: nbtxlog.h:37
#define InvalidOffsetNumber
Definition: off.h:26
#define OffsetNumberNext(offsetNumber)
Definition: off.h:52
uint16 OffsetNumber
Definition: off.h:24
#define OffsetNumberPrev(offsetNumber)
Definition: off.h:54
#define INDEX_MAX_KEYS
uint32 pg_prng_uint32(pg_prng_state *state)
Definition: pg_prng.c:227
pg_prng_state pg_global_prng_state
Definition: pg_prng.c:34
static char * buf
Definition: pg_test_fsync.c:73
#define qsort(a, b, c, d)
Definition: port.h:449
uintptr_t Datum
Definition: postgres.h:64
void PredicateLockPageSplit(Relation relation, BlockNumber oldblkno, BlockNumber newblkno)
Definition: predicate.c:3129
void CheckForSerializableConflictIn(Relation relation, ItemPointer tid, BlockNumber blkno)
Definition: predicate.c:4321
static size_t qunique(void *array, size_t elements, size_t width, int(*compare)(const void *, const void *))
Definition: qunique.h:21
#define RelationGetDescr(relation)
Definition: rel.h:531
#define RelationGetRelationName(relation)
Definition: rel.h:539
#define RelationGetTargetBlock(relation)
Definition: rel.h:601
#define RelationNeedsWAL(relation)
Definition: rel.h:628
#define RelationSetTargetBlock(relation, targblock)
Definition: rel.h:608
#define IndexRelationGetNumberOfAttributes(relation)
Definition: rel.h:517
#define IndexRelationGetNumberOfKeyAttributes(relation)
Definition: rel.h:524
int errtableconstraint(Relation rel, const char *conname)
Definition: relcache.c:6005
#define SnapshotSelf
Definition: snapmgr.h:32
#define InitDirtySnapshot(snapshotdata)
Definition: snapmgr.h:40
OffsetNumber stricthigh
Definition: nbtree.h:825
bool bounds_valid
Definition: nbtree.h:823
OffsetNumber low
Definition: nbtree.h:824
IndexTuple itup
Definition: nbtree.h:811
BTScanInsert itup_key
Definition: nbtree.h:813
uint32 btm_last_cleanup_num_delpages
Definition: nbtree.h:114
uint32 btm_level
Definition: nbtree.h:108
BlockNumber btm_fastroot
Definition: nbtree.h:109
uint32 btm_version
Definition: nbtree.h:106
BlockNumber btm_root
Definition: nbtree.h:107
bool btm_allequalimage
Definition: nbtree.h:118
uint32 btm_fastlevel
Definition: nbtree.h:110
BlockNumber btpo_next
Definition: nbtree.h:65
BlockNumber btpo_prev
Definition: nbtree.h:64
uint16 btpo_flags
Definition: nbtree.h:67
uint32 btpo_level
Definition: nbtree.h:66
BTCycleId btpo_cycleid
Definition: nbtree.h:68
ItemPointer scantid
Definition: nbtree.h:791
bool allequalimage
Definition: nbtree.h:787
bool heapkeyspace
Definition: nbtree.h:786
bool anynullkeys
Definition: nbtree.h:788
BlockNumber bts_blkno
Definition: nbtree.h:734
struct BTStackData * bts_parent
Definition: nbtree.h:736
OffsetNumber bts_offset
Definition: nbtree.h:735
ItemPointerData t_tid
Definition: itup.h:37
unsigned short t_info
Definition: itup.h:49
TransactionId xmin
Definition: snapshot.h:157
TransactionId xmax
Definition: snapshot.h:158
uint32 speculativeToken
Definition: snapshot.h:193
TM_IndexStatus * status
Definition: tableam.h:255
int bottomupfreespace
Definition: tableam.h:250
Relation irel
Definition: tableam.h:247
TM_IndexDelete * deltids
Definition: tableam.h:254
BlockNumber iblknum
Definition: tableam.h:248
ItemPointerData tid
Definition: tableam.h:213
bool knowndeletable
Definition: tableam.h:220
bool promising
Definition: tableam.h:223
int16 freespace
Definition: tableam.h:224
OffsetNumber idxoffnum
Definition: tableam.h:219
OffsetNumber offnum
Definition: nbtxlog.h:78
uint32 level
Definition: nbtxlog.h:50
uint32 version
Definition: nbtxlog.h:48
bool allequalimage
Definition: nbtxlog.h:54
BlockNumber fastroot
Definition: nbtxlog.h:51
uint32 fastlevel
Definition: nbtxlog.h:52
BlockNumber root
Definition: nbtxlog.h:49
uint32 last_cleanup_num_delpages
Definition: nbtxlog.h:53
uint32 level
Definition: nbtxlog.h:344
BlockNumber rootblk
Definition: nbtxlog.h:343
uint16 postingoff
Definition: nbtxlog.h:155
OffsetNumber firstrightoff
Definition: nbtxlog.h:153
uint32 level
Definition: nbtxlog.h:152
OffsetNumber newitemoff
Definition: nbtxlog.h:154
bool table_index_fetch_tuple_check(Relation rel, ItemPointer tid, Snapshot snapshot, bool *all_dead)
Definition: tableam.c:208
#define InvalidTransactionId
Definition: transam.h:31
#define TransactionIdIsValid(xid)
Definition: transam.h:41
uint64 XLogRecPtr
Definition: xlogdefs.h:21
void XLogRegisterData(char *data, uint32 len)
Definition: xloginsert.c:364
XLogRecPtr XLogInsert(RmgrId rmid, uint8 info)
Definition: xloginsert.c:474
void XLogRegisterBufData(uint8 block_id, char *data, uint32 len)
Definition: xloginsert.c:405
void XLogRegisterBuffer(uint8 block_id, Buffer buffer, uint8 flags)
Definition: xloginsert.c:242
void XLogBeginInsert(void)
Definition: xloginsert.c:149
#define REGBUF_STANDARD
Definition: xloginsert.h:34
#define REGBUF_WILL_INIT
Definition: xloginsert.h:33