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matview.c
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * matview.c
4  * materialized view support
5  *
6  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2020, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
8  *
9  *
10  * IDENTIFICATION
11  * src/backend/commands/matview.c
12  *
13  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
14  */
15 #include "postgres.h"
16 
17 #include "access/genam.h"
18 #include "access/heapam.h"
19 #include "access/htup_details.h"
20 #include "access/multixact.h"
21 #include "access/tableam.h"
22 #include "access/xact.h"
23 #include "access/xlog.h"
24 #include "catalog/catalog.h"
25 #include "catalog/indexing.h"
26 #include "catalog/namespace.h"
27 #include "catalog/pg_am.h"
28 #include "catalog/pg_opclass.h"
29 #include "catalog/pg_operator.h"
30 #include "commands/cluster.h"
31 #include "commands/matview.h"
32 #include "commands/tablecmds.h"
33 #include "commands/tablespace.h"
34 #include "executor/executor.h"
35 #include "executor/spi.h"
36 #include "miscadmin.h"
37 #include "parser/parse_relation.h"
38 #include "pgstat.h"
39 #include "rewrite/rewriteHandler.h"
40 #include "storage/lmgr.h"
41 #include "storage/smgr.h"
42 #include "tcop/tcopprot.h"
43 #include "utils/builtins.h"
44 #include "utils/lsyscache.h"
45 #include "utils/rel.h"
46 #include "utils/snapmgr.h"
47 #include "utils/syscache.h"
48 
49 
50 typedef struct
51 {
52  DestReceiver pub; /* publicly-known function pointers */
53  Oid transientoid; /* OID of new heap into which to store */
54  /* These fields are filled by transientrel_startup: */
55  Relation transientrel; /* relation to write to */
56  CommandId output_cid; /* cmin to insert in output tuples */
57  int ti_options; /* table_tuple_insert performance options */
58  BulkInsertState bistate; /* bulk insert state */
60 
62 
63 static void transientrel_startup(DestReceiver *self, int operation, TupleDesc typeinfo);
64 static bool transientrel_receive(TupleTableSlot *slot, DestReceiver *self);
65 static void transientrel_shutdown(DestReceiver *self);
66 static void transientrel_destroy(DestReceiver *self);
67 static uint64 refresh_matview_datafill(DestReceiver *dest, Query *query,
68  const char *queryString);
69 static char *make_temptable_name_n(char *tempname, int n);
70 static void refresh_by_match_merge(Oid matviewOid, Oid tempOid, Oid relowner,
71  int save_sec_context);
72 static void refresh_by_heap_swap(Oid matviewOid, Oid OIDNewHeap, char relpersistence);
73 static bool is_usable_unique_index(Relation indexRel);
74 static void OpenMatViewIncrementalMaintenance(void);
75 static void CloseMatViewIncrementalMaintenance(void);
76 
77 /*
78  * SetMatViewPopulatedState
79  * Mark a materialized view as populated, or not.
80  *
81  * NOTE: caller must be holding an appropriate lock on the relation.
82  */
83 void
85 {
86  Relation pgrel;
87  HeapTuple tuple;
88 
89  Assert(relation->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_MATVIEW);
90 
91  /*
92  * Update relation's pg_class entry. Crucial side-effect: other backends
93  * (and this one too!) are sent SI message to make them rebuild relcache
94  * entries.
95  */
96  pgrel = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
99  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
100  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for relation %u",
101  RelationGetRelid(relation));
102 
103  ((Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(tuple))->relispopulated = newstate;
104 
105  CatalogTupleUpdate(pgrel, &tuple->t_self, tuple);
106 
107  heap_freetuple(tuple);
109 
110  /*
111  * Advance command counter to make the updated pg_class row locally
112  * visible.
113  */
115 }
116 
117 /*
118  * ExecRefreshMatView -- execute a REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW command
119  *
120  * This refreshes the materialized view by creating a new table and swapping
121  * the relfilenodes of the new table and the old materialized view, so the OID
122  * of the original materialized view is preserved. Thus we do not lose GRANT
123  * nor references to this materialized view.
124  *
125  * If WITH NO DATA was specified, this is effectively like a TRUNCATE;
126  * otherwise it is like a TRUNCATE followed by an INSERT using the SELECT
127  * statement associated with the materialized view. The statement node's
128  * skipData field shows whether the clause was used.
129  *
130  * Indexes are rebuilt too, via REINDEX. Since we are effectively bulk-loading
131  * the new heap, it's better to create the indexes afterwards than to fill them
132  * incrementally while we load.
133  *
134  * The matview's "populated" state is changed based on whether the contents
135  * reflect the result set of the materialized view's query.
136  */
138 ExecRefreshMatView(RefreshMatViewStmt *stmt, const char *queryString,
139  ParamListInfo params, QueryCompletion *qc)
140 {
141  Oid matviewOid;
142  Relation matviewRel;
143  RewriteRule *rule;
144  List *actions;
145  Query *dataQuery;
146  Oid tableSpace;
147  Oid relowner;
148  Oid OIDNewHeap;
150  uint64 processed = 0;
151  bool concurrent;
152  LOCKMODE lockmode;
153  char relpersistence;
154  Oid save_userid;
155  int save_sec_context;
156  int save_nestlevel;
157  ObjectAddress address;
158 
159  /* Determine strength of lock needed. */
160  concurrent = stmt->concurrent;
161  lockmode = concurrent ? ExclusiveLock : AccessExclusiveLock;
162 
163  /*
164  * Get a lock until end of transaction.
165  */
166  matviewOid = RangeVarGetRelidExtended(stmt->relation,
167  lockmode, 0,
169  matviewRel = table_open(matviewOid, NoLock);
170 
171  /* Make sure it is a materialized view. */
172  if (matviewRel->rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_MATVIEW)
173  ereport(ERROR,
174  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
175  errmsg("\"%s\" is not a materialized view",
176  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel))));
177 
178  /* Check that CONCURRENTLY is not specified if not populated. */
179  if (concurrent && !RelationIsPopulated(matviewRel))
180  ereport(ERROR,
181  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
182  errmsg("CONCURRENTLY cannot be used when the materialized view is not populated")));
183 
184  /* Check that conflicting options have not been specified. */
185  if (concurrent && stmt->skipData)
186  ereport(ERROR,
187  (errcode(ERRCODE_SYNTAX_ERROR),
188  errmsg("CONCURRENTLY and WITH NO DATA options cannot be used together")));
189 
190  /*
191  * Check that everything is correct for a refresh. Problems at this point
192  * are internal errors, so elog is sufficient.
193  */
194  if (matviewRel->rd_rel->relhasrules == false ||
195  matviewRel->rd_rules->numLocks < 1)
196  elog(ERROR,
197  "materialized view \"%s\" is missing rewrite information",
198  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel));
199 
200  if (matviewRel->rd_rules->numLocks > 1)
201  elog(ERROR,
202  "materialized view \"%s\" has too many rules",
203  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel));
204 
205  rule = matviewRel->rd_rules->rules[0];
206  if (rule->event != CMD_SELECT || !(rule->isInstead))
207  elog(ERROR,
208  "the rule for materialized view \"%s\" is not a SELECT INSTEAD OF rule",
209  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel));
210 
211  actions = rule->actions;
212  if (list_length(actions) != 1)
213  elog(ERROR,
214  "the rule for materialized view \"%s\" is not a single action",
215  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel));
216 
217  /*
218  * Check that there is a unique index with no WHERE clause on one or more
219  * columns of the materialized view if CONCURRENTLY is specified.
220  */
221  if (concurrent)
222  {
223  List *indexoidlist = RelationGetIndexList(matviewRel);
224  ListCell *indexoidscan;
225  bool hasUniqueIndex = false;
226 
227  foreach(indexoidscan, indexoidlist)
228  {
229  Oid indexoid = lfirst_oid(indexoidscan);
230  Relation indexRel;
231 
232  indexRel = index_open(indexoid, AccessShareLock);
233  hasUniqueIndex = is_usable_unique_index(indexRel);
234  index_close(indexRel, AccessShareLock);
235  if (hasUniqueIndex)
236  break;
237  }
238 
239  list_free(indexoidlist);
240 
241  if (!hasUniqueIndex)
242  ereport(ERROR,
243  (errcode(ERRCODE_OBJECT_NOT_IN_PREREQUISITE_STATE),
244  errmsg("cannot refresh materialized view \"%s\" concurrently",
246  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel))),
247  errhint("Create a unique index with no WHERE clause on one or more columns of the materialized view.")));
248  }
249 
250  /*
251  * The stored query was rewritten at the time of the MV definition, but
252  * has not been scribbled on by the planner.
253  */
254  dataQuery = linitial_node(Query, actions);
255 
256  /*
257  * Check for active uses of the relation in the current transaction, such
258  * as open scans.
259  *
260  * NB: We count on this to protect us against problems with refreshing the
261  * data using TABLE_INSERT_FROZEN.
262  */
263  CheckTableNotInUse(matviewRel, "REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW");
264 
265  /*
266  * Tentatively mark the matview as populated or not (this will roll back
267  * if we fail later).
268  */
269  SetMatViewPopulatedState(matviewRel, !stmt->skipData);
270 
271  relowner = matviewRel->rd_rel->relowner;
272 
273  /*
274  * Switch to the owner's userid, so that any functions are run as that
275  * user. Also arrange to make GUC variable changes local to this command.
276  * Don't lock it down too tight to create a temporary table just yet. We
277  * will switch modes when we are about to execute user code.
278  */
279  GetUserIdAndSecContext(&save_userid, &save_sec_context);
280  SetUserIdAndSecContext(relowner,
281  save_sec_context | SECURITY_LOCAL_USERID_CHANGE);
282  save_nestlevel = NewGUCNestLevel();
283 
284  /* Concurrent refresh builds new data in temp tablespace, and does diff. */
285  if (concurrent)
286  {
287  tableSpace = GetDefaultTablespace(RELPERSISTENCE_TEMP, false);
288  relpersistence = RELPERSISTENCE_TEMP;
289  }
290  else
291  {
292  tableSpace = matviewRel->rd_rel->reltablespace;
293  relpersistence = matviewRel->rd_rel->relpersistence;
294  }
295 
296  /*
297  * Create the transient table that will receive the regenerated data. Lock
298  * it against access by any other process until commit (by which time it
299  * will be gone).
300  */
301  OIDNewHeap = make_new_heap(matviewOid, tableSpace, relpersistence,
302  ExclusiveLock);
304  dest = CreateTransientRelDestReceiver(OIDNewHeap);
305 
306  /*
307  * Now lock down security-restricted operations.
308  */
309  SetUserIdAndSecContext(relowner,
310  save_sec_context | SECURITY_RESTRICTED_OPERATION);
311 
312  /* Generate the data, if wanted. */
313  if (!stmt->skipData)
314  processed = refresh_matview_datafill(dest, dataQuery, queryString);
315 
316  /* Make the matview match the newly generated data. */
317  if (concurrent)
318  {
319  int old_depth = matview_maintenance_depth;
320 
321  PG_TRY();
322  {
323  refresh_by_match_merge(matviewOid, OIDNewHeap, relowner,
324  save_sec_context);
325  }
326  PG_CATCH();
327  {
328  matview_maintenance_depth = old_depth;
329  PG_RE_THROW();
330  }
331  PG_END_TRY();
332  Assert(matview_maintenance_depth == old_depth);
333  }
334  else
335  {
336  refresh_by_heap_swap(matviewOid, OIDNewHeap, relpersistence);
337 
338  /*
339  * Inform stats collector about our activity: basically, we truncated
340  * the matview and inserted some new data. (The concurrent code path
341  * above doesn't need to worry about this because the inserts and
342  * deletes it issues get counted by lower-level code.)
343  */
344  pgstat_count_truncate(matviewRel);
345  if (!stmt->skipData)
346  pgstat_count_heap_insert(matviewRel, processed);
347  }
348 
349  table_close(matviewRel, NoLock);
350 
351  /* Roll back any GUC changes */
352  AtEOXact_GUC(false, save_nestlevel);
353 
354  /* Restore userid and security context */
355  SetUserIdAndSecContext(save_userid, save_sec_context);
356 
357  ObjectAddressSet(address, RelationRelationId, matviewOid);
358 
359  return address;
360 }
361 
362 /*
363  * refresh_matview_datafill
364  *
365  * Execute the given query, sending result rows to "dest" (which will
366  * insert them into the target matview).
367  *
368  * Returns number of rows inserted.
369  */
370 static uint64
372  const char *queryString)
373 {
374  List *rewritten;
375  PlannedStmt *plan;
376  QueryDesc *queryDesc;
377  Query *copied_query;
378  uint64 processed;
379 
380  /* Lock and rewrite, using a copy to preserve the original query. */
381  copied_query = copyObject(query);
382  AcquireRewriteLocks(copied_query, true, false);
383  rewritten = QueryRewrite(copied_query);
384 
385  /* SELECT should never rewrite to more or less than one SELECT query */
386  if (list_length(rewritten) != 1)
387  elog(ERROR, "unexpected rewrite result for REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW");
388  query = (Query *) linitial(rewritten);
389 
390  /* Check for user-requested abort. */
392 
393  /* Plan the query which will generate data for the refresh. */
394  plan = pg_plan_query(query, queryString, 0, NULL);
395 
396  /*
397  * Use a snapshot with an updated command ID to ensure this query sees
398  * results of any previously executed queries. (This could only matter if
399  * the planner executed an allegedly-stable function that changed the
400  * database contents, but let's do it anyway to be safe.)
401  */
404 
405  /* Create a QueryDesc, redirecting output to our tuple receiver */
406  queryDesc = CreateQueryDesc(plan, queryString,
408  dest, NULL, NULL, 0);
409 
410  /* call ExecutorStart to prepare the plan for execution */
411  ExecutorStart(queryDesc, 0);
412 
413  /* run the plan */
414  ExecutorRun(queryDesc, ForwardScanDirection, 0L, true);
415 
416  processed = queryDesc->estate->es_processed;
417 
418  /* and clean up */
419  ExecutorFinish(queryDesc);
420  ExecutorEnd(queryDesc);
421 
422  FreeQueryDesc(queryDesc);
423 
425 
426  return processed;
427 }
428 
429 DestReceiver *
431 {
433 
434  self->pub.receiveSlot = transientrel_receive;
435  self->pub.rStartup = transientrel_startup;
436  self->pub.rShutdown = transientrel_shutdown;
437  self->pub.rDestroy = transientrel_destroy;
438  self->pub.mydest = DestTransientRel;
439  self->transientoid = transientoid;
440 
441  return (DestReceiver *) self;
442 }
443 
444 /*
445  * transientrel_startup --- executor startup
446  */
447 static void
448 transientrel_startup(DestReceiver *self, int operation, TupleDesc typeinfo)
449 {
450  DR_transientrel *myState = (DR_transientrel *) self;
451  Relation transientrel;
452 
453  transientrel = table_open(myState->transientoid, NoLock);
454 
455  /*
456  * Fill private fields of myState for use by later routines
457  */
458  myState->transientrel = transientrel;
459  myState->output_cid = GetCurrentCommandId(true);
461  myState->bistate = GetBulkInsertState();
462 
463  /*
464  * Valid smgr_targblock implies something already wrote to the relation.
465  * This may be harmless, but this function hasn't planned for it.
466  */
468 }
469 
470 /*
471  * transientrel_receive --- receive one tuple
472  */
473 static bool
475 {
476  DR_transientrel *myState = (DR_transientrel *) self;
477 
478  /*
479  * Note that the input slot might not be of the type of the target
480  * relation. That's supported by table_tuple_insert(), but slightly less
481  * efficient than inserting with the right slot - but the alternative
482  * would be to copy into a slot of the right type, which would not be
483  * cheap either. This also doesn't allow accessing per-AM data (say a
484  * tuple's xmin), but since we don't do that here...
485  */
486 
488  slot,
489  myState->output_cid,
490  myState->ti_options,
491  myState->bistate);
492 
493  /* We know this is a newly created relation, so there are no indexes */
494 
495  return true;
496 }
497 
498 /*
499  * transientrel_shutdown --- executor end
500  */
501 static void
503 {
504  DR_transientrel *myState = (DR_transientrel *) self;
505 
506  FreeBulkInsertState(myState->bistate);
507 
509 
510  /* close transientrel, but keep lock until commit */
511  table_close(myState->transientrel, NoLock);
512  myState->transientrel = NULL;
513 }
514 
515 /*
516  * transientrel_destroy --- release DestReceiver object
517  */
518 static void
520 {
521  pfree(self);
522 }
523 
524 
525 /*
526  * Given a qualified temporary table name, append an underscore followed by
527  * the given integer, to make a new table name based on the old one.
528  *
529  * This leaks memory through palloc(), which won't be cleaned up until the
530  * current memory context is freed.
531  */
532 static char *
533 make_temptable_name_n(char *tempname, int n)
534 {
535  StringInfoData namebuf;
536 
537  initStringInfo(&namebuf);
538  appendStringInfoString(&namebuf, tempname);
539  appendStringInfo(&namebuf, "_%d", n);
540  return namebuf.data;
541 }
542 
543 /*
544  * refresh_by_match_merge
545  *
546  * Refresh a materialized view with transactional semantics, while allowing
547  * concurrent reads.
548  *
549  * This is called after a new version of the data has been created in a
550  * temporary table. It performs a full outer join against the old version of
551  * the data, producing "diff" results. This join cannot work if there are any
552  * duplicated rows in either the old or new versions, in the sense that every
553  * column would compare as equal between the two rows. It does work correctly
554  * in the face of rows which have at least one NULL value, with all non-NULL
555  * columns equal. The behavior of NULLs on equality tests and on UNIQUE
556  * indexes turns out to be quite convenient here; the tests we need to make
557  * are consistent with default behavior. If there is at least one UNIQUE
558  * index on the materialized view, we have exactly the guarantee we need.
559  *
560  * The temporary table used to hold the diff results contains just the TID of
561  * the old record (if matched) and the ROW from the new table as a single
562  * column of complex record type (if matched).
563  *
564  * Once we have the diff table, we perform set-based DELETE and INSERT
565  * operations against the materialized view, and discard both temporary
566  * tables.
567  *
568  * Everything from the generation of the new data to applying the differences
569  * takes place under cover of an ExclusiveLock, since it seems as though we
570  * would want to prohibit not only concurrent REFRESH operations, but also
571  * incremental maintenance. It also doesn't seem reasonable or safe to allow
572  * SELECT FOR UPDATE or SELECT FOR SHARE on rows being updated or deleted by
573  * this command.
574  */
575 static void
576 refresh_by_match_merge(Oid matviewOid, Oid tempOid, Oid relowner,
577  int save_sec_context)
578 {
579  StringInfoData querybuf;
580  Relation matviewRel;
581  Relation tempRel;
582  char *matviewname;
583  char *tempname;
584  char *diffname;
585  TupleDesc tupdesc;
586  bool foundUniqueIndex;
587  List *indexoidlist;
588  ListCell *indexoidscan;
589  int16 relnatts;
590  Oid *opUsedForQual;
591 
592  initStringInfo(&querybuf);
593  matviewRel = table_open(matviewOid, NoLock);
595  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel));
596  tempRel = table_open(tempOid, NoLock);
598  RelationGetRelationName(tempRel));
599  diffname = make_temptable_name_n(tempname, 2);
600 
601  relnatts = RelationGetNumberOfAttributes(matviewRel);
602 
603  /* Open SPI context. */
604  if (SPI_connect() != SPI_OK_CONNECT)
605  elog(ERROR, "SPI_connect failed");
606 
607  /* Analyze the temp table with the new contents. */
608  appendStringInfo(&querybuf, "ANALYZE %s", tempname);
609  if (SPI_exec(querybuf.data, 0) != SPI_OK_UTILITY)
610  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
611 
612  /*
613  * We need to ensure that there are not duplicate rows without NULLs in
614  * the new data set before we can count on the "diff" results. Check for
615  * that in a way that allows showing the first duplicated row found. Even
616  * after we pass this test, a unique index on the materialized view may
617  * find a duplicate key problem.
618  */
619  resetStringInfo(&querybuf);
620  appendStringInfo(&querybuf,
621  "SELECT newdata FROM %s newdata "
622  "WHERE newdata IS NOT NULL AND EXISTS "
623  "(SELECT 1 FROM %s newdata2 WHERE newdata2 IS NOT NULL "
624  "AND newdata2 OPERATOR(pg_catalog.*=) newdata "
625  "AND newdata2.ctid OPERATOR(pg_catalog.<>) "
626  "newdata.ctid)",
627  tempname, tempname);
628  if (SPI_execute(querybuf.data, false, 1) != SPI_OK_SELECT)
629  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
630  if (SPI_processed > 0)
631  {
632  /*
633  * Note that this ereport() is returning data to the user. Generally,
634  * we would want to make sure that the user has been granted access to
635  * this data. However, REFRESH MAT VIEW is only able to be run by the
636  * owner of the mat view (or a superuser) and therefore there is no
637  * need to check for access to data in the mat view.
638  */
639  ereport(ERROR,
640  (errcode(ERRCODE_CARDINALITY_VIOLATION),
641  errmsg("new data for materialized view \"%s\" contains duplicate rows without any null columns",
642  RelationGetRelationName(matviewRel)),
643  errdetail("Row: %s",
645  }
646 
647  SetUserIdAndSecContext(relowner,
648  save_sec_context | SECURITY_LOCAL_USERID_CHANGE);
649 
650  /* Start building the query for creating the diff table. */
651  resetStringInfo(&querybuf);
652  appendStringInfo(&querybuf,
653  "CREATE TEMP TABLE %s AS "
654  "SELECT mv.ctid AS tid, newdata "
655  "FROM %s mv FULL JOIN %s newdata ON (",
656  diffname, matviewname, tempname);
657 
658  /*
659  * Get the list of index OIDs for the table from the relcache, and look up
660  * each one in the pg_index syscache. We will test for equality on all
661  * columns present in all unique indexes which only reference columns and
662  * include all rows.
663  */
664  tupdesc = matviewRel->rd_att;
665  opUsedForQual = (Oid *) palloc0(sizeof(Oid) * relnatts);
666  foundUniqueIndex = false;
667 
668  indexoidlist = RelationGetIndexList(matviewRel);
669 
670  foreach(indexoidscan, indexoidlist)
671  {
672  Oid indexoid = lfirst_oid(indexoidscan);
673  Relation indexRel;
674 
675  indexRel = index_open(indexoid, RowExclusiveLock);
676  if (is_usable_unique_index(indexRel))
677  {
678  Form_pg_index indexStruct = indexRel->rd_index;
679  int indnkeyatts = indexStruct->indnkeyatts;
680  oidvector *indclass;
681  Datum indclassDatum;
682  bool isnull;
683  int i;
684 
685  /* Must get indclass the hard way. */
686  indclassDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID,
687  indexRel->rd_indextuple,
688  Anum_pg_index_indclass,
689  &isnull);
690  Assert(!isnull);
691  indclass = (oidvector *) DatumGetPointer(indclassDatum);
692 
693  /* Add quals for all columns from this index. */
694  for (i = 0; i < indnkeyatts; i++)
695  {
696  int attnum = indexStruct->indkey.values[i];
697  Oid opclass = indclass->values[i];
698  Form_pg_attribute attr = TupleDescAttr(tupdesc, attnum - 1);
699  Oid attrtype = attr->atttypid;
700  HeapTuple cla_ht;
701  Form_pg_opclass cla_tup;
702  Oid opfamily;
703  Oid opcintype;
704  Oid op;
705  const char *leftop;
706  const char *rightop;
707 
708  /*
709  * Identify the equality operator associated with this index
710  * column. First we need to look up the column's opclass.
711  */
712  cla_ht = SearchSysCache1(CLAOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(opclass));
713  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(cla_ht))
714  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for opclass %u", opclass);
715  cla_tup = (Form_pg_opclass) GETSTRUCT(cla_ht);
716  Assert(cla_tup->opcmethod == BTREE_AM_OID);
717  opfamily = cla_tup->opcfamily;
718  opcintype = cla_tup->opcintype;
719  ReleaseSysCache(cla_ht);
720 
721  op = get_opfamily_member(opfamily, opcintype, opcintype,
723  if (!OidIsValid(op))
724  elog(ERROR, "missing operator %d(%u,%u) in opfamily %u",
725  BTEqualStrategyNumber, opcintype, opcintype, opfamily);
726 
727  /*
728  * If we find the same column with the same equality semantics
729  * in more than one index, we only need to emit the equality
730  * clause once.
731  *
732  * Since we only remember the last equality operator, this
733  * code could be fooled into emitting duplicate clauses given
734  * multiple indexes with several different opclasses ... but
735  * that's so unlikely it doesn't seem worth spending extra
736  * code to avoid.
737  */
738  if (opUsedForQual[attnum - 1] == op)
739  continue;
740  opUsedForQual[attnum - 1] = op;
741 
742  /*
743  * Actually add the qual, ANDed with any others.
744  */
745  if (foundUniqueIndex)
746  appendStringInfoString(&querybuf, " AND ");
747 
748  leftop = quote_qualified_identifier("newdata",
749  NameStr(attr->attname));
750  rightop = quote_qualified_identifier("mv",
751  NameStr(attr->attname));
752 
753  generate_operator_clause(&querybuf,
754  leftop, attrtype,
755  op,
756  rightop, attrtype);
757 
758  foundUniqueIndex = true;
759  }
760  }
761 
762  /* Keep the locks, since we're about to run DML which needs them. */
763  index_close(indexRel, NoLock);
764  }
765 
766  list_free(indexoidlist);
767 
768  /*
769  * There must be at least one usable unique index on the matview.
770  *
771  * ExecRefreshMatView() checks that after taking the exclusive lock on the
772  * matview. So at least one unique index is guaranteed to exist here
773  * because the lock is still being held; so an Assert seems sufficient.
774  */
775  Assert(foundUniqueIndex);
776 
777  appendStringInfoString(&querybuf,
778  " AND newdata OPERATOR(pg_catalog.*=) mv) "
779  "WHERE newdata IS NULL OR mv IS NULL "
780  "ORDER BY tid");
781 
782  /* Create the temporary "diff" table. */
783  if (SPI_exec(querybuf.data, 0) != SPI_OK_UTILITY)
784  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
785 
786  SetUserIdAndSecContext(relowner,
787  save_sec_context | SECURITY_RESTRICTED_OPERATION);
788 
789  /*
790  * We have no further use for data from the "full-data" temp table, but we
791  * must keep it around because its type is referenced from the diff table.
792  */
793 
794  /* Analyze the diff table. */
795  resetStringInfo(&querybuf);
796  appendStringInfo(&querybuf, "ANALYZE %s", diffname);
797  if (SPI_exec(querybuf.data, 0) != SPI_OK_UTILITY)
798  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
799 
801 
802  /* Deletes must come before inserts; do them first. */
803  resetStringInfo(&querybuf);
804  appendStringInfo(&querybuf,
805  "DELETE FROM %s mv WHERE ctid OPERATOR(pg_catalog.=) ANY "
806  "(SELECT diff.tid FROM %s diff "
807  "WHERE diff.tid IS NOT NULL "
808  "AND diff.newdata IS NULL)",
809  matviewname, diffname);
810  if (SPI_exec(querybuf.data, 0) != SPI_OK_DELETE)
811  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
812 
813  /* Inserts go last. */
814  resetStringInfo(&querybuf);
815  appendStringInfo(&querybuf,
816  "INSERT INTO %s SELECT (diff.newdata).* "
817  "FROM %s diff WHERE tid IS NULL",
818  matviewname, diffname);
819  if (SPI_exec(querybuf.data, 0) != SPI_OK_INSERT)
820  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
821 
822  /* We're done maintaining the materialized view. */
824  table_close(tempRel, NoLock);
825  table_close(matviewRel, NoLock);
826 
827  /* Clean up temp tables. */
828  resetStringInfo(&querybuf);
829  appendStringInfo(&querybuf, "DROP TABLE %s, %s", diffname, tempname);
830  if (SPI_exec(querybuf.data, 0) != SPI_OK_UTILITY)
831  elog(ERROR, "SPI_exec failed: %s", querybuf.data);
832 
833  /* Close SPI context. */
834  if (SPI_finish() != SPI_OK_FINISH)
835  elog(ERROR, "SPI_finish failed");
836 }
837 
838 /*
839  * Swap the physical files of the target and transient tables, then rebuild
840  * the target's indexes and throw away the transient table. Security context
841  * swapping is handled by the called function, so it is not needed here.
842  */
843 static void
844 refresh_by_heap_swap(Oid matviewOid, Oid OIDNewHeap, char relpersistence)
845 {
846  finish_heap_swap(matviewOid, OIDNewHeap, false, false, true, true,
847  RecentXmin, ReadNextMultiXactId(), relpersistence);
848 }
849 
850 /*
851  * Check whether specified index is usable for match merge.
852  */
853 static bool
855 {
856  Form_pg_index indexStruct = indexRel->rd_index;
857 
858  /*
859  * Must be unique, valid, immediate, non-partial, and be defined over
860  * plain user columns (not expressions). We also require it to be a
861  * btree. Even if we had any other unique index kinds, we'd not know how
862  * to identify the corresponding equality operator, nor could we be sure
863  * that the planner could implement the required FULL JOIN with non-btree
864  * operators.
865  */
866  if (indexStruct->indisunique &&
867  indexStruct->indimmediate &&
868  indexRel->rd_rel->relam == BTREE_AM_OID &&
869  indexStruct->indisvalid &&
870  RelationGetIndexPredicate(indexRel) == NIL &&
871  indexStruct->indnatts > 0)
872  {
873  /*
874  * The point of groveling through the index columns individually is to
875  * reject both index expressions and system columns. Currently,
876  * matviews couldn't have OID columns so there's no way to create an
877  * index on a system column; but maybe someday that wouldn't be true,
878  * so let's be safe.
879  */
880  int numatts = indexStruct->indnatts;
881  int i;
882 
883  for (i = 0; i < numatts; i++)
884  {
885  int attnum = indexStruct->indkey.values[i];
886 
887  if (attnum <= 0)
888  return false;
889  }
890  return true;
891  }
892  return false;
893 }
894 
895 
896 /*
897  * This should be used to test whether the backend is in a context where it is
898  * OK to allow DML statements to modify materialized views. We only want to
899  * allow that for internal code driven by the materialized view definition,
900  * not for arbitrary user-supplied code.
901  *
902  * While the function names reflect the fact that their main intended use is
903  * incremental maintenance of materialized views (in response to changes to
904  * the data in referenced relations), they are initially used to allow REFRESH
905  * without blocking concurrent reads.
906  */
907 bool
909 {
910  return matview_maintenance_depth > 0;
911 }
912 
913 static void
915 {
917 }
918 
919 static void
921 {
924 }
signed short int16
Definition: c.h:361
#define RelationIsPopulated(relation)
Definition: rel.h:612
#define NIL
Definition: pg_list.h:65
uint32 CommandId
Definition: c.h:534
Definition: c.h:601
#define SPI_OK_CONNECT
Definition: spi.h:53
static bool is_usable_unique_index(Relation indexRel)
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List * QueryRewrite(Query *parsetree)
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#define GETSTRUCT(TUP)
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int numLocks
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EState * estate
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void finish_heap_swap(Oid OIDOldHeap, Oid OIDNewHeap, bool is_system_catalog, bool swap_toast_by_content, bool check_constraints, bool is_internal, TransactionId frozenXid, MultiXactId cutoffMulti, char newrelpersistence)
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DestReceiver pub
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int LOCKMODE
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Definition: pquery.c:105
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Definition: rel.h:462
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Oid transientoid
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Definition: tupdesc.h:92
#define SPI_OK_DELETE
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#define AccessShareLock
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SPITupleTable * SPI_tuptable
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static void CloseMatViewIncrementalMaintenance(void)
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TransactionId RecentXmin
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Form_pg_class rd_rel
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unsigned int Oid
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#define linitial(l)
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#define ERROR
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Definition: spi.c:497
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Definition: multixact.c:723
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