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index.c
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1 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
2  *
3  * index.c
4  * code to create and destroy POSTGRES index relations
5  *
6  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2019, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
7  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
8  *
9  *
10  * IDENTIFICATION
11  * src/backend/catalog/index.c
12  *
13  *
14  * INTERFACE ROUTINES
15  * index_create() - Create a cataloged index relation
16  * index_drop() - Removes index relation from catalogs
17  * BuildIndexInfo() - Prepare to insert index tuples
18  * FormIndexDatum() - Construct datum vector for one index tuple
19  *
20  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
21  */
22 #include "postgres.h"
23 
24 #include <unistd.h>
25 
26 #include "access/amapi.h"
27 #include "access/heapam.h"
28 #include "access/multixact.h"
29 #include "access/relscan.h"
30 #include "access/sysattr.h"
31 #include "access/tableam.h"
32 #include "access/transam.h"
33 #include "access/visibilitymap.h"
34 #include "access/xact.h"
35 #include "bootstrap/bootstrap.h"
36 #include "catalog/binary_upgrade.h"
37 #include "catalog/catalog.h"
38 #include "catalog/dependency.h"
39 #include "catalog/heap.h"
40 #include "catalog/index.h"
41 #include "catalog/objectaccess.h"
42 #include "catalog/partition.h"
43 #include "catalog/pg_am.h"
44 #include "catalog/pg_collation.h"
45 #include "catalog/pg_constraint.h"
46 #include "catalog/pg_description.h"
47 #include "catalog/pg_depend.h"
48 #include "catalog/pg_inherits.h"
49 #include "catalog/pg_operator.h"
50 #include "catalog/pg_opclass.h"
51 #include "catalog/pg_tablespace.h"
52 #include "catalog/pg_trigger.h"
53 #include "catalog/pg_type.h"
54 #include "catalog/storage.h"
55 #include "commands/event_trigger.h"
56 #include "commands/progress.h"
57 #include "commands/tablecmds.h"
58 #include "commands/trigger.h"
59 #include "executor/executor.h"
60 #include "miscadmin.h"
61 #include "nodes/makefuncs.h"
62 #include "nodes/nodeFuncs.h"
63 #include "optimizer/optimizer.h"
64 #include "parser/parser.h"
65 #include "pgstat.h"
66 #include "rewrite/rewriteManip.h"
67 #include "storage/bufmgr.h"
68 #include "storage/lmgr.h"
69 #include "storage/predicate.h"
70 #include "storage/procarray.h"
71 #include "storage/smgr.h"
72 #include "utils/builtins.h"
73 #include "utils/fmgroids.h"
74 #include "utils/guc.h"
75 #include "utils/inval.h"
76 #include "utils/lsyscache.h"
77 #include "utils/memutils.h"
78 #include "utils/pg_rusage.h"
79 #include "utils/syscache.h"
80 #include "utils/tuplesort.h"
81 #include "utils/snapmgr.h"
82 
83 
84 /* Potentially set by pg_upgrade_support functions */
86 
87 /*
88  * Pointer-free representation of variables used when reindexing system
89  * catalogs; we use this to propagate those values to parallel workers.
90  */
91 typedef struct
92 {
96  Oid pendingReindexedIndexes[FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER];
98 
99 /* non-export function prototypes */
100 static bool relationHasPrimaryKey(Relation rel);
101 static TupleDesc ConstructTupleDescriptor(Relation heapRelation,
102  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
103  List *indexColNames,
104  Oid accessMethodObjectId,
105  Oid *collationObjectId,
106  Oid *classObjectId);
107 static void InitializeAttributeOids(Relation indexRelation,
108  int numatts, Oid indexoid);
109 static void AppendAttributeTuples(Relation indexRelation, int numatts);
110 static void UpdateIndexRelation(Oid indexoid, Oid heapoid,
111  Oid parentIndexId,
112  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
113  Oid *collationOids,
114  Oid *classOids,
115  int16 *coloptions,
116  bool primary,
117  bool isexclusion,
118  bool immediate,
119  bool isvalid,
120  bool isready);
121 static void index_update_stats(Relation rel,
122  bool hasindex,
123  double reltuples);
124 static void IndexCheckExclusion(Relation heapRelation,
125  Relation indexRelation,
126  IndexInfo *indexInfo);
127 static bool validate_index_callback(ItemPointer itemptr, void *opaque);
128 static bool ReindexIsCurrentlyProcessingIndex(Oid indexOid);
129 static void SetReindexProcessing(Oid heapOid, Oid indexOid);
130 static void ResetReindexProcessing(void);
131 static void SetReindexPending(List *indexes);
132 static void RemoveReindexPending(Oid indexOid);
133 static void ResetReindexPending(void);
134 
135 
136 /*
137  * relationHasPrimaryKey
138  * See whether an existing relation has a primary key.
139  *
140  * Caller must have suitable lock on the relation.
141  *
142  * Note: we intentionally do not check indisvalid here; that's because this
143  * is used to enforce the rule that there can be only one indisprimary index,
144  * and we want that to be true even if said index is invalid.
145  */
146 static bool
148 {
149  bool result = false;
150  List *indexoidlist;
151  ListCell *indexoidscan;
152 
153  /*
154  * Get the list of index OIDs for the table from the relcache, and look up
155  * each one in the pg_index syscache until we find one marked primary key
156  * (hopefully there isn't more than one such).
157  */
158  indexoidlist = RelationGetIndexList(rel);
159 
160  foreach(indexoidscan, indexoidlist)
161  {
162  Oid indexoid = lfirst_oid(indexoidscan);
163  HeapTuple indexTuple;
164 
165  indexTuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(indexoid));
166  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple)) /* should not happen */
167  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexoid);
168  result = ((Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple))->indisprimary;
169  ReleaseSysCache(indexTuple);
170  if (result)
171  break;
172  }
173 
174  list_free(indexoidlist);
175 
176  return result;
177 }
178 
179 /*
180  * index_check_primary_key
181  * Apply special checks needed before creating a PRIMARY KEY index
182  *
183  * This processing used to be in DefineIndex(), but has been split out
184  * so that it can be applied during ALTER TABLE ADD PRIMARY KEY USING INDEX.
185  *
186  * We check for a pre-existing primary key, and that all columns of the index
187  * are simple column references (not expressions), and that all those
188  * columns are marked NOT NULL. If not, fail.
189  *
190  * We used to automatically change unmarked columns to NOT NULL here by doing
191  * our own local ALTER TABLE command. But that doesn't work well if we're
192  * executing one subcommand of an ALTER TABLE: the operations may not get
193  * performed in the right order overall. Now we expect that the parser
194  * inserted any required ALTER TABLE SET NOT NULL operations before trying
195  * to create a primary-key index.
196  *
197  * Caller had better have at least ShareLock on the table, else the not-null
198  * checking isn't trustworthy.
199  */
200 void
202  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
203  bool is_alter_table,
204  IndexStmt *stmt)
205 {
206  int i;
207 
208  /*
209  * If ALTER TABLE or CREATE TABLE .. PARTITION OF, check that there isn't
210  * already a PRIMARY KEY. In CREATE TABLE for an ordinary relation, we
211  * have faith that the parser rejected multiple pkey clauses; and CREATE
212  * INDEX doesn't have a way to say PRIMARY KEY, so it's no problem either.
213  */
214  if ((is_alter_table || heapRel->rd_rel->relispartition) &&
215  relationHasPrimaryKey(heapRel))
216  {
217  ereport(ERROR,
218  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
219  errmsg("multiple primary keys for table \"%s\" are not allowed",
220  RelationGetRelationName(heapRel))));
221  }
222 
223  /*
224  * Check that all of the attributes in a primary key are marked as not
225  * null. (We don't really expect to see that; it'd mean the parser messed
226  * up. But it seems wise to check anyway.)
227  */
228  for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
229  {
230  AttrNumber attnum = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
231  HeapTuple atttuple;
232  Form_pg_attribute attform;
233 
234  if (attnum == 0)
235  ereport(ERROR,
236  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
237  errmsg("primary keys cannot be expressions")));
238 
239  /* System attributes are never null, so no need to check */
240  if (attnum < 0)
241  continue;
242 
243  atttuple = SearchSysCache2(ATTNUM,
245  Int16GetDatum(attnum));
246  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(atttuple))
247  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for attribute %d of relation %u",
248  attnum, RelationGetRelid(heapRel));
249  attform = (Form_pg_attribute) GETSTRUCT(atttuple);
250 
251  if (!attform->attnotnull)
252  ereport(ERROR,
253  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
254  errmsg("primary key column \"%s\" is not marked NOT NULL",
255  NameStr(attform->attname))));
256 
257  ReleaseSysCache(atttuple);
258  }
259 }
260 
261 /*
262  * ConstructTupleDescriptor
263  *
264  * Build an index tuple descriptor for a new index
265  */
266 static TupleDesc
268  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
269  List *indexColNames,
270  Oid accessMethodObjectId,
271  Oid *collationObjectId,
272  Oid *classObjectId)
273 {
274  int numatts = indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs;
275  int numkeyatts = indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs;
276  ListCell *colnames_item = list_head(indexColNames);
277  ListCell *indexpr_item = list_head(indexInfo->ii_Expressions);
278  IndexAmRoutine *amroutine;
279  TupleDesc heapTupDesc;
280  TupleDesc indexTupDesc;
281  int natts; /* #atts in heap rel --- for error checks */
282  int i;
283 
284  /* We need access to the index AM's API struct */
285  amroutine = GetIndexAmRoutineByAmId(accessMethodObjectId, false);
286 
287  /* ... and to the table's tuple descriptor */
288  heapTupDesc = RelationGetDescr(heapRelation);
289  natts = RelationGetForm(heapRelation)->relnatts;
290 
291  /*
292  * allocate the new tuple descriptor
293  */
294  indexTupDesc = CreateTemplateTupleDesc(numatts);
295 
296  /*
297  * Fill in the pg_attribute row.
298  */
299  for (i = 0; i < numatts; i++)
300  {
301  AttrNumber atnum = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
302  Form_pg_attribute to = TupleDescAttr(indexTupDesc, i);
303  HeapTuple tuple;
304  Form_pg_type typeTup;
305  Form_pg_opclass opclassTup;
306  Oid keyType;
307 
309  to->attnum = i + 1;
310  to->attstattarget = -1;
311  to->attcacheoff = -1;
312  to->attislocal = true;
313  to->attcollation = (i < numkeyatts) ?
314  collationObjectId[i] : InvalidOid;
315 
316  /*
317  * For simple index columns, we copy some pg_attribute fields from the
318  * parent relation. For expressions we have to look at the expression
319  * result.
320  */
321  if (atnum != 0)
322  {
323  /* Simple index column */
324  const FormData_pg_attribute *from;
325 
326  Assert(atnum > 0); /* should've been caught above */
327 
328  if (atnum > natts) /* safety check */
329  elog(ERROR, "invalid column number %d", atnum);
330  from = TupleDescAttr(heapTupDesc,
331  AttrNumberGetAttrOffset(atnum));
332 
333  namecpy(&to->attname, &from->attname);
334  to->atttypid = from->atttypid;
335  to->attlen = from->attlen;
336  to->attndims = from->attndims;
337  to->atttypmod = from->atttypmod;
338  to->attbyval = from->attbyval;
339  to->attstorage = from->attstorage;
340  to->attalign = from->attalign;
341  }
342  else
343  {
344  /* Expressional index */
345  Node *indexkey;
346 
347  if (indexpr_item == NULL) /* shouldn't happen */
348  elog(ERROR, "too few entries in indexprs list");
349  indexkey = (Node *) lfirst(indexpr_item);
350  indexpr_item = lnext(indexInfo->ii_Expressions, indexpr_item);
351 
352  /*
353  * Lookup the expression type in pg_type for the type length etc.
354  */
355  keyType = exprType(indexkey);
356  tuple = SearchSysCache1(TYPEOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(keyType));
357  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
358  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for type %u", keyType);
359  typeTup = (Form_pg_type) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
360 
361  /*
362  * Assign some of the attributes values. Leave the rest.
363  */
364  to->atttypid = keyType;
365  to->attlen = typeTup->typlen;
366  to->attbyval = typeTup->typbyval;
367  to->attstorage = typeTup->typstorage;
368  to->attalign = typeTup->typalign;
369  to->atttypmod = exprTypmod(indexkey);
370 
371  ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
372 
373  /*
374  * Make sure the expression yields a type that's safe to store in
375  * an index. We need this defense because we have index opclasses
376  * for pseudo-types such as "record", and the actually stored type
377  * had better be safe; eg, a named composite type is okay, an
378  * anonymous record type is not. The test is the same as for
379  * whether a table column is of a safe type (which is why we
380  * needn't check for the non-expression case).
381  */
382  CheckAttributeType(NameStr(to->attname),
383  to->atttypid, to->attcollation,
384  NIL, 0);
385  }
386 
387  /*
388  * We do not yet have the correct relation OID for the index, so just
389  * set it invalid for now. InitializeAttributeOids() will fix it
390  * later.
391  */
392  to->attrelid = InvalidOid;
393 
394  /*
395  * Set the attribute name as specified by caller.
396  */
397  if (colnames_item == NULL) /* shouldn't happen */
398  elog(ERROR, "too few entries in colnames list");
399  namestrcpy(&to->attname, (const char *) lfirst(colnames_item));
400  colnames_item = lnext(indexColNames, colnames_item);
401 
402  /*
403  * Check the opclass and index AM to see if either provides a keytype
404  * (overriding the attribute type). Opclass (if exists) takes
405  * precedence.
406  */
407  keyType = amroutine->amkeytype;
408 
409  /*
410  * Code below is concerned to the opclasses which are not used with
411  * the included columns.
412  */
413  if (i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs)
414  {
415  tuple = SearchSysCache1(CLAOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(classObjectId[i]));
416  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
417  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for opclass %u",
418  classObjectId[i]);
419  opclassTup = (Form_pg_opclass) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
420  if (OidIsValid(opclassTup->opckeytype))
421  keyType = opclassTup->opckeytype;
422 
423  /*
424  * If keytype is specified as ANYELEMENT, and opcintype is
425  * ANYARRAY, then the attribute type must be an array (else it'd
426  * not have matched this opclass); use its element type.
427  */
428  if (keyType == ANYELEMENTOID && opclassTup->opcintype == ANYARRAYOID)
429  {
430  keyType = get_base_element_type(to->atttypid);
431  if (!OidIsValid(keyType))
432  elog(ERROR, "could not get element type of array type %u",
433  to->atttypid);
434  }
435 
436  ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
437  }
438 
439  /*
440  * If a key type different from the heap value is specified, update
441  * the type-related fields in the index tupdesc.
442  */
443  if (OidIsValid(keyType) && keyType != to->atttypid)
444  {
445  tuple = SearchSysCache1(TYPEOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(keyType));
446  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
447  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for type %u", keyType);
448  typeTup = (Form_pg_type) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
449 
450  to->atttypid = keyType;
451  to->atttypmod = -1;
452  to->attlen = typeTup->typlen;
453  to->attbyval = typeTup->typbyval;
454  to->attalign = typeTup->typalign;
455  to->attstorage = typeTup->typstorage;
456 
457  ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
458  }
459  }
460 
461  pfree(amroutine);
462 
463  return indexTupDesc;
464 }
465 
466 /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
467  * InitializeAttributeOids
468  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
469  */
470 static void
472  int numatts,
473  Oid indexoid)
474 {
475  TupleDesc tupleDescriptor;
476  int i;
477 
478  tupleDescriptor = RelationGetDescr(indexRelation);
479 
480  for (i = 0; i < numatts; i += 1)
481  TupleDescAttr(tupleDescriptor, i)->attrelid = indexoid;
482 }
483 
484 /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
485  * AppendAttributeTuples
486  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
487  */
488 static void
489 AppendAttributeTuples(Relation indexRelation, int numatts)
490 {
491  Relation pg_attribute;
492  CatalogIndexState indstate;
493  TupleDesc indexTupDesc;
494  int i;
495 
496  /*
497  * open the attribute relation and its indexes
498  */
499  pg_attribute = table_open(AttributeRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
500 
501  indstate = CatalogOpenIndexes(pg_attribute);
502 
503  /*
504  * insert data from new index's tupdesc into pg_attribute
505  */
506  indexTupDesc = RelationGetDescr(indexRelation);
507 
508  for (i = 0; i < numatts; i++)
509  {
510  Form_pg_attribute attr = TupleDescAttr(indexTupDesc, i);
511 
512  Assert(attr->attnum == i + 1);
513 
514  InsertPgAttributeTuple(pg_attribute, attr, indstate);
515  }
516 
517  CatalogCloseIndexes(indstate);
518 
519  table_close(pg_attribute, RowExclusiveLock);
520 }
521 
522 /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
523  * UpdateIndexRelation
524  *
525  * Construct and insert a new entry in the pg_index catalog
526  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
527  */
528 static void
530  Oid heapoid,
531  Oid parentIndexId,
532  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
533  Oid *collationOids,
534  Oid *classOids,
535  int16 *coloptions,
536  bool primary,
537  bool isexclusion,
538  bool immediate,
539  bool isvalid,
540  bool isready)
541 {
542  int2vector *indkey;
543  oidvector *indcollation;
544  oidvector *indclass;
545  int2vector *indoption;
546  Datum exprsDatum;
547  Datum predDatum;
548  Datum values[Natts_pg_index];
549  bool nulls[Natts_pg_index];
550  Relation pg_index;
551  HeapTuple tuple;
552  int i;
553 
554  /*
555  * Copy the index key, opclass, and indoption info into arrays (should we
556  * make the caller pass them like this to start with?)
557  */
558  indkey = buildint2vector(NULL, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs);
559  for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
560  indkey->values[i] = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
561  indcollation = buildoidvector(collationOids, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
562  indclass = buildoidvector(classOids, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
563  indoption = buildint2vector(coloptions, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
564 
565  /*
566  * Convert the index expressions (if any) to a text datum
567  */
568  if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions != NIL)
569  {
570  char *exprsString;
571 
572  exprsString = nodeToString(indexInfo->ii_Expressions);
573  exprsDatum = CStringGetTextDatum(exprsString);
574  pfree(exprsString);
575  }
576  else
577  exprsDatum = (Datum) 0;
578 
579  /*
580  * Convert the index predicate (if any) to a text datum. Note we convert
581  * implicit-AND format to normal explicit-AND for storage.
582  */
583  if (indexInfo->ii_Predicate != NIL)
584  {
585  char *predString;
586 
587  predString = nodeToString(make_ands_explicit(indexInfo->ii_Predicate));
588  predDatum = CStringGetTextDatum(predString);
589  pfree(predString);
590  }
591  else
592  predDatum = (Datum) 0;
593 
594  /*
595  * open the system catalog index relation
596  */
597  pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
598 
599  /*
600  * Build a pg_index tuple
601  */
602  MemSet(nulls, false, sizeof(nulls));
603 
604  values[Anum_pg_index_indexrelid - 1] = ObjectIdGetDatum(indexoid);
605  values[Anum_pg_index_indrelid - 1] = ObjectIdGetDatum(heapoid);
606  values[Anum_pg_index_indnatts - 1] = Int16GetDatum(indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs);
607  values[Anum_pg_index_indnkeyatts - 1] = Int16GetDatum(indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
608  values[Anum_pg_index_indisunique - 1] = BoolGetDatum(indexInfo->ii_Unique);
609  values[Anum_pg_index_indisprimary - 1] = BoolGetDatum(primary);
610  values[Anum_pg_index_indisexclusion - 1] = BoolGetDatum(isexclusion);
611  values[Anum_pg_index_indimmediate - 1] = BoolGetDatum(immediate);
612  values[Anum_pg_index_indisclustered - 1] = BoolGetDatum(false);
613  values[Anum_pg_index_indisvalid - 1] = BoolGetDatum(isvalid);
614  values[Anum_pg_index_indcheckxmin - 1] = BoolGetDatum(false);
615  values[Anum_pg_index_indisready - 1] = BoolGetDatum(isready);
616  values[Anum_pg_index_indislive - 1] = BoolGetDatum(true);
617  values[Anum_pg_index_indisreplident - 1] = BoolGetDatum(false);
618  values[Anum_pg_index_indkey - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indkey);
619  values[Anum_pg_index_indcollation - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indcollation);
620  values[Anum_pg_index_indclass - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indclass);
621  values[Anum_pg_index_indoption - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indoption);
622  values[Anum_pg_index_indexprs - 1] = exprsDatum;
623  if (exprsDatum == (Datum) 0)
624  nulls[Anum_pg_index_indexprs - 1] = true;
625  values[Anum_pg_index_indpred - 1] = predDatum;
626  if (predDatum == (Datum) 0)
627  nulls[Anum_pg_index_indpred - 1] = true;
628 
629  tuple = heap_form_tuple(RelationGetDescr(pg_index), values, nulls);
630 
631  /*
632  * insert the tuple into the pg_index catalog
633  */
634  CatalogTupleInsert(pg_index, tuple);
635 
636  /*
637  * close the relation and free the tuple
638  */
639  table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
640  heap_freetuple(tuple);
641 }
642 
643 
644 /*
645  * index_create
646  *
647  * heapRelation: table to build index on (suitably locked by caller)
648  * indexRelationName: what it say
649  * indexRelationId: normally, pass InvalidOid to let this routine
650  * generate an OID for the index. During bootstrap this may be
651  * nonzero to specify a preselected OID.
652  * parentIndexRelid: if creating an index partition, the OID of the
653  * parent index; otherwise InvalidOid.
654  * parentConstraintId: if creating a constraint on a partition, the OID
655  * of the constraint in the parent; otherwise InvalidOid.
656  * relFileNode: normally, pass InvalidOid to get new storage. May be
657  * nonzero to attach an existing valid build.
658  * indexInfo: same info executor uses to insert into the index
659  * indexColNames: column names to use for index (List of char *)
660  * accessMethodObjectId: OID of index AM to use
661  * tableSpaceId: OID of tablespace to use
662  * collationObjectId: array of collation OIDs, one per index column
663  * classObjectId: array of index opclass OIDs, one per index column
664  * coloptions: array of per-index-column indoption settings
665  * reloptions: AM-specific options
666  * flags: bitmask that can include any combination of these bits:
667  * INDEX_CREATE_IS_PRIMARY
668  * the index is a primary key
669  * INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT:
670  * invoke index_constraint_create also
671  * INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD:
672  * skip the index_build() step for the moment; caller must do it
673  * later (typically via reindex_index())
674  * INDEX_CREATE_CONCURRENT:
675  * do not lock the table against writers. The index will be
676  * marked "invalid" and the caller must take additional steps
677  * to fix it up.
678  * INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS:
679  * do not throw an error if a relation with the same name
680  * already exists.
681  * INDEX_CREATE_PARTITIONED:
682  * create a partitioned index (table must be partitioned)
683  * constr_flags: flags passed to index_constraint_create
684  * (only if INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT is set)
685  * allow_system_table_mods: allow table to be a system catalog
686  * is_internal: if true, post creation hook for new index
687  * constraintId: if not NULL, receives OID of created constraint
688  *
689  * Returns the OID of the created index.
690  */
691 Oid
692 index_create(Relation heapRelation,
693  const char *indexRelationName,
694  Oid indexRelationId,
695  Oid parentIndexRelid,
696  Oid parentConstraintId,
697  Oid relFileNode,
698  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
699  List *indexColNames,
700  Oid accessMethodObjectId,
701  Oid tableSpaceId,
702  Oid *collationObjectId,
703  Oid *classObjectId,
704  int16 *coloptions,
705  Datum reloptions,
706  bits16 flags,
707  bits16 constr_flags,
708  bool allow_system_table_mods,
709  bool is_internal,
710  Oid *constraintId)
711 {
712  Oid heapRelationId = RelationGetRelid(heapRelation);
713  Relation pg_class;
714  Relation indexRelation;
715  TupleDesc indexTupDesc;
716  bool shared_relation;
717  bool mapped_relation;
718  bool is_exclusion;
719  Oid namespaceId;
720  int i;
721  char relpersistence;
722  bool isprimary = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_IS_PRIMARY) != 0;
723  bool invalid = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_INVALID) != 0;
724  bool concurrent = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_CONCURRENT) != 0;
725  bool partitioned = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_PARTITIONED) != 0;
726  char relkind;
729 
730  /* constraint flags can only be set when a constraint is requested */
731  Assert((constr_flags == 0) ||
732  ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) != 0));
733  /* partitioned indexes must never be "built" by themselves */
734  Assert(!partitioned || (flags & INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD));
735 
736  relkind = partitioned ? RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX : RELKIND_INDEX;
737  is_exclusion = (indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL);
738 
739  pg_class = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
740 
741  /*
742  * The index will be in the same namespace as its parent table, and is
743  * shared across databases if and only if the parent is. Likewise, it
744  * will use the relfilenode map if and only if the parent does; and it
745  * inherits the parent's relpersistence.
746  */
747  namespaceId = RelationGetNamespace(heapRelation);
748  shared_relation = heapRelation->rd_rel->relisshared;
749  mapped_relation = RelationIsMapped(heapRelation);
750  relpersistence = heapRelation->rd_rel->relpersistence;
751 
752  /*
753  * check parameters
754  */
755  if (indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs < 1)
756  elog(ERROR, "must index at least one column");
757 
758  if (!allow_system_table_mods &&
759  IsSystemRelation(heapRelation) &&
761  ereport(ERROR,
762  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
763  errmsg("user-defined indexes on system catalog tables are not supported")));
764 
765  /*
766  * Concurrent index build on a system catalog is unsafe because we tend to
767  * release locks before committing in catalogs.
768  */
769  if (concurrent &&
770  IsCatalogRelation(heapRelation))
771  ereport(ERROR,
772  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
773  errmsg("concurrent index creation on system catalog tables is not supported")));
774 
775  /*
776  * This case is currently not supported. There's no way to ask for it in
777  * the grammar with CREATE INDEX, but it can happen with REINDEX.
778  */
779  if (concurrent && is_exclusion)
780  ereport(ERROR,
781  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
782  errmsg("concurrent index creation for exclusion constraints is not supported")));
783 
784  /*
785  * We cannot allow indexing a shared relation after initdb (because
786  * there's no way to make the entry in other databases' pg_class).
787  */
788  if (shared_relation && !IsBootstrapProcessingMode())
789  ereport(ERROR,
790  (errcode(ERRCODE_OBJECT_NOT_IN_PREREQUISITE_STATE),
791  errmsg("shared indexes cannot be created after initdb")));
792 
793  /*
794  * Shared relations must be in pg_global, too (last-ditch check)
795  */
796  if (shared_relation && tableSpaceId != GLOBALTABLESPACE_OID)
797  elog(ERROR, "shared relations must be placed in pg_global tablespace");
798 
799  /*
800  * Check for duplicate name (both as to the index, and as to the
801  * associated constraint if any). Such cases would fail on the relevant
802  * catalogs' unique indexes anyway, but we prefer to give a friendlier
803  * error message.
804  */
805  if (get_relname_relid(indexRelationName, namespaceId))
806  {
807  if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS) != 0)
808  {
809  ereport(NOTICE,
810  (errcode(ERRCODE_DUPLICATE_TABLE),
811  errmsg("relation \"%s\" already exists, skipping",
812  indexRelationName)));
813  table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
814  return InvalidOid;
815  }
816 
817  ereport(ERROR,
818  (errcode(ERRCODE_DUPLICATE_TABLE),
819  errmsg("relation \"%s\" already exists",
820  indexRelationName)));
821  }
822 
823  if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) != 0 &&
825  indexRelationName))
826  {
827  /*
828  * INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS does not apply here, since the
829  * conflicting constraint is not an index.
830  */
831  ereport(ERROR,
833  errmsg("constraint \"%s\" for relation \"%s\" already exists",
834  indexRelationName, RelationGetRelationName(heapRelation))));
835  }
836 
837  /*
838  * construct tuple descriptor for index tuples
839  */
840  indexTupDesc = ConstructTupleDescriptor(heapRelation,
841  indexInfo,
842  indexColNames,
843  accessMethodObjectId,
844  collationObjectId,
845  classObjectId);
846 
847  /*
848  * Allocate an OID for the index, unless we were told what to use.
849  *
850  * The OID will be the relfilenode as well, so make sure it doesn't
851  * collide with either pg_class OIDs or existing physical files.
852  */
853  if (!OidIsValid(indexRelationId))
854  {
855  /* Use binary-upgrade override for pg_class.oid/relfilenode? */
856  if (IsBinaryUpgrade)
857  {
859  ereport(ERROR,
860  (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_PARAMETER_VALUE),
861  errmsg("pg_class index OID value not set when in binary upgrade mode")));
862 
863  indexRelationId = binary_upgrade_next_index_pg_class_oid;
865  }
866  else
867  {
868  indexRelationId =
869  GetNewRelFileNode(tableSpaceId, pg_class, relpersistence);
870  }
871  }
872 
873  /*
874  * create the index relation's relcache entry and, if necessary, the
875  * physical disk file. (If we fail further down, it's the smgr's
876  * responsibility to remove the disk file again, if any.)
877  */
878  indexRelation = heap_create(indexRelationName,
879  namespaceId,
880  tableSpaceId,
881  indexRelationId,
882  relFileNode,
883  accessMethodObjectId,
884  indexTupDesc,
885  relkind,
886  relpersistence,
887  shared_relation,
888  mapped_relation,
889  allow_system_table_mods,
890  &relfrozenxid,
891  &relminmxid);
892 
893  Assert(relfrozenxid == InvalidTransactionId);
894  Assert(relminmxid == InvalidMultiXactId);
895  Assert(indexRelationId == RelationGetRelid(indexRelation));
896 
897  /*
898  * Obtain exclusive lock on it. Although no other transactions can see it
899  * until we commit, this prevents deadlock-risk complaints from lock
900  * manager in cases such as CLUSTER.
901  */
902  LockRelation(indexRelation, AccessExclusiveLock);
903 
904  /*
905  * Fill in fields of the index's pg_class entry that are not set correctly
906  * by heap_create.
907  *
908  * XXX should have a cleaner way to create cataloged indexes
909  */
910  indexRelation->rd_rel->relowner = heapRelation->rd_rel->relowner;
911  indexRelation->rd_rel->relam = accessMethodObjectId;
912  indexRelation->rd_rel->relispartition = OidIsValid(parentIndexRelid);
913 
914  /*
915  * store index's pg_class entry
916  */
917  InsertPgClassTuple(pg_class, indexRelation,
918  RelationGetRelid(indexRelation),
919  (Datum) 0,
920  reloptions);
921 
922  /* done with pg_class */
923  table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
924 
925  /*
926  * now update the object id's of all the attribute tuple forms in the
927  * index relation's tuple descriptor
928  */
929  InitializeAttributeOids(indexRelation,
930  indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs,
931  indexRelationId);
932 
933  /*
934  * append ATTRIBUTE tuples for the index
935  */
936  AppendAttributeTuples(indexRelation, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs);
937 
938  /* ----------------
939  * update pg_index
940  * (append INDEX tuple)
941  *
942  * Note that this stows away a representation of "predicate".
943  * (Or, could define a rule to maintain the predicate) --Nels, Feb '92
944  * ----------------
945  */
946  UpdateIndexRelation(indexRelationId, heapRelationId, parentIndexRelid,
947  indexInfo,
948  collationObjectId, classObjectId, coloptions,
949  isprimary, is_exclusion,
950  (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE) == 0,
951  !concurrent && !invalid,
952  !concurrent);
953 
954  /*
955  * Register relcache invalidation on the indexes' heap relation, to
956  * maintain consistency of its index list
957  */
958  CacheInvalidateRelcache(heapRelation);
959 
960  /* update pg_inherits and the parent's relhassubclass, if needed */
961  if (OidIsValid(parentIndexRelid))
962  {
963  StoreSingleInheritance(indexRelationId, parentIndexRelid, 1);
964  SetRelationHasSubclass(parentIndexRelid, true);
965  }
966 
967  /*
968  * Register constraint and dependencies for the index.
969  *
970  * If the index is from a CONSTRAINT clause, construct a pg_constraint
971  * entry. The index will be linked to the constraint, which in turn is
972  * linked to the table. If it's not a CONSTRAINT, we need to make a
973  * dependency directly on the table.
974  *
975  * We don't need a dependency on the namespace, because there'll be an
976  * indirect dependency via our parent table.
977  *
978  * During bootstrap we can't register any dependencies, and we don't try
979  * to make a constraint either.
980  */
982  {
983  ObjectAddress myself,
984  referenced;
985 
986  myself.classId = RelationRelationId;
987  myself.objectId = indexRelationId;
988  myself.objectSubId = 0;
989 
990  if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) != 0)
991  {
992  char constraintType;
993  ObjectAddress localaddr;
994 
995  if (isprimary)
996  constraintType = CONSTRAINT_PRIMARY;
997  else if (indexInfo->ii_Unique)
998  constraintType = CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE;
999  else if (is_exclusion)
1000  constraintType = CONSTRAINT_EXCLUSION;
1001  else
1002  {
1003  elog(ERROR, "constraint must be PRIMARY, UNIQUE or EXCLUDE");
1004  constraintType = 0; /* keep compiler quiet */
1005  }
1006 
1007  localaddr = index_constraint_create(heapRelation,
1008  indexRelationId,
1009  parentConstraintId,
1010  indexInfo,
1011  indexRelationName,
1012  constraintType,
1013  constr_flags,
1014  allow_system_table_mods,
1015  is_internal);
1016  if (constraintId)
1017  *constraintId = localaddr.objectId;
1018  }
1019  else
1020  {
1021  bool have_simple_col = false;
1022 
1023  /* Create auto dependencies on simply-referenced columns */
1024  for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
1025  {
1026  if (indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] != 0)
1027  {
1028  referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
1029  referenced.objectId = heapRelationId;
1030  referenced.objectSubId = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
1031 
1032  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_AUTO);
1033 
1034  have_simple_col = true;
1035  }
1036  }
1037 
1038  /*
1039  * If there are no simply-referenced columns, give the index an
1040  * auto dependency on the whole table. In most cases, this will
1041  * be redundant, but it might not be if the index expressions and
1042  * predicate contain no Vars or only whole-row Vars.
1043  */
1044  if (!have_simple_col)
1045  {
1046  referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
1047  referenced.objectId = heapRelationId;
1048  referenced.objectSubId = 0;
1049 
1050  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_AUTO);
1051  }
1052  }
1053 
1054  /*
1055  * If this is an index partition, create partition dependencies on
1056  * both the parent index and the table. (Note: these must be *in
1057  * addition to*, not instead of, all other dependencies. Otherwise
1058  * we'll be short some dependencies after DETACH PARTITION.)
1059  */
1060  if (OidIsValid(parentIndexRelid))
1061  {
1062  referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
1063  referenced.objectId = parentIndexRelid;
1064  referenced.objectSubId = 0;
1065 
1066  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_PRI);
1067 
1068  referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
1069  referenced.objectId = heapRelationId;
1070  referenced.objectSubId = 0;
1071 
1072  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_SEC);
1073  }
1074 
1075  /* Store dependency on collations */
1076  /* The default collation is pinned, so don't bother recording it */
1077  for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
1078  {
1079  if (OidIsValid(collationObjectId[i]) &&
1080  collationObjectId[i] != DEFAULT_COLLATION_OID)
1081  {
1082  referenced.classId = CollationRelationId;
1083  referenced.objectId = collationObjectId[i];
1084  referenced.objectSubId = 0;
1085 
1086  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_NORMAL);
1087  }
1088  }
1089 
1090  /* Store dependency on operator classes */
1091  for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
1092  {
1093  referenced.classId = OperatorClassRelationId;
1094  referenced.objectId = classObjectId[i];
1095  referenced.objectSubId = 0;
1096 
1097  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_NORMAL);
1098  }
1099 
1100  /* Store dependencies on anything mentioned in index expressions */
1101  if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions)
1102  {
1104  (Node *) indexInfo->ii_Expressions,
1105  heapRelationId,
1107  DEPENDENCY_AUTO, false);
1108  }
1109 
1110  /* Store dependencies on anything mentioned in predicate */
1111  if (indexInfo->ii_Predicate)
1112  {
1114  (Node *) indexInfo->ii_Predicate,
1115  heapRelationId,
1117  DEPENDENCY_AUTO, false);
1118  }
1119  }
1120  else
1121  {
1122  /* Bootstrap mode - assert we weren't asked for constraint support */
1123  Assert((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) == 0);
1124  }
1125 
1126  /* Post creation hook for new index */
1127  InvokeObjectPostCreateHookArg(RelationRelationId,
1128  indexRelationId, 0, is_internal);
1129 
1130  /*
1131  * Advance the command counter so that we can see the newly-entered
1132  * catalog tuples for the index.
1133  */
1135 
1136  /*
1137  * In bootstrap mode, we have to fill in the index strategy structure with
1138  * information from the catalogs. If we aren't bootstrapping, then the
1139  * relcache entry has already been rebuilt thanks to sinval update during
1140  * CommandCounterIncrement.
1141  */
1143  RelationInitIndexAccessInfo(indexRelation);
1144  else
1145  Assert(indexRelation->rd_indexcxt != NULL);
1146 
1147  indexRelation->rd_index->indnkeyatts = indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs;
1148 
1149  /*
1150  * If this is bootstrap (initdb) time, then we don't actually fill in the
1151  * index yet. We'll be creating more indexes and classes later, so we
1152  * delay filling them in until just before we're done with bootstrapping.
1153  * Similarly, if the caller specified to skip the build then filling the
1154  * index is delayed till later (ALTER TABLE can save work in some cases
1155  * with this). Otherwise, we call the AM routine that constructs the
1156  * index.
1157  */
1159  {
1160  index_register(heapRelationId, indexRelationId, indexInfo);
1161  }
1162  else if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD) != 0)
1163  {
1164  /*
1165  * Caller is responsible for filling the index later on. However,
1166  * we'd better make sure that the heap relation is correctly marked as
1167  * having an index.
1168  */
1169  index_update_stats(heapRelation,
1170  true,
1171  -1.0);
1172  /* Make the above update visible */
1174  }
1175  else
1176  {
1177  index_build(heapRelation, indexRelation, indexInfo, false, true);
1178  }
1179 
1180  /*
1181  * Close the index; but we keep the lock that we acquired above until end
1182  * of transaction. Closing the heap is caller's responsibility.
1183  */
1184  index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
1185 
1186  return indexRelationId;
1187 }
1188 
1189 /*
1190  * index_concurrently_create_copy
1191  *
1192  * Create concurrently an index based on the definition of the one provided by
1193  * caller. The index is inserted into catalogs and needs to be built later
1194  * on. This is called during concurrent reindex processing.
1195  */
1196 Oid
1197 index_concurrently_create_copy(Relation heapRelation, Oid oldIndexId, const char *newName)
1198 {
1199  Relation indexRelation;
1200  IndexInfo *oldInfo,
1201  *newInfo;
1202  Oid newIndexId = InvalidOid;
1203  HeapTuple indexTuple,
1204  classTuple;
1205  Datum indclassDatum,
1206  colOptionDatum,
1207  optionDatum;
1208  oidvector *indclass;
1209  int2vector *indcoloptions;
1210  bool isnull;
1211  List *indexColNames = NIL;
1212  List *indexExprs = NIL;
1213  List *indexPreds = NIL;
1214 
1215  indexRelation = index_open(oldIndexId, RowExclusiveLock);
1216 
1217  /* The new index needs some information from the old index */
1218  oldInfo = BuildIndexInfo(indexRelation);
1219 
1220  /*
1221  * Concurrent build of an index with exclusion constraints is not
1222  * supported.
1223  */
1224  if (oldInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
1225  ereport(ERROR,
1226  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
1227  errmsg("concurrent index creation for exclusion constraints is not supported")));
1228 
1229  /* Get the array of class and column options IDs from index info */
1230  indexTuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
1231  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
1232  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", oldIndexId);
1233  indclassDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
1234  Anum_pg_index_indclass, &isnull);
1235  Assert(!isnull);
1236  indclass = (oidvector *) DatumGetPointer(indclassDatum);
1237 
1238  colOptionDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
1239  Anum_pg_index_indoption, &isnull);
1240  Assert(!isnull);
1241  indcoloptions = (int2vector *) DatumGetPointer(colOptionDatum);
1242 
1243  /* Fetch options of index if any */
1244  classTuple = SearchSysCache1(RELOID, oldIndexId);
1245  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(classTuple))
1246  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for relation %u", oldIndexId);
1247  optionDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(RELOID, classTuple,
1248  Anum_pg_class_reloptions, &isnull);
1249 
1250  /*
1251  * Fetch the list of expressions and predicates directly from the
1252  * catalogs. This cannot rely on the information from IndexInfo of the
1253  * old index as these have been flattened for the planner.
1254  */
1255  if (oldInfo->ii_Expressions != NIL)
1256  {
1257  Datum exprDatum;
1258  char *exprString;
1259 
1260  exprDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
1261  Anum_pg_index_indexprs, &isnull);
1262  Assert(!isnull);
1263  exprString = TextDatumGetCString(exprDatum);
1264  indexExprs = (List *) stringToNode(exprString);
1265  pfree(exprString);
1266  }
1267  if (oldInfo->ii_Predicate != NIL)
1268  {
1269  Datum predDatum;
1270  char *predString;
1271 
1272  predDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
1273  Anum_pg_index_indpred, &isnull);
1274  Assert(!isnull);
1275  predString = TextDatumGetCString(predDatum);
1276  indexPreds = (List *) stringToNode(predString);
1277 
1278  /* Also convert to implicit-AND format */
1279  indexPreds = make_ands_implicit((Expr *) indexPreds);
1280  pfree(predString);
1281  }
1282 
1283  /*
1284  * Build the index information for the new index. Note that rebuild of
1285  * indexes with exclusion constraints is not supported, hence there is no
1286  * need to fill all the ii_Exclusion* fields.
1287  */
1288  newInfo = makeIndexInfo(oldInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs,
1289  oldInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs,
1290  oldInfo->ii_Am,
1291  indexExprs,
1292  indexPreds,
1293  oldInfo->ii_Unique,
1294  false, /* not ready for inserts */
1295  true);
1296 
1297  /*
1298  * Extract the list of column names and the column numbers for the new
1299  * index information. All this information will be used for the index
1300  * creation.
1301  */
1302  for (int i = 0; i < oldInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
1303  {
1304  TupleDesc indexTupDesc = RelationGetDescr(indexRelation);
1305  Form_pg_attribute att = TupleDescAttr(indexTupDesc, i);
1306 
1307  indexColNames = lappend(indexColNames, NameStr(att->attname));
1308  newInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] = oldInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
1309  }
1310 
1311  /*
1312  * Now create the new index.
1313  *
1314  * For a partition index, we adjust the partition dependency later, to
1315  * ensure a consistent state at all times. That is why parentIndexRelid
1316  * is not set here.
1317  */
1318  newIndexId = index_create(heapRelation,
1319  newName,
1320  InvalidOid, /* indexRelationId */
1321  InvalidOid, /* parentIndexRelid */
1322  InvalidOid, /* parentConstraintId */
1323  InvalidOid, /* relFileNode */
1324  newInfo,
1325  indexColNames,
1326  indexRelation->rd_rel->relam,
1327  indexRelation->rd_rel->reltablespace,
1328  indexRelation->rd_indcollation,
1329  indclass->values,
1330  indcoloptions->values,
1331  optionDatum,
1333  0,
1334  true, /* allow table to be a system catalog? */
1335  false, /* is_internal? */
1336  NULL);
1337 
1338  /* Close the relations used and clean up */
1339  index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
1340  ReleaseSysCache(indexTuple);
1341  ReleaseSysCache(classTuple);
1342 
1343  return newIndexId;
1344 }
1345 
1346 /*
1347  * index_concurrently_build
1348  *
1349  * Build index for a concurrent operation. Low-level locks are taken when
1350  * this operation is performed to prevent only schema changes, but they need
1351  * to be kept until the end of the transaction performing this operation.
1352  * 'indexOid' refers to an index relation OID already created as part of
1353  * previous processing, and 'heapOid' refers to its parent heap relation.
1354  */
1355 void
1357  Oid indexRelationId)
1358 {
1359  Relation heapRel;
1360  Relation indexRelation;
1361  IndexInfo *indexInfo;
1362 
1363  /* This had better make sure that a snapshot is active */
1365 
1366  /* Open and lock the parent heap relation */
1367  heapRel = table_open(heapRelationId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
1368 
1369  /* And the target index relation */
1370  indexRelation = index_open(indexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1371 
1372  /*
1373  * We have to re-build the IndexInfo struct, since it was lost in the
1374  * commit of the transaction where this concurrent index was created at
1375  * the catalog level.
1376  */
1377  indexInfo = BuildIndexInfo(indexRelation);
1378  Assert(!indexInfo->ii_ReadyForInserts);
1379  indexInfo->ii_Concurrent = true;
1380  indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain = false;
1381 
1382  /* Now build the index */
1383  index_build(heapRel, indexRelation, indexInfo, false, true);
1384 
1385  /* Close both the relations, but keep the locks */
1386  table_close(heapRel, NoLock);
1387  index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
1388 
1389  /*
1390  * Update the pg_index row to mark the index as ready for inserts. Once we
1391  * commit this transaction, any new transactions that open the table must
1392  * insert new entries into the index for insertions and non-HOT updates.
1393  */
1395 }
1396 
1397 /*
1398  * index_concurrently_swap
1399  *
1400  * Swap name, dependencies, and constraints of the old index over to the new
1401  * index, while marking the old index as invalid and the new as valid.
1402  */
1403 void
1404 index_concurrently_swap(Oid newIndexId, Oid oldIndexId, const char *oldName)
1405 {
1406  Relation pg_class,
1407  pg_index,
1408  pg_constraint,
1409  pg_trigger;
1410  Relation oldClassRel,
1411  newClassRel;
1412  HeapTuple oldClassTuple,
1413  newClassTuple;
1414  Form_pg_class oldClassForm,
1415  newClassForm;
1416  HeapTuple oldIndexTuple,
1417  newIndexTuple;
1418  Form_pg_index oldIndexForm,
1419  newIndexForm;
1420  Oid indexConstraintOid;
1421  List *constraintOids = NIL;
1422  ListCell *lc;
1423 
1424  /*
1425  * Take a necessary lock on the old and new index before swapping them.
1426  */
1427  oldClassRel = relation_open(oldIndexId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
1428  newClassRel = relation_open(newIndexId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
1429 
1430  /* Now swap names and dependencies of those indexes */
1431  pg_class = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1432 
1433  oldClassTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(RELOID,
1434  ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
1435  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(oldClassTuple))
1436  elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", oldIndexId);
1437  newClassTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(RELOID,
1438  ObjectIdGetDatum(newIndexId));
1439  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(newClassTuple))
1440  elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", newIndexId);
1441 
1442  oldClassForm = (Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(oldClassTuple);
1443  newClassForm = (Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(newClassTuple);
1444 
1445  /* Swap the names */
1446  namestrcpy(&newClassForm->relname, NameStr(oldClassForm->relname));
1447  namestrcpy(&oldClassForm->relname, oldName);
1448 
1449  /* Copy partition flag to track inheritance properly */
1450  newClassForm->relispartition = oldClassForm->relispartition;
1451 
1452  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_class, &oldClassTuple->t_self, oldClassTuple);
1453  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_class, &newClassTuple->t_self, newClassTuple);
1454 
1455  heap_freetuple(oldClassTuple);
1456  heap_freetuple(newClassTuple);
1457 
1458  /* Now swap index info */
1459  pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1460 
1461  oldIndexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
1462  ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
1463  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(oldIndexTuple))
1464  elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", oldIndexId);
1465  newIndexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
1466  ObjectIdGetDatum(newIndexId));
1467  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(newIndexTuple))
1468  elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", newIndexId);
1469 
1470  oldIndexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(oldIndexTuple);
1471  newIndexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(newIndexTuple);
1472 
1473  /*
1474  * Copy constraint flags from the old index. This is safe because the old
1475  * index guaranteed uniqueness.
1476  */
1477  newIndexForm->indisprimary = oldIndexForm->indisprimary;
1478  oldIndexForm->indisprimary = false;
1479  newIndexForm->indisexclusion = oldIndexForm->indisexclusion;
1480  oldIndexForm->indisexclusion = false;
1481  newIndexForm->indimmediate = oldIndexForm->indimmediate;
1482  oldIndexForm->indimmediate = true;
1483 
1484  /* Mark old index as valid and new as invalid as index_set_state_flags */
1485  newIndexForm->indisvalid = true;
1486  oldIndexForm->indisvalid = false;
1487  oldIndexForm->indisclustered = false;
1488 
1489  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &oldIndexTuple->t_self, oldIndexTuple);
1490  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &newIndexTuple->t_self, newIndexTuple);
1491 
1492  heap_freetuple(oldIndexTuple);
1493  heap_freetuple(newIndexTuple);
1494 
1495  /*
1496  * Move constraints and triggers over to the new index
1497  */
1498 
1499  constraintOids = get_index_ref_constraints(oldIndexId);
1500 
1501  indexConstraintOid = get_index_constraint(oldIndexId);
1502 
1503  if (OidIsValid(indexConstraintOid))
1504  constraintOids = lappend_oid(constraintOids, indexConstraintOid);
1505 
1506  pg_constraint = table_open(ConstraintRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1507  pg_trigger = table_open(TriggerRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1508 
1509  foreach(lc, constraintOids)
1510  {
1511  HeapTuple constraintTuple,
1512  triggerTuple;
1513  Form_pg_constraint conForm;
1514  ScanKeyData key[1];
1515  SysScanDesc scan;
1516  Oid constraintOid = lfirst_oid(lc);
1517 
1518  /* Move the constraint from the old to the new index */
1519  constraintTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(CONSTROID,
1520  ObjectIdGetDatum(constraintOid));
1521  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(constraintTuple))
1522  elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for constraint %u", constraintOid);
1523 
1524  conForm = ((Form_pg_constraint) GETSTRUCT(constraintTuple));
1525 
1526  if (conForm->conindid == oldIndexId)
1527  {
1528  conForm->conindid = newIndexId;
1529 
1530  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_constraint, &constraintTuple->t_self, constraintTuple);
1531  }
1532 
1533  heap_freetuple(constraintTuple);
1534 
1535  /* Search for trigger records */
1536  ScanKeyInit(&key[0],
1537  Anum_pg_trigger_tgconstraint,
1538  BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
1539  ObjectIdGetDatum(constraintOid));
1540 
1541  scan = systable_beginscan(pg_trigger, TriggerConstraintIndexId, true,
1542  NULL, 1, key);
1543 
1544  while (HeapTupleIsValid((triggerTuple = systable_getnext(scan))))
1545  {
1546  Form_pg_trigger tgForm = (Form_pg_trigger) GETSTRUCT(triggerTuple);
1547 
1548  if (tgForm->tgconstrindid != oldIndexId)
1549  continue;
1550 
1551  /* Make a modifiable copy */
1552  triggerTuple = heap_copytuple(triggerTuple);
1553  tgForm = (Form_pg_trigger) GETSTRUCT(triggerTuple);
1554 
1555  tgForm->tgconstrindid = newIndexId;
1556 
1557  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_trigger, &triggerTuple->t_self, triggerTuple);
1558 
1559  heap_freetuple(triggerTuple);
1560  }
1561 
1562  systable_endscan(scan);
1563  }
1564 
1565  /*
1566  * Move comment if any
1567  */
1568  {
1569  Relation description;
1570  ScanKeyData skey[3];
1571  SysScanDesc sd;
1572  HeapTuple tuple;
1573  Datum values[Natts_pg_description] = {0};
1574  bool nulls[Natts_pg_description] = {0};
1575  bool replaces[Natts_pg_description] = {0};
1576 
1577  values[Anum_pg_description_objoid - 1] = ObjectIdGetDatum(newIndexId);
1578  replaces[Anum_pg_description_objoid - 1] = true;
1579 
1580  ScanKeyInit(&skey[0],
1581  Anum_pg_description_objoid,
1582  BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
1583  ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
1584  ScanKeyInit(&skey[1],
1585  Anum_pg_description_classoid,
1586  BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
1587  ObjectIdGetDatum(RelationRelationId));
1588  ScanKeyInit(&skey[2],
1589  Anum_pg_description_objsubid,
1590  BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_INT4EQ,
1591  Int32GetDatum(0));
1592 
1593  description = table_open(DescriptionRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1594 
1595  sd = systable_beginscan(description, DescriptionObjIndexId, true,
1596  NULL, 3, skey);
1597 
1598  while ((tuple = systable_getnext(sd)) != NULL)
1599  {
1600  tuple = heap_modify_tuple(tuple, RelationGetDescr(description),
1601  values, nulls, replaces);
1602  CatalogTupleUpdate(description, &tuple->t_self, tuple);
1603 
1604  break; /* Assume there can be only one match */
1605  }
1606 
1607  systable_endscan(sd);
1608  table_close(description, NoLock);
1609  }
1610 
1611  /*
1612  * Swap inheritance relationship with parent index
1613  */
1614  if (get_rel_relispartition(oldIndexId))
1615  {
1616  List *ancestors = get_partition_ancestors(oldIndexId);
1617  Oid parentIndexRelid = linitial_oid(ancestors);
1618 
1619  DeleteInheritsTuple(oldIndexId, parentIndexRelid);
1620  StoreSingleInheritance(newIndexId, parentIndexRelid, 1);
1621 
1622  list_free(ancestors);
1623  }
1624 
1625  /*
1626  * Move all dependencies of and on the old index to the new one
1627  */
1628  changeDependenciesOf(RelationRelationId, oldIndexId, newIndexId);
1629  changeDependenciesOn(RelationRelationId, oldIndexId, newIndexId);
1630 
1631  /*
1632  * Copy over statistics from old to new index
1633  */
1634  {
1635  PgStat_StatTabEntry *tabentry;
1636 
1637  tabentry = pgstat_fetch_stat_tabentry(oldIndexId);
1638  if (tabentry)
1639  {
1640  if (newClassRel->pgstat_info)
1641  {
1642  newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_numscans = tabentry->numscans;
1643  newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_returned = tabentry->tuples_returned;
1644  newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_fetched = tabentry->tuples_fetched;
1645  newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_blocks_fetched = tabentry->blocks_fetched;
1646  newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_blocks_hit = tabentry->blocks_hit;
1647 
1648  /*
1649  * The data will be sent by the next pgstat_report_stat()
1650  * call.
1651  */
1652  }
1653  }
1654  }
1655 
1656  /* Close relations */
1657  table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
1658  table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
1659  table_close(pg_constraint, RowExclusiveLock);
1660  table_close(pg_trigger, RowExclusiveLock);
1661 
1662  /* The lock taken previously is not released until the end of transaction */
1663  relation_close(oldClassRel, NoLock);
1664  relation_close(newClassRel, NoLock);
1665 }
1666 
1667 /*
1668  * index_concurrently_set_dead
1669  *
1670  * Perform the last invalidation stage of DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY or REINDEX
1671  * CONCURRENTLY before actually dropping the index. After calling this
1672  * function, the index is seen by all the backends as dead. Low-level locks
1673  * taken here are kept until the end of the transaction calling this function.
1674  */
1675 void
1677 {
1678  Relation userHeapRelation;
1679  Relation userIndexRelation;
1680 
1681  /*
1682  * No more predicate locks will be acquired on this index, and we're about
1683  * to stop doing inserts into the index which could show conflicts with
1684  * existing predicate locks, so now is the time to move them to the heap
1685  * relation.
1686  */
1687  userHeapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
1688  userIndexRelation = index_open(indexId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
1689  TransferPredicateLocksToHeapRelation(userIndexRelation);
1690 
1691  /*
1692  * Now we are sure that nobody uses the index for queries; they just might
1693  * have it open for updating it. So now we can unset indisready and
1694  * indislive, then wait till nobody could be using it at all anymore.
1695  */
1697 
1698  /*
1699  * Invalidate the relcache for the table, so that after this commit all
1700  * sessions will refresh the table's index list. Forgetting just the
1701  * index's relcache entry is not enough.
1702  */
1703  CacheInvalidateRelcache(userHeapRelation);
1704 
1705  /*
1706  * Close the relations again, though still holding session lock.
1707  */
1708  table_close(userHeapRelation, NoLock);
1709  index_close(userIndexRelation, NoLock);
1710 }
1711 
1712 /*
1713  * index_constraint_create
1714  *
1715  * Set up a constraint associated with an index. Return the new constraint's
1716  * address.
1717  *
1718  * heapRelation: table owning the index (must be suitably locked by caller)
1719  * indexRelationId: OID of the index
1720  * parentConstraintId: if constraint is on a partition, the OID of the
1721  * constraint in the parent.
1722  * indexInfo: same info executor uses to insert into the index
1723  * constraintName: what it say (generally, should match name of index)
1724  * constraintType: one of CONSTRAINT_PRIMARY, CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE, or
1725  * CONSTRAINT_EXCLUSION
1726  * flags: bitmask that can include any combination of these bits:
1727  * INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_MARK_AS_PRIMARY: index is a PRIMARY KEY
1728  * INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE: constraint is DEFERRABLE
1729  * INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_INIT_DEFERRED: constraint is INITIALLY DEFERRED
1730  * INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_UPDATE_INDEX: update the pg_index row
1731  * INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_REMOVE_OLD_DEPS: remove existing dependencies
1732  * of index on table's columns
1733  * allow_system_table_mods: allow table to be a system catalog
1734  * is_internal: index is constructed due to internal process
1735  */
1738  Oid indexRelationId,
1739  Oid parentConstraintId,
1740  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
1741  const char *constraintName,
1742  char constraintType,
1743  bits16 constr_flags,
1744  bool allow_system_table_mods,
1745  bool is_internal)
1746 {
1747  Oid namespaceId = RelationGetNamespace(heapRelation);
1748  ObjectAddress myself,
1749  idxaddr;
1750  Oid conOid;
1751  bool deferrable;
1752  bool initdeferred;
1753  bool mark_as_primary;
1754  bool islocal;
1755  bool noinherit;
1756  int inhcount;
1757 
1758  deferrable = (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE) != 0;
1759  initdeferred = (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_INIT_DEFERRED) != 0;
1760  mark_as_primary = (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_MARK_AS_PRIMARY) != 0;
1761 
1762  /* constraint creation support doesn't work while bootstrapping */
1764 
1765  /* enforce system-table restriction */
1766  if (!allow_system_table_mods &&
1767  IsSystemRelation(heapRelation) &&
1769  ereport(ERROR,
1770  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
1771  errmsg("user-defined indexes on system catalog tables are not supported")));
1772 
1773  /* primary/unique constraints shouldn't have any expressions */
1774  if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions &&
1775  constraintType != CONSTRAINT_EXCLUSION)
1776  elog(ERROR, "constraints cannot have index expressions");
1777 
1778  /*
1779  * If we're manufacturing a constraint for a pre-existing index, we need
1780  * to get rid of the existing auto dependencies for the index (the ones
1781  * that index_create() would have made instead of calling this function).
1782  *
1783  * Note: this code would not necessarily do the right thing if the index
1784  * has any expressions or predicate, but we'd never be turning such an
1785  * index into a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint.
1786  */
1787  if (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_REMOVE_OLD_DEPS)
1788  deleteDependencyRecordsForClass(RelationRelationId, indexRelationId,
1789  RelationRelationId, DEPENDENCY_AUTO);
1790 
1791  if (OidIsValid(parentConstraintId))
1792  {
1793  islocal = false;
1794  inhcount = 1;
1795  noinherit = false;
1796  }
1797  else
1798  {
1799  islocal = true;
1800  inhcount = 0;
1801  noinherit = true;
1802  }
1803 
1804  /*
1805  * Construct a pg_constraint entry.
1806  */
1807  conOid = CreateConstraintEntry(constraintName,
1808  namespaceId,
1809  constraintType,
1810  deferrable,
1811  initdeferred,
1812  true,
1813  parentConstraintId,
1814  RelationGetRelid(heapRelation),
1815  indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers,
1816  indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs,
1817  indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs,
1818  InvalidOid, /* no domain */
1819  indexRelationId, /* index OID */
1820  InvalidOid, /* no foreign key */
1821  NULL,
1822  NULL,
1823  NULL,
1824  NULL,
1825  0,
1826  ' ',
1827  ' ',
1828  ' ',
1829  indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps,
1830  NULL, /* no check constraint */
1831  NULL,
1832  islocal,
1833  inhcount,
1834  noinherit,
1835  is_internal);
1836 
1837  /*
1838  * Register the index as internally dependent on the constraint.
1839  *
1840  * Note that the constraint has a dependency on the table, so we don't
1841  * need (or want) any direct dependency from the index to the table.
1842  */
1843  ObjectAddressSet(myself, ConstraintRelationId, conOid);
1844  ObjectAddressSet(idxaddr, RelationRelationId, indexRelationId);
1845  recordDependencyOn(&idxaddr, &myself, DEPENDENCY_INTERNAL);
1846 
1847  /*
1848  * Also, if this is a constraint on a partition, give it partition-type
1849  * dependencies on the parent constraint as well as the table.
1850  */
1851  if (OidIsValid(parentConstraintId))
1852  {
1853  ObjectAddress referenced;
1854 
1855  ObjectAddressSet(referenced, ConstraintRelationId, parentConstraintId);
1856  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_PRI);
1857  ObjectAddressSet(referenced, RelationRelationId,
1858  RelationGetRelid(heapRelation));
1859  recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_SEC);
1860  }
1861 
1862  /*
1863  * If the constraint is deferrable, create the deferred uniqueness
1864  * checking trigger. (The trigger will be given an internal dependency on
1865  * the constraint by CreateTrigger.)
1866  */
1867  if (deferrable)
1868  {
1869  CreateTrigStmt *trigger;
1870 
1871  trigger = makeNode(CreateTrigStmt);
1872  trigger->trigname = (constraintType == CONSTRAINT_PRIMARY) ?
1873  "PK_ConstraintTrigger" :
1874  "Unique_ConstraintTrigger";
1875  trigger->relation = NULL;
1876  trigger->funcname = SystemFuncName("unique_key_recheck");
1877  trigger->args = NIL;
1878  trigger->row = true;
1879  trigger->timing = TRIGGER_TYPE_AFTER;
1880  trigger->events = TRIGGER_TYPE_INSERT | TRIGGER_TYPE_UPDATE;
1881  trigger->columns = NIL;
1882  trigger->whenClause = NULL;
1883  trigger->isconstraint = true;
1884  trigger->deferrable = true;
1885  trigger->initdeferred = initdeferred;
1886  trigger->constrrel = NULL;
1887 
1888  (void) CreateTrigger(trigger, NULL, RelationGetRelid(heapRelation),
1889  InvalidOid, conOid, indexRelationId, InvalidOid,
1890  InvalidOid, NULL, true, false);
1891  }
1892 
1893  /*
1894  * If needed, mark the index as primary and/or deferred in pg_index.
1895  *
1896  * Note: When making an existing index into a constraint, caller must have
1897  * a table lock that prevents concurrent table updates; otherwise, there
1898  * is a risk that concurrent readers of the table will miss seeing this
1899  * index at all.
1900  */
1901  if ((constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_UPDATE_INDEX) &&
1902  (mark_as_primary || deferrable))
1903  {
1904  Relation pg_index;
1905  HeapTuple indexTuple;
1906  Form_pg_index indexForm;
1907  bool dirty = false;
1908 
1909  pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
1910 
1911  indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
1912  ObjectIdGetDatum(indexRelationId));
1913  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
1914  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexRelationId);
1915  indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
1916 
1917  if (mark_as_primary && !indexForm->indisprimary)
1918  {
1919  indexForm->indisprimary = true;
1920  dirty = true;
1921  }
1922 
1923  if (deferrable && indexForm->indimmediate)
1924  {
1925  indexForm->indimmediate = false;
1926  dirty = true;
1927  }
1928 
1929  if (dirty)
1930  {
1931  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &indexTuple->t_self, indexTuple);
1932 
1933  InvokeObjectPostAlterHookArg(IndexRelationId, indexRelationId, 0,
1934  InvalidOid, is_internal);
1935  }
1936 
1937  heap_freetuple(indexTuple);
1938  table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
1939  }
1940 
1941  return myself;
1942 }
1943 
1944 /*
1945  * index_drop
1946  *
1947  * NOTE: this routine should now only be called through performDeletion(),
1948  * else associated dependencies won't be cleaned up.
1949  *
1950  * If concurrent is true, do a DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY. If concurrent is
1951  * false but concurrent_lock_mode is true, then do a normal DROP INDEX but
1952  * take a lock for CONCURRENTLY processing. That is used as part of REINDEX
1953  * CONCURRENTLY.
1954  */
1955 void
1956 index_drop(Oid indexId, bool concurrent, bool concurrent_lock_mode)
1957 {
1958  Oid heapId;
1959  Relation userHeapRelation;
1960  Relation userIndexRelation;
1961  Relation indexRelation;
1962  HeapTuple tuple;
1963  bool hasexprs;
1964  LockRelId heaprelid,
1965  indexrelid;
1966  LOCKTAG heaplocktag;
1967  LOCKMODE lockmode;
1968 
1969  /*
1970  * To drop an index safely, we must grab exclusive lock on its parent
1971  * table. Exclusive lock on the index alone is insufficient because
1972  * another backend might be about to execute a query on the parent table.
1973  * If it relies on a previously cached list of index OIDs, then it could
1974  * attempt to access the just-dropped index. We must therefore take a
1975  * table lock strong enough to prevent all queries on the table from
1976  * proceeding until we commit and send out a shared-cache-inval notice
1977  * that will make them update their index lists.
1978  *
1979  * In the concurrent case we avoid this requirement by disabling index use
1980  * in multiple steps and waiting out any transactions that might be using
1981  * the index, so we don't need exclusive lock on the parent table. Instead
1982  * we take ShareUpdateExclusiveLock, to ensure that two sessions aren't
1983  * doing CREATE/DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY on the same index. (We will get
1984  * AccessExclusiveLock on the index below, once we're sure nobody else is
1985  * using it.)
1986  */
1987  heapId = IndexGetRelation(indexId, false);
1988  lockmode = (concurrent || concurrent_lock_mode) ? ShareUpdateExclusiveLock : AccessExclusiveLock;
1989  userHeapRelation = table_open(heapId, lockmode);
1990  userIndexRelation = index_open(indexId, lockmode);
1991 
1992  /*
1993  * We might still have open queries using it in our own session, which the
1994  * above locking won't prevent, so test explicitly.
1995  */
1996  CheckTableNotInUse(userIndexRelation, "DROP INDEX");
1997 
1998  /*
1999  * Drop Index Concurrently is more or less the reverse process of Create
2000  * Index Concurrently.
2001  *
2002  * First we unset indisvalid so queries starting afterwards don't use the
2003  * index to answer queries anymore. We have to keep indisready = true so
2004  * transactions that are still scanning the index can continue to see
2005  * valid index contents. For instance, if they are using READ COMMITTED
2006  * mode, and another transaction makes changes and commits, they need to
2007  * see those new tuples in the index.
2008  *
2009  * After all transactions that could possibly have used the index for
2010  * queries end, we can unset indisready and indislive, then wait till
2011  * nobody could be touching it anymore. (Note: we need indislive because
2012  * this state must be distinct from the initial state during CREATE INDEX
2013  * CONCURRENTLY, which has indislive true while indisready and indisvalid
2014  * are false. That's because in that state, transactions must examine the
2015  * index for HOT-safety decisions, while in this state we don't want them
2016  * to open it at all.)
2017  *
2018  * Since all predicate locks on the index are about to be made invalid, we
2019  * must promote them to predicate locks on the heap. In the
2020  * non-concurrent case we can just do that now. In the concurrent case
2021  * it's a bit trickier. The predicate locks must be moved when there are
2022  * no index scans in progress on the index and no more can subsequently
2023  * start, so that no new predicate locks can be made on the index. Also,
2024  * they must be moved before heap inserts stop maintaining the index, else
2025  * the conflict with the predicate lock on the index gap could be missed
2026  * before the lock on the heap relation is in place to detect a conflict
2027  * based on the heap tuple insert.
2028  */
2029  if (concurrent)
2030  {
2031  /*
2032  * We must commit our transaction in order to make the first pg_index
2033  * state update visible to other sessions. If the DROP machinery has
2034  * already performed any other actions (removal of other objects,
2035  * pg_depend entries, etc), the commit would make those actions
2036  * permanent, which would leave us with inconsistent catalog state if
2037  * we fail partway through the following sequence. Since DROP INDEX
2038  * CONCURRENTLY is restricted to dropping just one index that has no
2039  * dependencies, we should get here before anything's been done ---
2040  * but let's check that to be sure. We can verify that the current
2041  * transaction has not executed any transactional updates by checking
2042  * that no XID has been assigned.
2043  */
2045  ereport(ERROR,
2046  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
2047  errmsg("DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY must be first action in transaction")));
2048 
2049  /*
2050  * Mark index invalid by updating its pg_index entry
2051  */
2053 
2054  /*
2055  * Invalidate the relcache for the table, so that after this commit
2056  * all sessions will refresh any cached plans that might reference the
2057  * index.
2058  */
2059  CacheInvalidateRelcache(userHeapRelation);
2060 
2061  /* save lockrelid and locktag for below, then close but keep locks */
2062  heaprelid = userHeapRelation->rd_lockInfo.lockRelId;
2063  SET_LOCKTAG_RELATION(heaplocktag, heaprelid.dbId, heaprelid.relId);
2064  indexrelid = userIndexRelation->rd_lockInfo.lockRelId;
2065 
2066  table_close(userHeapRelation, NoLock);
2067  index_close(userIndexRelation, NoLock);
2068 
2069  /*
2070  * We must commit our current transaction so that the indisvalid
2071  * update becomes visible to other transactions; then start another.
2072  * Note that any previously-built data structures are lost in the
2073  * commit. The only data we keep past here are the relation IDs.
2074  *
2075  * Before committing, get a session-level lock on the table, to ensure
2076  * that neither it nor the index can be dropped before we finish. This
2077  * cannot block, even if someone else is waiting for access, because
2078  * we already have the same lock within our transaction.
2079  */
2082 
2086 
2087  /*
2088  * Now we must wait until no running transaction could be using the
2089  * index for a query. Use AccessExclusiveLock here to check for
2090  * running transactions that hold locks of any kind on the table. Note
2091  * we do not need to worry about xacts that open the table for reading
2092  * after this point; they will see the index as invalid when they open
2093  * the relation.
2094  *
2095  * Note: the reason we use actual lock acquisition here, rather than
2096  * just checking the ProcArray and sleeping, is that deadlock is
2097  * possible if one of the transactions in question is blocked trying
2098  * to acquire an exclusive lock on our table. The lock code will
2099  * detect deadlock and error out properly.
2100  */
2101  WaitForLockers(heaplocktag, AccessExclusiveLock, true);
2102 
2103  /* Finish invalidation of index and mark it as dead */
2104  index_concurrently_set_dead(heapId, indexId);
2105 
2106  /*
2107  * Again, commit the transaction to make the pg_index update visible
2108  * to other sessions.
2109  */
2112 
2113  /*
2114  * Wait till every transaction that saw the old index state has
2115  * finished.
2116  */
2117  WaitForLockers(heaplocktag, AccessExclusiveLock, true);
2118 
2119  /*
2120  * Re-open relations to allow us to complete our actions.
2121  *
2122  * At this point, nothing should be accessing the index, but lets
2123  * leave nothing to chance and grab AccessExclusiveLock on the index
2124  * before the physical deletion.
2125  */
2126  userHeapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
2127  userIndexRelation = index_open(indexId, AccessExclusiveLock);
2128  }
2129  else
2130  {
2131  /* Not concurrent, so just transfer predicate locks and we're good */
2132  TransferPredicateLocksToHeapRelation(userIndexRelation);
2133  }
2134 
2135  /*
2136  * Schedule physical removal of the files (if any)
2137  */
2138  if (userIndexRelation->rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX)
2139  RelationDropStorage(userIndexRelation);
2140 
2141  /*
2142  * Close and flush the index's relcache entry, to ensure relcache doesn't
2143  * try to rebuild it while we're deleting catalog entries. We keep the
2144  * lock though.
2145  */
2146  index_close(userIndexRelation, NoLock);
2147 
2148  RelationForgetRelation(indexId);
2149 
2150  /*
2151  * fix INDEX relation, and check for expressional index
2152  */
2153  indexRelation = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
2154 
2155  tuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
2156  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
2157  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
2158 
2159  hasexprs = !heap_attisnull(tuple, Anum_pg_index_indexprs,
2160  RelationGetDescr(indexRelation));
2161 
2162  CatalogTupleDelete(indexRelation, &tuple->t_self);
2163 
2164  ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
2165  table_close(indexRelation, RowExclusiveLock);
2166 
2167  /*
2168  * if it has any expression columns, we might have stored statistics about
2169  * them.
2170  */
2171  if (hasexprs)
2172  RemoveStatistics(indexId, 0);
2173 
2174  /*
2175  * fix ATTRIBUTE relation
2176  */
2177  DeleteAttributeTuples(indexId);
2178 
2179  /*
2180  * fix RELATION relation
2181  */
2182  DeleteRelationTuple(indexId);
2183 
2184  /*
2185  * fix INHERITS relation
2186  */
2187  DeleteInheritsTuple(indexId, InvalidOid);
2188 
2189  /*
2190  * We are presently too lazy to attempt to compute the new correct value
2191  * of relhasindex (the next VACUUM will fix it if necessary). So there is
2192  * no need to update the pg_class tuple for the owning relation. But we
2193  * must send out a shared-cache-inval notice on the owning relation to
2194  * ensure other backends update their relcache lists of indexes. (In the
2195  * concurrent case, this is redundant but harmless.)
2196  */
2197  CacheInvalidateRelcache(userHeapRelation);
2198 
2199  /*
2200  * Close owning rel, but keep lock
2201  */
2202  table_close(userHeapRelation, NoLock);
2203 
2204  /*
2205  * Release the session locks before we go.
2206  */
2207  if (concurrent)
2208  {
2211  }
2212 }
2213 
2214 /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
2215  * index_build support
2216  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
2217  */
2218 
2219 /* ----------------
2220  * BuildIndexInfo
2221  * Construct an IndexInfo record for an open index
2222  *
2223  * IndexInfo stores the information about the index that's needed by
2224  * FormIndexDatum, which is used for both index_build() and later insertion
2225  * of individual index tuples. Normally we build an IndexInfo for an index
2226  * just once per command, and then use it for (potentially) many tuples.
2227  * ----------------
2228  */
2229 IndexInfo *
2231 {
2232  IndexInfo *ii;
2233  Form_pg_index indexStruct = index->rd_index;
2234  int i;
2235  int numAtts;
2236 
2237  /* check the number of keys, and copy attr numbers into the IndexInfo */
2238  numAtts = indexStruct->indnatts;
2239  if (numAtts < 1 || numAtts > INDEX_MAX_KEYS)
2240  elog(ERROR, "invalid indnatts %d for index %u",
2241  numAtts, RelationGetRelid(index));
2242 
2243  /*
2244  * Create the node, fetching any expressions needed for expressional
2245  * indexes and index predicate if any.
2246  */
2247  ii = makeIndexInfo(indexStruct->indnatts,
2248  indexStruct->indnkeyatts,
2249  index->rd_rel->relam,
2252  indexStruct->indisunique,
2253  indexStruct->indisready,
2254  false);
2255 
2256  /* fill in attribute numbers */
2257  for (i = 0; i < numAtts; i++)
2258  ii->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] = indexStruct->indkey.values[i];
2259 
2260  /* fetch exclusion constraint info if any */
2261  if (indexStruct->indisexclusion)
2262  {
2264  &ii->ii_ExclusionOps,
2265  &ii->ii_ExclusionProcs,
2266  &ii->ii_ExclusionStrats);
2267  }
2268 
2269  return ii;
2270 }
2271 
2272 /*
2273  * CompareIndexInfo
2274  * Return whether the properties of two indexes (in different tables)
2275  * indicate that they have the "same" definitions.
2276  *
2277  * Note: passing collations and opfamilies separately is a kludge. Adding
2278  * them to IndexInfo may result in better coding here and elsewhere.
2279  *
2280  * Use convert_tuples_by_name_map(index2, index1) to build the attmap.
2281  */
2282 bool
2284  Oid *collations1, Oid *collations2,
2285  Oid *opfamilies1, Oid *opfamilies2,
2286  AttrNumber *attmap, int maplen)
2287 {
2288  int i;
2289 
2290  if (info1->ii_Unique != info2->ii_Unique)
2291  return false;
2292 
2293  /* indexes are only equivalent if they have the same access method */
2294  if (info1->ii_Am != info2->ii_Am)
2295  return false;
2296 
2297  /* and same number of attributes */
2298  if (info1->ii_NumIndexAttrs != info2->ii_NumIndexAttrs)
2299  return false;
2300 
2301  /* and same number of key attributes */
2302  if (info1->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs != info2->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs)
2303  return false;
2304 
2305  /*
2306  * and columns match through the attribute map (actual attribute numbers
2307  * might differ!) Note that this implies that index columns that are
2308  * expressions appear in the same positions. We will next compare the
2309  * expressions themselves.
2310  */
2311  for (i = 0; i < info1->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
2312  {
2313  if (maplen < info2->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i])
2314  elog(ERROR, "incorrect attribute map");
2315 
2316  /* ignore expressions at this stage */
2317  if ((info1->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] != InvalidAttrNumber) &&
2318  (attmap[info2->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] - 1] !=
2319  info1->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i]))
2320  return false;
2321 
2322  /* collation and opfamily is not valid for including columns */
2323  if (i >= info1->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs)
2324  continue;
2325 
2326  if (collations1[i] != collations2[i])
2327  return false;
2328  if (opfamilies1[i] != opfamilies2[i])
2329  return false;
2330  }
2331 
2332  /*
2333  * For expression indexes: either both are expression indexes, or neither
2334  * is; if they are, make sure the expressions match.
2335  */
2336  if ((info1->ii_Expressions != NIL) != (info2->ii_Expressions != NIL))
2337  return false;
2338  if (info1->ii_Expressions != NIL)
2339  {
2340  bool found_whole_row;
2341  Node *mapped;
2342 
2343  mapped = map_variable_attnos((Node *) info2->ii_Expressions,
2344  1, 0, attmap, maplen,
2345  InvalidOid, &found_whole_row);
2346  if (found_whole_row)
2347  {
2348  /*
2349  * we could throw an error here, but seems out of scope for this
2350  * routine.
2351  */
2352  return false;
2353  }
2354 
2355  if (!equal(info1->ii_Expressions, mapped))
2356  return false;
2357  }
2358 
2359  /* Partial index predicates must be identical, if they exist */
2360  if ((info1->ii_Predicate == NULL) != (info2->ii_Predicate == NULL))
2361  return false;
2362  if (info1->ii_Predicate != NULL)
2363  {
2364  bool found_whole_row;
2365  Node *mapped;
2366 
2367  mapped = map_variable_attnos((Node *) info2->ii_Predicate,
2368  1, 0, attmap, maplen,
2369  InvalidOid, &found_whole_row);
2370  if (found_whole_row)
2371  {
2372  /*
2373  * we could throw an error here, but seems out of scope for this
2374  * routine.
2375  */
2376  return false;
2377  }
2378  if (!equal(info1->ii_Predicate, mapped))
2379  return false;
2380  }
2381 
2382  /* No support currently for comparing exclusion indexes. */
2383  if (info1->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL || info2->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
2384  return false;
2385 
2386  return true;
2387 }
2388 
2389 /* ----------------
2390  * BuildSpeculativeIndexInfo
2391  * Add extra state to IndexInfo record
2392  *
2393  * For unique indexes, we usually don't want to add info to the IndexInfo for
2394  * checking uniqueness, since the B-Tree AM handles that directly. However,
2395  * in the case of speculative insertion, additional support is required.
2396  *
2397  * Do this processing here rather than in BuildIndexInfo() to not incur the
2398  * overhead in the common non-speculative cases.
2399  * ----------------
2400  */
2401 void
2403 {
2404  int indnkeyatts;
2405  int i;
2406 
2407  indnkeyatts = IndexRelationGetNumberOfKeyAttributes(index);
2408 
2409  /*
2410  * fetch info for checking unique indexes
2411  */
2412  Assert(ii->ii_Unique);
2413 
2414  if (index->rd_rel->relam != BTREE_AM_OID)
2415  elog(ERROR, "unexpected non-btree speculative unique index");
2416 
2417  ii->ii_UniqueOps = (Oid *) palloc(sizeof(Oid) * indnkeyatts);
2418  ii->ii_UniqueProcs = (Oid *) palloc(sizeof(Oid) * indnkeyatts);
2419  ii->ii_UniqueStrats = (uint16 *) palloc(sizeof(uint16) * indnkeyatts);
2420 
2421  /*
2422  * We have to look up the operator's strategy number. This provides a
2423  * cross-check that the operator does match the index.
2424  */
2425  /* We need the func OIDs and strategy numbers too */
2426  for (i = 0; i < indnkeyatts; i++)
2427  {
2429  ii->ii_UniqueOps[i] =
2430  get_opfamily_member(index->rd_opfamily[i],
2431  index->rd_opcintype[i],
2432  index->rd_opcintype[i],
2433  ii->ii_UniqueStrats[i]);
2434  if (!OidIsValid(ii->ii_UniqueOps[i]))
2435  elog(ERROR, "missing operator %d(%u,%u) in opfamily %u",
2436  ii->ii_UniqueStrats[i], index->rd_opcintype[i],
2437  index->rd_opcintype[i], index->rd_opfamily[i]);
2438  ii->ii_UniqueProcs[i] = get_opcode(ii->ii_UniqueOps[i]);
2439  }
2440 }
2441 
2442 /* ----------------
2443  * FormIndexDatum
2444  * Construct values[] and isnull[] arrays for a new index tuple.
2445  *
2446  * indexInfo Info about the index
2447  * slot Heap tuple for which we must prepare an index entry
2448  * estate executor state for evaluating any index expressions
2449  * values Array of index Datums (output area)
2450  * isnull Array of is-null indicators (output area)
2451  *
2452  * When there are no index expressions, estate may be NULL. Otherwise it
2453  * must be supplied, *and* the ecxt_scantuple slot of its per-tuple expr
2454  * context must point to the heap tuple passed in.
2455  *
2456  * Notice we don't actually call index_form_tuple() here; we just prepare
2457  * its input arrays values[] and isnull[]. This is because the index AM
2458  * may wish to alter the data before storage.
2459  * ----------------
2460  */
2461 void
2463  TupleTableSlot *slot,
2464  EState *estate,
2465  Datum *values,
2466  bool *isnull)
2467 {
2468  ListCell *indexpr_item;
2469  int i;
2470 
2471  if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions != NIL &&
2472  indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState == NIL)
2473  {
2474  /* First time through, set up expression evaluation state */
2475  indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState =
2476  ExecPrepareExprList(indexInfo->ii_Expressions, estate);
2477  /* Check caller has set up context correctly */
2478  Assert(GetPerTupleExprContext(estate)->ecxt_scantuple == slot);
2479  }
2480  indexpr_item = list_head(indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState);
2481 
2482  for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
2483  {
2484  int keycol = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
2485  Datum iDatum;
2486  bool isNull;
2487 
2488  if (keycol < 0)
2489  iDatum = slot_getsysattr(slot, keycol, &isNull);
2490  else if (keycol != 0)
2491  {
2492  /*
2493  * Plain index column; get the value we need directly from the
2494  * heap tuple.
2495  */
2496  iDatum = slot_getattr(slot, keycol, &isNull);
2497  }
2498  else
2499  {
2500  /*
2501  * Index expression --- need to evaluate it.
2502  */
2503  if (indexpr_item == NULL)
2504  elog(ERROR, "wrong number of index expressions");
2505  iDatum = ExecEvalExprSwitchContext((ExprState *) lfirst(indexpr_item),
2506  GetPerTupleExprContext(estate),
2507  &isNull);
2508  indexpr_item = lnext(indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState, indexpr_item);
2509  }
2510  values[i] = iDatum;
2511  isnull[i] = isNull;
2512  }
2513 
2514  if (indexpr_item != NULL)
2515  elog(ERROR, "wrong number of index expressions");
2516 }
2517 
2518 
2519 /*
2520  * index_update_stats --- update pg_class entry after CREATE INDEX or REINDEX
2521  *
2522  * This routine updates the pg_class row of either an index or its parent
2523  * relation after CREATE INDEX or REINDEX. Its rather bizarre API is designed
2524  * to ensure we can do all the necessary work in just one update.
2525  *
2526  * hasindex: set relhasindex to this value
2527  * reltuples: if >= 0, set reltuples to this value; else no change
2528  *
2529  * If reltuples >= 0, relpages and relallvisible are also updated (using
2530  * RelationGetNumberOfBlocks() and visibilitymap_count()).
2531  *
2532  * NOTE: an important side-effect of this operation is that an SI invalidation
2533  * message is sent out to all backends --- including me --- causing relcache
2534  * entries to be flushed or updated with the new data. This must happen even
2535  * if we find that no change is needed in the pg_class row. When updating
2536  * a heap entry, this ensures that other backends find out about the new
2537  * index. When updating an index, it's important because some index AMs
2538  * expect a relcache flush to occur after REINDEX.
2539  */
2540 static void
2542  bool hasindex,
2543  double reltuples)
2544 {
2545  Oid relid = RelationGetRelid(rel);
2546  Relation pg_class;
2547  HeapTuple tuple;
2548  Form_pg_class rd_rel;
2549  bool dirty;
2550 
2551  /*
2552  * We always update the pg_class row using a non-transactional,
2553  * overwrite-in-place update. There are several reasons for this:
2554  *
2555  * 1. In bootstrap mode, we have no choice --- UPDATE wouldn't work.
2556  *
2557  * 2. We could be reindexing pg_class itself, in which case we can't move
2558  * its pg_class row because CatalogTupleInsert/CatalogTupleUpdate might
2559  * not know about all the indexes yet (see reindex_relation).
2560  *
2561  * 3. Because we execute CREATE INDEX with just share lock on the parent
2562  * rel (to allow concurrent index creations), an ordinary update could
2563  * suffer a tuple-concurrently-updated failure against another CREATE
2564  * INDEX committing at about the same time. We can avoid that by having
2565  * them both do nontransactional updates (we assume they will both be
2566  * trying to change the pg_class row to the same thing, so it doesn't
2567  * matter which goes first).
2568  *
2569  * It is safe to use a non-transactional update even though our
2570  * transaction could still fail before committing. Setting relhasindex
2571  * true is safe even if there are no indexes (VACUUM will eventually fix
2572  * it). And of course the new relpages and reltuples counts are correct
2573  * regardless. However, we don't want to change relpages (or
2574  * relallvisible) if the caller isn't providing an updated reltuples
2575  * count, because that would bollix the reltuples/relpages ratio which is
2576  * what's really important.
2577  */
2578 
2579  pg_class = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
2580 
2581  /*
2582  * Make a copy of the tuple to update. Normally we use the syscache, but
2583  * we can't rely on that during bootstrap or while reindexing pg_class
2584  * itself.
2585  */
2586  if (IsBootstrapProcessingMode() ||
2587  ReindexIsProcessingHeap(RelationRelationId))
2588  {
2589  /* don't assume syscache will work */
2590  TableScanDesc pg_class_scan;
2591  ScanKeyData key[1];
2592 
2593  ScanKeyInit(&key[0],
2594  Anum_pg_class_oid,
2595  BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
2596  ObjectIdGetDatum(relid));
2597 
2598  pg_class_scan = table_beginscan_catalog(pg_class, 1, key);
2599  tuple = heap_getnext(pg_class_scan, ForwardScanDirection);
2600  tuple = heap_copytuple(tuple);
2601  table_endscan(pg_class_scan);
2602  }
2603  else
2604  {
2605  /* normal case, use syscache */
2606  tuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(RELOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(relid));
2607  }
2608 
2609  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
2610  elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", relid);
2611  rd_rel = (Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
2612 
2613  /* Should this be a more comprehensive test? */
2614  Assert(rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX);
2615 
2616  /* Apply required updates, if any, to copied tuple */
2617 
2618  dirty = false;
2619  if (rd_rel->relhasindex != hasindex)
2620  {
2621  rd_rel->relhasindex = hasindex;
2622  dirty = true;
2623  }
2624 
2625  if (reltuples >= 0)
2626  {
2629 
2630  if (rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_INDEX)
2631  visibilitymap_count(rel, &relallvisible, NULL);
2632  else /* don't bother for indexes */
2633  relallvisible = 0;
2634 
2635  if (rd_rel->relpages != (int32) relpages)
2636  {
2637  rd_rel->relpages = (int32) relpages;
2638  dirty = true;
2639  }
2640  if (rd_rel->reltuples != (float4) reltuples)
2641  {
2642  rd_rel->reltuples = (float4) reltuples;
2643  dirty = true;
2644  }
2645  if (rd_rel->relallvisible != (int32) relallvisible)
2646  {
2647  rd_rel->relallvisible = (int32) relallvisible;
2648  dirty = true;
2649  }
2650  }
2651 
2652  /*
2653  * If anything changed, write out the tuple
2654  */
2655  if (dirty)
2656  {
2657  heap_inplace_update(pg_class, tuple);
2658  /* the above sends a cache inval message */
2659  }
2660  else
2661  {
2662  /* no need to change tuple, but force relcache inval anyway */
2664  }
2665 
2666  heap_freetuple(tuple);
2667 
2668  table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
2669 }
2670 
2671 
2672 /*
2673  * index_build - invoke access-method-specific index build procedure
2674  *
2675  * On entry, the index's catalog entries are valid, and its physical disk
2676  * file has been created but is empty. We call the AM-specific build
2677  * procedure to fill in the index contents. We then update the pg_class
2678  * entries of the index and heap relation as needed, using statistics
2679  * returned by ambuild as well as data passed by the caller.
2680  *
2681  * isreindex indicates we are recreating a previously-existing index.
2682  * parallel indicates if parallelism may be useful.
2683  *
2684  * Note: before Postgres 8.2, the passed-in heap and index Relations
2685  * were automatically closed by this routine. This is no longer the case.
2686  * The caller opened 'em, and the caller should close 'em.
2687  */
2688 void
2689 index_build(Relation heapRelation,
2690  Relation indexRelation,
2691  IndexInfo *indexInfo,
2692  bool isreindex,
2693  bool parallel)
2694 {
2695  IndexBuildResult *stats;
2696  Oid save_userid;
2697  int save_sec_context;
2698  int save_nestlevel;
2699 
2700  /*
2701  * sanity checks
2702  */
2703  Assert(RelationIsValid(indexRelation));
2704  Assert(PointerIsValid(indexRelation->rd_indam));
2705  Assert(PointerIsValid(indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuild));
2706  Assert(PointerIsValid(indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuildempty));
2707 
2708  /*
2709  * Determine worker process details for parallel CREATE INDEX. Currently,
2710  * only btree has support for parallel builds.
2711  *
2712  * Note that planner considers parallel safety for us.
2713  */
2714  if (parallel && IsNormalProcessingMode() &&
2715  indexRelation->rd_rel->relam == BTREE_AM_OID)
2716  indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers =
2718  RelationGetRelid(indexRelation));
2719 
2720  if (indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers == 0)
2721  ereport(DEBUG1,
2722  (errmsg("building index \"%s\" on table \"%s\" serially",
2723  RelationGetRelationName(indexRelation),
2724  RelationGetRelationName(heapRelation))));
2725  else
2726  ereport(DEBUG1,
2727  (errmsg_plural("building index \"%s\" on table \"%s\" with request for %d parallel worker",
2728  "building index \"%s\" on table \"%s\" with request for %d parallel workers",
2729  indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers,
2730  RelationGetRelationName(indexRelation),
2731  RelationGetRelationName(heapRelation),
2732  indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers)));
2733 
2734  /*
2735  * Switch to the table owner's userid, so that any index functions are run
2736  * as that user. Also lock down security-restricted operations and
2737  * arrange to make GUC variable changes local to this command.
2738  */
2739  GetUserIdAndSecContext(&save_userid, &save_sec_context);
2740  SetUserIdAndSecContext(heapRelation->rd_rel->relowner,
2741  save_sec_context | SECURITY_RESTRICTED_OPERATION);
2742  save_nestlevel = NewGUCNestLevel();
2743 
2744  /* Set up initial progress report status */
2745  {
2746  const int index[] = {
2753  };
2754  const int64 val[] = {
2757  0, 0, 0, 0
2758  };
2759 
2760  pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(6, index, val);
2761  }
2762 
2763  /*
2764  * Call the access method's build procedure
2765  */
2766  stats = indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuild(heapRelation, indexRelation,
2767  indexInfo);
2768  Assert(PointerIsValid(stats));
2769 
2770  /*
2771  * If this is an unlogged index, we may need to write out an init fork for
2772  * it -- but we must first check whether one already exists. If, for
2773  * example, an unlogged relation is truncated in the transaction that
2774  * created it, or truncated twice in a subsequent transaction, the
2775  * relfilenode won't change, and nothing needs to be done here.
2776  */
2777  if (indexRelation->rd_rel->relpersistence == RELPERSISTENCE_UNLOGGED &&
2778  !smgrexists(indexRelation->rd_smgr, INIT_FORKNUM))
2779  {
2780  RelationOpenSmgr(indexRelation);
2781  smgrcreate(indexRelation->rd_smgr, INIT_FORKNUM, false);
2782  indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuildempty(indexRelation);
2783  }
2784 
2785  /*
2786  * If we found any potentially broken HOT chains, mark the index as not
2787  * being usable until the current transaction is below the event horizon.
2788  * See src/backend/access/heap/README.HOT for discussion. Also set this
2789  * if early pruning/vacuuming is enabled for the heap relation. While it
2790  * might become safe to use the index earlier based on actual cleanup
2791  * activity and other active transactions, the test for that would be much
2792  * more complex and would require some form of blocking, so keep it simple
2793  * and fast by just using the current transaction.
2794  *
2795  * However, when reindexing an existing index, we should do nothing here.
2796  * Any HOT chains that are broken with respect to the index must predate
2797  * the index's original creation, so there is no need to change the
2798  * index's usability horizon. Moreover, we *must not* try to change the
2799  * index's pg_index entry while reindexing pg_index itself, and this
2800  * optimization nicely prevents that. The more complex rules needed for a
2801  * reindex are handled separately after this function returns.
2802  *
2803  * We also need not set indcheckxmin during a concurrent index build,
2804  * because we won't set indisvalid true until all transactions that care
2805  * about the broken HOT chains or early pruning/vacuuming are gone.
2806  *
2807  * Therefore, this code path can only be taken during non-concurrent
2808  * CREATE INDEX. Thus the fact that heap_update will set the pg_index
2809  * tuple's xmin doesn't matter, because that tuple was created in the
2810  * current transaction anyway. That also means we don't need to worry
2811  * about any concurrent readers of the tuple; no other transaction can see
2812  * it yet.
2813  */
2814  if ((indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain || EarlyPruningEnabled(heapRelation)) &&
2815  !isreindex &&
2816  !indexInfo->ii_Concurrent)
2817  {
2818  Oid indexId = RelationGetRelid(indexRelation);
2819  Relation pg_index;
2820  HeapTuple indexTuple;
2821  Form_pg_index indexForm;
2822 
2823  pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
2824 
2825  indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
2826  ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
2827  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
2828  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
2829  indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
2830 
2831  /* If it's a new index, indcheckxmin shouldn't be set ... */
2832  Assert(!indexForm->indcheckxmin);
2833 
2834  indexForm->indcheckxmin = true;
2835  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &indexTuple->t_self, indexTuple);
2836 
2837  heap_freetuple(indexTuple);
2838  table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
2839  }
2840 
2841  /*
2842  * Update heap and index pg_class rows
2843  */
2844  index_update_stats(heapRelation,
2845  true,
2846  stats->heap_tuples);
2847 
2848  index_update_stats(indexRelation,
2849  false,
2850  stats->index_tuples);
2851 
2852  /* Make the updated catalog row versions visible */
2854 
2855  /*
2856  * If it's for an exclusion constraint, make a second pass over the heap
2857  * to verify that the constraint is satisfied. We must not do this until
2858  * the index is fully valid. (Broken HOT chains shouldn't matter, though;
2859  * see comments for IndexCheckExclusion.)
2860  */
2861  if (indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
2862  IndexCheckExclusion(heapRelation, indexRelation, indexInfo);
2863 
2864  /* Roll back any GUC changes executed by index functions */
2865  AtEOXact_GUC(false, save_nestlevel);
2866 
2867  /* Restore userid and security context */
2868  SetUserIdAndSecContext(save_userid, save_sec_context);
2869 }
2870 
2871 /*
2872  * IndexCheckExclusion - verify that a new exclusion constraint is satisfied
2873  *
2874  * When creating an exclusion constraint, we first build the index normally
2875  * and then rescan the heap to check for conflicts. We assume that we only
2876  * need to validate tuples that are live according to an up-to-date snapshot,
2877  * and that these were correctly indexed even in the presence of broken HOT
2878  * chains. This should be OK since we are holding at least ShareLock on the
2879  * table, meaning there can be no uncommitted updates from other transactions.
2880  * (Note: that wouldn't necessarily work for system catalogs, since many
2881  * operations release write lock early on the system catalogs.)
2882  */
2883 static void
2885  Relation indexRelation,
2886  IndexInfo *indexInfo)
2887 {
2888  TableScanDesc scan;
2890  bool isnull[INDEX_MAX_KEYS];
2891  ExprState *predicate;
2892  TupleTableSlot *slot;
2893  EState *estate;
2894  ExprContext *econtext;
2895  Snapshot snapshot;
2896 
2897  /*
2898  * If we are reindexing the target index, mark it as no longer being
2899  * reindexed, to forestall an Assert in index_beginscan when we try to use
2900  * the index for probes. This is OK because the index is now fully valid.
2901  */
2904 
2905  /*
2906  * Need an EState for evaluation of index expressions and partial-index
2907  * predicates. Also a slot to hold the current tuple.
2908  */
2909  estate = CreateExecutorState();
2910  econtext = GetPerTupleExprContext(estate);
2911  slot = table_slot_create(heapRelation, NULL);
2912 
2913  /* Arrange for econtext's scan tuple to be the tuple under test */
2914  econtext->ecxt_scantuple = slot;
2915 
2916  /* Set up execution state for predicate, if any. */
2917  predicate = ExecPrepareQual(indexInfo->ii_Predicate, estate);
2918 
2919  /*
2920  * Scan all live tuples in the base relation.
2921  */
2922  snapshot = RegisterSnapshot(GetLatestSnapshot());
2923  scan = table_beginscan_strat(heapRelation, /* relation */
2924  snapshot, /* snapshot */
2925  0, /* number of keys */
2926  NULL, /* scan key */
2927  true, /* buffer access strategy OK */
2928  true); /* syncscan OK */
2929 
2930  while (table_scan_getnextslot(scan, ForwardScanDirection, slot))
2931  {
2933 
2934  /*
2935  * In a partial index, ignore tuples that don't satisfy the predicate.
2936  */
2937  if (predicate != NULL)
2938  {
2939  if (!ExecQual(predicate, econtext))
2940  continue;
2941  }
2942 
2943  /*
2944  * Extract index column values, including computing expressions.
2945  */
2946  FormIndexDatum(indexInfo,
2947  slot,
2948  estate,
2949  values,
2950  isnull);
2951 
2952  /*
2953  * Check that this tuple has no conflicts.
2954  */
2955  check_exclusion_constraint(heapRelation,
2956  indexRelation, indexInfo,
2957  &(slot->tts_tid), values, isnull,
2958  estate, true);
2959 
2961  }
2962 
2963  table_endscan(scan);
2964  UnregisterSnapshot(snapshot);
2965 
2967 
2968  FreeExecutorState(estate);
2969 
2970  /* These may have been pointing to the now-gone estate */
2971  indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState = NIL;
2972  indexInfo->ii_PredicateState = NULL;
2973 }
2974 
2975 
2976 /*
2977  * validate_index - support code for concurrent index builds
2978  *
2979  * We do a concurrent index build by first inserting the catalog entry for the
2980  * index via index_create(), marking it not indisready and not indisvalid.
2981  * Then we commit our transaction and start a new one, then we wait for all
2982  * transactions that could have been modifying the table to terminate. Now
2983  * we know that any subsequently-started transactions will see the index and
2984  * honor its constraints on HOT updates; so while existing HOT-chains might
2985  * be broken with respect to the index, no currently live tuple will have an
2986  * incompatible HOT update done to it. We now build the index normally via
2987  * index_build(), while holding a weak lock that allows concurrent
2988  * insert/update/delete. Also, we index only tuples that are valid
2989  * as of the start of the scan (see table_index_build_scan), whereas a normal
2990  * build takes care to include recently-dead tuples. This is OK because
2991  * we won't mark the index valid until all transactions that might be able
2992  * to see those tuples are gone. The reason for doing that is to avoid
2993  * bogus unique-index failures due to concurrent UPDATEs (we might see
2994  * different versions of the same row as being valid when we pass over them,
2995  * if we used HeapTupleSatisfiesVacuum). This leaves us with an index that
2996  * does not contain any tuples added to the table while we built the index.
2997  *
2998  * Next, we mark the index "indisready" (but still not "indisvalid") and
2999  * commit the second transaction and start a third. Again we wait for all
3000  * transactions that could have been modifying the table to terminate. Now
3001  * we know that any subsequently-started transactions will see the index and
3002  * insert their new tuples into it. We then take a new reference snapshot
3003  * which is passed to validate_index(). Any tuples that are valid according
3004  * to this snap, but are not in the index, must be added to the index.
3005  * (Any tuples committed live after the snap will be inserted into the
3006  * index by their originating transaction. Any tuples committed dead before
3007  * the snap need not be indexed, because we will wait out all transactions
3008  * that might care about them before we mark the index valid.)
3009  *
3010  * validate_index() works by first gathering all the TIDs currently in the
3011  * index, using a bulkdelete callback that just stores the TIDs and doesn't
3012  * ever say "delete it". (This should be faster than a plain indexscan;
3013  * also, not all index AMs support full-index indexscan.) Then we sort the
3014  * TIDs, and finally scan the table doing a "merge join" against the TID list
3015  * to see which tuples are missing from the index. Thus we will ensure that
3016  * all tuples valid according to the reference snapshot are in the index.
3017  *
3018  * Building a unique index this way is tricky: we might try to insert a
3019  * tuple that is already dead or is in process of being deleted, and we
3020  * mustn't have a uniqueness failure against an updated version of the same
3021  * row. We could try to check the tuple to see if it's already dead and tell
3022  * index_insert() not to do the uniqueness check, but that still leaves us
3023  * with a race condition against an in-progress update. To handle that,
3024  * we expect the index AM to recheck liveness of the to-be-inserted tuple
3025  * before it declares a uniqueness error.
3026  *
3027  * After completing validate_index(), we wait until all transactions that
3028  * were alive at the time of the reference snapshot are gone; this is
3029  * necessary to be sure there are none left with a transaction snapshot
3030  * older than the reference (and hence possibly able to see tuples we did
3031  * not index). Then we mark the index "indisvalid" and commit. Subsequent
3032  * transactions will be able to use it for queries.
3033  *
3034  * Doing two full table scans is a brute-force strategy. We could try to be
3035  * cleverer, eg storing new tuples in a special area of the table (perhaps
3036  * making the table append-only by setting use_fsm). However that would
3037  * add yet more locking issues.
3038  */
3039 void
3040 validate_index(Oid heapId, Oid indexId, Snapshot snapshot)
3041 {
3042  Relation heapRelation,
3043  indexRelation;
3044  IndexInfo *indexInfo;
3045  IndexVacuumInfo ivinfo;
3047  Oid save_userid;
3048  int save_sec_context;
3049  int save_nestlevel;
3050 
3051  {
3052  const int index[] = {
3058  };
3059  const int64 val[] = {
3061  0, 0, 0, 0
3062  };
3063 
3064  pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(5, index, val);
3065  }
3066 
3067  /* Open and lock the parent heap relation */
3068  heapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
3069  /* And the target index relation */
3070  indexRelation = index_open(indexId, RowExclusiveLock);
3071 
3072  /*
3073  * Fetch info needed for index_insert. (You might think this should be
3074  * passed in from DefineIndex, but its copy is long gone due to having
3075  * been built in a previous transaction.)
3076  */
3077  indexInfo = BuildIndexInfo(indexRelation);
3078 
3079  /* mark build is concurrent just for consistency */
3080  indexInfo->ii_Concurrent = true;
3081 
3082  /*
3083  * Switch to the table owner's userid, so that any index functions are run
3084  * as that user. Also lock down security-restricted operations and
3085  * arrange to make GUC variable changes local to this command.
3086  */
3087  GetUserIdAndSecContext(&save_userid, &save_sec_context);
3088  SetUserIdAndSecContext(heapRelation->rd_rel->relowner,
3089  save_sec_context | SECURITY_RESTRICTED_OPERATION);
3090  save_nestlevel = NewGUCNestLevel();
3091 
3092  /*
3093  * Scan the index and gather up all the TIDs into a tuplesort object.
3094  */
3095  ivinfo.index = indexRelation;
3096  ivinfo.analyze_only = false;
3097  ivinfo.report_progress = true;
3098  ivinfo.estimated_count = true;
3099  ivinfo.message_level = DEBUG2;
3100  ivinfo.num_heap_tuples = heapRelation->rd_rel->reltuples;
3101  ivinfo.strategy = NULL;
3102 
3103  /*
3104  * Encode TIDs as int8 values for the sort, rather than directly sorting
3105  * item pointers. This can be significantly faster, primarily because TID
3106  * is a pass-by-reference type on all platforms, whereas int8 is
3107  * pass-by-value on most platforms.
3108  */
3109  state.tuplesort = tuplesort_begin_datum(INT8OID, Int8LessOperator,
3110  InvalidOid, false,
3112  NULL, false);
3113  state.htups = state.itups = state.tups_inserted = 0;
3114 
3115  /* ambulkdelete updates progress metrics */
3116  (void) index_bulk_delete(&ivinfo, NULL,
3117  validate_index_callback, (void *) &state);
3118 
3119  /* Execute the sort */
3120  {
3121  const int index[] = {
3125  };
3126  const int64 val[] = {
3128  0, 0
3129  };
3130 
3131  pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(3, index, val);
3132  }
3134 
3135  /*
3136  * Now scan the heap and "merge" it with the index
3137  */
3140  table_index_validate_scan(heapRelation,
3141  indexRelation,
3142  indexInfo,
3143  snapshot,
3144  &state);
3145 
3146  /* Done with tuplesort object */
3147  tuplesort_end(state.tuplesort);
3148 
3149  elog(DEBUG2,
3150  "validate_index found %.0f heap tuples, %.0f index tuples; inserted %.0f missing tuples",
3151  state.htups, state.itups, state.tups_inserted);
3152 
3153  /* Roll back any GUC changes executed by index functions */
3154  AtEOXact_GUC(false, save_nestlevel);
3155 
3156  /* Restore userid and security context */
3157  SetUserIdAndSecContext(save_userid, save_sec_context);
3158 
3159  /* Close rels, but keep locks */
3160  index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
3161  table_close(heapRelation, NoLock);
3162 }
3163 
3164 /*
3165  * validate_index_callback - bulkdelete callback to collect the index TIDs
3166  */
3167 static bool
3168 validate_index_callback(ItemPointer itemptr, void *opaque)
3169 {
3171  int64 encoded = itemptr_encode(itemptr);
3172 
3173  tuplesort_putdatum(state->tuplesort, Int64GetDatum(encoded), false);
3174  state->itups += 1;
3175  return false; /* never actually delete anything */
3176 }
3177 
3178 /*
3179  * index_set_state_flags - adjust pg_index state flags
3180  *
3181  * This is used during CREATE/DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY to adjust the pg_index
3182  * flags that denote the index's state. Because the update is not
3183  * transactional and will not roll back on error, this must only be used as
3184  * the last step in a transaction that has not made any transactional catalog
3185  * updates!
3186  *
3187  * Note that heap_inplace_update does send a cache inval message for the
3188  * tuple, so other sessions will hear about the update as soon as we commit.
3189  *
3190  * NB: In releases prior to PostgreSQL 9.4, the use of a non-transactional
3191  * update here would have been unsafe; now that MVCC rules apply even for
3192  * system catalog scans, we could potentially use a transactional update here
3193  * instead.
3194  */
3195 void
3197 {
3198  Relation pg_index;
3199  HeapTuple indexTuple;
3200  Form_pg_index indexForm;
3201 
3202  /* Assert that current xact hasn't done any transactional updates */
3204 
3205  /* Open pg_index and fetch a writable copy of the index's tuple */
3206  pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
3207 
3208  indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
3209  ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
3210  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
3211  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
3212  indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
3213 
3214  /* Perform the requested state change on the copy */
3215  switch (action)
3216  {
3218  /* Set indisready during a CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY sequence */
3219  Assert(indexForm->indislive);
3220  Assert(!indexForm->indisready);
3221  Assert(!indexForm->indisvalid);
3222  indexForm->indisready = true;
3223  break;
3225  /* Set indisvalid during a CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY sequence */
3226  Assert(indexForm->indislive);
3227  Assert(indexForm->indisready);
3228  Assert(!indexForm->indisvalid);
3229  indexForm->indisvalid = true;
3230  break;
3232 
3233  /*
3234  * Clear indisvalid during a DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY sequence
3235  *
3236  * If indisready == true we leave it set so the index still gets
3237  * maintained by active transactions. We only need to ensure that
3238  * indisvalid is false. (We don't assert that either is initially
3239  * true, though, since we want to be able to retry a DROP INDEX
3240  * CONCURRENTLY that failed partway through.)
3241  *
3242  * Note: the CLUSTER logic assumes that indisclustered cannot be
3243  * set on any invalid index, so clear that flag too.
3244  */
3245  indexForm->indisvalid = false;
3246  indexForm->indisclustered = false;
3247  break;
3248  case INDEX_DROP_SET_DEAD:
3249 
3250  /*
3251  * Clear indisready/indislive during DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY
3252  *
3253  * We clear both indisready and indislive, because we not only
3254  * want to stop updates, we want to prevent sessions from touching
3255  * the index at all.
3256  */
3257  Assert(!indexForm->indisvalid);
3258  indexForm->indisready = false;
3259  indexForm->indislive = false;
3260  break;
3261  }
3262 
3263  /* ... and write it back in-place */
3264  heap_inplace_update(pg_index, indexTuple);
3265 
3266  table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
3267 }
3268 
3269 
3270 /*
3271  * IndexGetRelation: given an index's relation OID, get the OID of the
3272  * relation it is an index on. Uses the system cache.
3273  */
3274 Oid
3275 IndexGetRelation(Oid indexId, bool missing_ok)
3276 {
3277  HeapTuple tuple;
3279  Oid result;
3280 
3281  tuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
3282  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
3283  {
3284  if (missing_ok)
3285  return InvalidOid;
3286  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
3287  }
3288  index = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
3289  Assert(index->indexrelid == indexId);
3290 
3291  result = index->indrelid;
3292  ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
3293  return result;
3294 }
3295 
3296 /*
3297  * reindex_index - This routine is used to recreate a single index
3298  */
3299 void
3300 reindex_index(Oid indexId, bool skip_constraint_checks, char persistence,
3301  int options)
3302 {
3303  Relation iRel,
3304  heapRelation;
3305  Oid heapId;
3306  IndexInfo *indexInfo;
3307  volatile bool skipped_constraint = false;
3308  PGRUsage ru0;
3309 
3310  pg_rusage_init(&ru0);
3311 
3312  /*
3313  * Open and lock the parent heap relation. ShareLock is sufficient since
3314  * we only need to be sure no schema or data changes are going on.
3315  */
3316  heapId = IndexGetRelation(indexId, false);
3317  heapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareLock);
3318 
3320  heapId);
3324  indexId);
3325 
3326  /*
3327  * Open the target index relation and get an exclusive lock on it, to
3328  * ensure that no one else is touching this particular index.
3329  */
3330  iRel = index_open(indexId, AccessExclusiveLock);
3331 
3333  iRel->rd_rel->relam);
3334 
3335  /*
3336  * The case of reindexing partitioned tables and indexes is handled
3337  * differently by upper layers, so this case shouldn't arise.
3338  */
3339  if (iRel->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX)
3340  elog(ERROR, "unsupported relation kind for index \"%s\"",
3341  RelationGetRelationName(iRel));
3342 
3343  /*
3344  * Don't allow reindex on temp tables of other backends ... their local
3345  * buffer manager is not going to cope.
3346  */
3347  if (RELATION_IS_OTHER_TEMP(iRel))
3348  ereport(ERROR,
3349  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
3350  errmsg("cannot reindex temporary tables of other sessions")));
3351 
3352  /*
3353  * Also check for active uses of the index in the current transaction; we
3354  * don't want to reindex underneath an open indexscan.
3355  */
3356  CheckTableNotInUse(iRel, "REINDEX INDEX");
3357 
3358  /*
3359  * All predicate locks on the index are about to be made invalid. Promote
3360  * them to relation locks on the heap.
3361  */
3363 
3364  /* Fetch info needed for index_build */
3365  indexInfo = BuildIndexInfo(iRel);
3366 
3367  /* If requested, skip checking uniqueness/exclusion constraints */
3368  if (skip_constraint_checks)
3369  {
3370  if (indexInfo->ii_Unique || indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
3371  skipped_constraint = true;
3372  indexInfo->ii_Unique = false;
3373  indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps = NULL;
3374  indexInfo->ii_ExclusionProcs = NULL;
3375  indexInfo->ii_ExclusionStrats = NULL;
3376  }
3377 
3378  /* ensure SetReindexProcessing state isn't leaked */
3379  PG_TRY();
3380  {
3381  /* Suppress use of the target index while rebuilding it */
3382  SetReindexProcessing(heapId, indexId);
3383 
3384  /* Create a new physical relation for the index */
3385  RelationSetNewRelfilenode(iRel, persistence);
3386 
3387  /* Initialize the index and rebuild */
3388  /* Note: we do not need to re-establish pkey setting */
3389  index_build(heapRelation, iRel, indexInfo, true, true);
3390  }
3391  PG_CATCH();
3392  {
3393  /* Make sure flag gets cleared on error exit */
3395  PG_RE_THROW();
3396  }
3397  PG_END_TRY();
3399 
3400  /*
3401  * If the index is marked invalid/not-ready/dead (ie, it's from a failed
3402  * CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY, or a DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY failed midway),
3403  * and we didn't skip a uniqueness check, we can now mark it valid. This
3404  * allows REINDEX to be used to clean up in such cases.
3405  *
3406  * We can also reset indcheckxmin, because we have now done a
3407  * non-concurrent index build, *except* in the case where index_build
3408  * found some still-broken HOT chains. If it did, and we don't have to
3409  * change any of the other flags, we just leave indcheckxmin alone (note
3410  * that index_build won't have changed it, because this is a reindex).
3411  * This is okay and desirable because not updating the tuple leaves the
3412  * index's usability horizon (recorded as the tuple's xmin value) the same
3413  * as it was.
3414  *
3415  * But, if the index was invalid/not-ready/dead and there were broken HOT
3416  * chains, we had better force indcheckxmin true, because the normal
3417  * argument that the HOT chains couldn't conflict with the index is
3418  * suspect for an invalid index. (A conflict is definitely possible if
3419  * the index was dead. It probably shouldn't happen otherwise, but let's
3420  * be conservative.) In this case advancing the usability horizon is
3421  * appropriate.
3422  *
3423  * Another reason for avoiding unnecessary updates here is that while
3424  * reindexing pg_index itself, we must not try to update tuples in it.
3425  * pg_index's indexes should always have these flags in their clean state,
3426  * so that won't happen.
3427  *
3428  * If early pruning/vacuuming is enabled for the heap relation, the
3429  * usability horizon must be advanced to the current transaction on every
3430  * build or rebuild. pg_index is OK in this regard because catalog tables
3431  * are not subject to early cleanup.
3432  */
3433  if (!skipped_constraint)
3434  {
3435  Relation pg_index;
3436  HeapTuple indexTuple;
3437  Form_pg_index indexForm;
3438  bool index_bad;
3439  bool early_pruning_enabled = EarlyPruningEnabled(heapRelation);
3440 
3441  pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
3442 
3443  indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
3444  ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
3445  if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
3446  elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
3447  indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
3448 
3449  index_bad = (!indexForm->indisvalid ||
3450  !indexForm->indisready ||
3451  !indexForm->indislive);
3452  if (index_bad ||
3453  (indexForm->indcheckxmin && !indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain) ||
3454  early_pruning_enabled)
3455  {
3456  if (!indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain && !early_pruning_enabled)
3457  indexForm->indcheckxmin = false;
3458  else if (index_bad || early_pruning_enabled)
3459  indexForm->indcheckxmin = true;
3460  indexForm->indisvalid = true;
3461  indexForm->indisready = true;
3462  indexForm->indislive = true;
3463  CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &indexTuple->t_self, indexTuple);
3464 
3465  /*
3466  * Invalidate the relcache for the table, so that after we commit
3467  * all sessions will refresh the table's index list. This ensures
3468  * that if anyone misses seeing the pg_index row during this
3469  * update, they'll refresh their list before attempting any update
3470  * on the table.
3471  */
3472  CacheInvalidateRelcache(heapRelation);
3473  }
3474 
3475  table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
3476  }
3477 
3478  /* Log what we did */
3479  if (options & REINDEXOPT_VERBOSE)
3480  ereport(INFO,
3481  (errmsg("index \"%s\" was reindexed",
3482  get_rel_name(indexId)),
3483  errdetail_internal("%s",
3484  pg_rusage_show(&ru0))));
3485 
3487 
3488  /* Close rels, but keep locks */
3489  index_close(iRel, NoLock);
3490  table_close(heapRelation, NoLock);
3491 }
3492 
3493 /*
3494  * reindex_relation - This routine is used to recreate all indexes
3495  * of a relation (and optionally its toast relation too, if any).
3496  *
3497  * "flags" is a bitmask that can include any combination of these bits:
3498  *
3499  * REINDEX_REL_PROCESS_TOAST: if true, process the toast table too (if any).
3500  *
3501  * REINDEX_REL_SUPPRESS_INDEX_USE: if true, the relation was just completely
3502  * rebuilt by an operation such as VACUUM FULL or CLUSTER, and therefore its
3503  * indexes are inconsistent with it. This makes things tricky if the relation
3504  * is a system catalog that we might consult during the reindexing. To deal
3505  * with that case, we mark all of the indexes as pending rebuild so that they
3506  * won't be trusted until rebuilt. The caller is required to call us *without*
3507  * having made the rebuilt table visible by doing CommandCounterIncrement;
3508  * we'll do CCI after having collected the index list. (This way we can still
3509  * use catalog indexes while collecting the list.)
3510  *
3511  * REINDEX_REL_CHECK_CONSTRAINTS: if true, recheck unique and exclusion
3512  * constraint conditions, else don't. To avoid deadlocks, VACUUM FULL or
3513  * CLUSTER on a system catalog must omit this flag. REINDEX should be used to
3514  * rebuild an index if constraint inconsistency is suspected. For optimal
3515  * performance, other callers should include the flag only after transforming
3516  * the data in a manner that risks a change in constraint validity.
3517  *
3518  * REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_UNLOGGED: if true, set the persistence of the
3519  * rebuilt indexes to unlogged.
3520  *
3521  * REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_PERMANENT: if true, set the persistence of the
3522  * rebuilt indexes to permanent.
3523  *
3524  * Returns true if any indexes were rebuilt (including toast table's index
3525  * when relevant). Note that a CommandCounterIncrement will occur after each
3526  * index rebuild.
3527  */
3528 bool
3530 {
3531  Relation rel;
3532  Oid toast_relid;
3533  List *indexIds;
3534  bool result;
3535  int i;
3536 
3537  /*
3538  * Open and lock the relation. ShareLock is sufficient since we only need
3539  * to prevent schema and data changes in it. The lock level used here
3540  * should match ReindexTable().
3541  */
3542  rel = table_open(relid, ShareLock);
3543 
3544  /*
3545  * This may be useful when implemented someday; but that day is not today.
3546  * For now, avoid erroring out when called in a multi-table context
3547  * (REINDEX SCHEMA) and happen to come across a partitioned table. The
3548  * partitions may be reindexed on their own anyway.
3549  */
3550  if (rel->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_PARTITIONED_TABLE)
3551  {
3552  ereport(WARNING,
3553  (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
3554  errmsg("REINDEX of partitioned tables is not yet implemented, skipping \"%s\"",
3555  RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
3556  table_close(rel, ShareLock);
3557  return false;
3558  }
3559 
3560  toast_relid = rel->rd_rel->reltoastrelid;
3561 
3562  /*
3563  * Get the list of index OIDs for this relation. (We trust to the
3564  * relcache to get this with a sequential scan if ignoring system
3565  * indexes.)
3566  */
3567  indexIds = RelationGetIndexList(rel);
3568 
3569  PG_TRY();
3570  {
3571  ListCell *indexId;
3572  char persistence;
3573 
3574  if (flags & REINDEX_REL_SUPPRESS_INDEX_USE)
3575  {
3576  /* Suppress use of all the indexes until they are rebuilt */
3577  SetReindexPending(indexIds);
3578 
3579  /*
3580  * Make the new heap contents visible --- now things might be
3581  * inconsistent!
3582  */
3584  }
3585 
3586  /*
3587  * Compute persistence of indexes: same as that of owning rel, unless
3588  * caller specified otherwise.
3589  */
3591  persistence = RELPERSISTENCE_UNLOGGED;
3592  else if (flags & REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_PERMANENT)
3593  persistence = RELPERSISTENCE_PERMANENT;
3594  else
3595  persistence = rel->rd_rel->relpersistence;
3596 
3597  /* Reindex all the indexes. */
3598  i = 1;
3599  foreach(indexId, indexIds)
3600  {
3601  Oid indexOid = lfirst_oid(indexId);
3602 
3603  reindex_index(indexOid, !(flags & REINDEX_REL_CHECK_CONSTRAINTS),
3604  persistence, options);
3605 
3607 
3608  /* Index should no longer be in the pending list */
3609  Assert(!ReindexIsProcessingIndex(indexOid));
3610 
3611  /* Set index rebuild count */
3613  i);
3614  i++;
3615  }
3616  }
3617  PG_CATCH();
3618  {
3619  /* Make sure list gets cleared on error exit */
3621  PG_RE_THROW();
3622  }
3623  PG_END_TRY();
3625 
3626  /*
3627  * Close rel, but continue to hold the lock.
3628  */
3629  table_close(rel, NoLock);
3630 
3631  result = (indexIds != NIL);
3632 
3633  /*
3634  * If the relation has a secondary toast rel, reindex that too while we
3635  * still hold the lock on the master table.
3636  */
3637  if ((flags & REINDEX_REL_PROCESS_TOAST) && OidIsValid(toast_relid))
3638  result |= reindex_relation(toast_relid, flags, options);
3639 
3640  return result;
3641 }
3642 
3643 
3644 /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
3645  * System index reindexing support
3646  *
3647  * When we are busy reindexing a system index, this code provides support
3648  * for preventing catalog lookups from using that index. We also make use
3649  * of this to catch attempted uses of user indexes during reindexing of
3650  * those indexes. This information is propagated to parallel workers;
3651  * attempting to change it during a parallel operation is not permitted.
3652  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
3653  */
3654 
3658 
3659 /*
3660  * ReindexIsProcessingHeap
3661  * True if heap specified by OID is currently being reindexed.
3662  */
3663 bool
3665 {
3666  return heapOid == currentlyReindexedHeap;
3667 }
3668 
3669 /*
3670  * ReindexIsCurrentlyProcessingIndex
3671  * True if index specified by OID is currently being reindexed.
3672  */
3673 static bool
3675 {
3676  return indexOid == currentlyReindexedIndex;
3677 }
3678 
3679 /*
3680  * ReindexIsProcessingIndex
3681  * True if index specified by OID is currently being reindexed,
3682  * or should be treated as invalid because it is awaiting reindex.
3683  */
3684 bool
3686 {
3687  return indexOid == currentlyReindexedIndex ||
3688  list_member_oid(pendingReindexedIndexes, indexOid);
3689 }
3690 
3691 /*
3692  * SetReindexProcessing
3693  * Set flag that specified heap/index are being reindexed.
3694  *
3695  * NB: caller must use a PG_TRY block to ensure ResetReindexProcessing is done.
3696  */
3697 static void
3698 SetReindexProcessing(Oid heapOid, Oid indexOid)
3699 {
3700  Assert(OidIsValid(heapOid) && OidIsValid(indexOid));
3701  /* Reindexing is not re-entrant. */
3703  elog(ERROR, "cannot reindex while reindexing");
3704  currentlyReindexedHeap = heapOid;
3705  currentlyReindexedIndex = indexOid;
3706  /* Index is no longer "pending" reindex. */
3707  RemoveReindexPending(indexOid);
3708 }
3709 
3710 /*
3711  * ResetReindexProcessing
3712  * Unset reindexing status.
3713  */
3714 static void
3716 {
3717  /* This may be called in leader error path */
3720 }
3721 
3722 /*
3723  * SetReindexPending
3724  * Mark the given indexes as pending reindex.
3725  *
3726  * NB: caller must use a PG_TRY block to ensure ResetReindexPending is done.
3727  * Also, we assume that the current memory context stays valid throughout.
3728  */
3729 static void
3731 {
3732  /* Reindexing is not re-entrant. */
3733  if (pendingReindexedIndexes)
3734  elog(ERROR, "cannot reindex while reindexing");
3735  if (IsInParallelMode())
3736  elog(ERROR, "cannot modify reindex state during a parallel operation");
3737  pendingReindexedIndexes = list_copy(indexes);
3738 }
3739 
3740 /*
3741  * RemoveReindexPending
3742  * Remove the given index from the pending list.
3743  */
3744 static void
3746 {
3747  if (IsInParallelMode())
3748  elog(ERROR, "cannot modify reindex state during a parallel operation");
3749  pendingReindexedIndexes = list_delete_oid(pendingReindexedIndexes,
3750  indexOid);
3751 }
3752 
3753 /*
3754  * ResetReindexPending
3755  * Unset reindex-pending status.
3756  */
3757 static void
3759 {
3760  /* This may be called in leader error path */
3761  pendingReindexedIndexes = NIL;
3762 }
3763 
3764 /*
3765  * EstimateReindexStateSpace
3766  * Estimate space needed to pass reindex state to parallel workers.
3767  */
3768 Size
3770 {
3771  return offsetof(SerializedReindexState, pendingReindexedIndexes)
3772  + mul_size(sizeof(Oid), list_length(pendingReindexedIndexes));
3773 }
3774 
3775 /*
3776  * SerializeReindexState
3777  * Serialize reindex state for parallel workers.
3778  */
3779 void
3780 SerializeReindexState(Size maxsize, char *start_address)
3781 {
3782  SerializedReindexState *sistate = (SerializedReindexState *) start_address;
3783  int c = 0;
3784  ListCell *lc;
3785 
3788  sistate->numPendingReindexedIndexes = list_length(pendingReindexedIndexes);
3789  foreach(lc, pendingReindexedIndexes)
3790  sistate->pendingReindexedIndexes[c++] = lfirst_oid(lc);
3791 }
3792 
3793 /*
3794  * RestoreReindexState
3795  * Restore reindex state in a parallel worker.
3796  */
3797 void
3798 RestoreReindexState(void *reindexstate)
3799 {
3800  SerializedReindexState *sistate = (SerializedReindexState *) reindexstate;
3801  int c = 0;
3802  MemoryContext oldcontext;
3803 
3806 
3807  Assert(pendingReindexedIndexes == NIL);
3809  for (c = 0; c < sistate->numPendingReindexedIndexes; ++c)
3810  pendingReindexedIndexes =
3811  lappend_oid(pendingReindexedIndexes,
3812  sistate->pendingReindexedIndexes[c]);
3813  MemoryContextSwitchTo(oldcontext);
3814 }
TupleTableSlot * table_slot_create(Relation relation, List **reglist)
Definition: tableam.c:77
signed short int16
Definition: c.h:345
void FormIndexDatum(IndexInfo *indexInfo, TupleTableSlot *slot, EState *estate, Datum *values, bool *isnull)
Definition: index.c:2462
HeapTuple heap_copytuple(HeapTuple tuple)
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void WaitForLockers(LOCKTAG heaplocktag, LOCKMODE lockmode, bool progress)
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#define NIL
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struct IndexAmRoutine * rd_indam
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Oid IndexGetRelation(Oid indexId, bool missing_ok)
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uint16 * ii_UniqueStrats
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List * SystemFuncName(char *name)
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Definition: tuplesort.c:1555
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Definition: index.c:94
List * ii_Predicate
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Tuplesortstate * tuplesort_begin_datum(Oid datumType, Oid sortOperator, Oid sortCollation, bool nullsFirstFlag, int workMem, SortCoordinate coordinate, bool randomAccess)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1099
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PgStat_Counter tuples_returned
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bool IsSystemRelation(Relation relation)
Definition: catalog.c:70
uint32 TransactionId
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#define INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS
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TupleDesc CreateTemplateTupleDesc(int natts)
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void SetUserIdAndSecContext(Oid userid, int sec_context)
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PgStat_Counter t_tuples_fetched
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int32 exprTypmod(const Node *expr)
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Oid CreateConstraintEntry(const char *constraintName, Oid constraintNamespace, char constraintType, bool isDeferrable, bool isDeferred, bool isValidated, Oid parentConstrId, Oid relId, const int16 *constraintKey, int constraintNKeys, int constraintNTotalKeys, Oid domainId, Oid indexRelId, Oid foreignRelId, const int16 *foreignKey, const Oid *pfEqOp, const Oid *ppEqOp, const Oid *ffEqOp, int foreignNKeys, char foreignUpdateType, char foreignDeleteType, char foreignMatchType, const Oid *exclOp, Node *conExpr, const char *conBin, bool conIsLocal, int conInhCount, bool conNoInherit, bool is_internal)
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static void InitializeAttributeOids(Relation indexRelation, int numatts, Oid indexoid)
Definition: index.c:471
Oid binary_upgrade_next_index_pg_class_oid
Definition: index.c:85
static MemoryContext MemoryContextSwitchTo(MemoryContext context)
Definition: palloc.h:109
#define Int16GetDatum(X)
Definition: postgres.h:451
Definition: lock.h:164
static void ResetReindexPending(void)
Definition: index.c:3758
bool DeleteInheritsTuple(Oid inhrelid, Oid inhparent)
Definition: pg_inherits.c:454
static List * pendingReindexedIndexes
Definition: index.c:3657
List * list_copy(const List *oldlist)
Definition: list.c:1400
Definition: nodes.h:524
Oid * ii_ExclusionProcs
Definition: execnodes.h:165
int errcode(int sqlerrcode)
Definition: elog.c:570
void * stringToNode(const char *str)
Definition: read.c:89
Relation index
Definition: genam.h:46
#define MemSet(start, val, len)
Definition: c.h:955
#define INFO
Definition: elog.h:33
bool heap_attisnull(HeapTuple tup, int attnum, TupleDesc tupleDesc)
Definition: heaptuple.c:359
int32 relallvisible
Definition: pg_class.h:66
void MemoryContextReset(MemoryContext context)
Definition: mcxt.c:136
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_TUPLES_TOTAL
Definition: progress.h:67
uint32 BlockNumber
Definition: block.h:31
void RelationForgetRelation(Oid rid)
Definition: relcache.c:2703
void PopActiveSnapshot(void)
Definition: snapmgr.c:814
void CatalogTupleDelete(Relation heapRel, ItemPointer tid)
Definition: indexing.c:269
void recordDependencyOn(const ObjectAddress *depender, const ObjectAddress *referenced, DependencyType behavior)
Definition: pg_depend.c:43
HeapTuple heap_form_tuple(TupleDesc tupleDescriptor, Datum *values, bool *isnull)
Definition: heaptuple.c:1020
IndexInfo * BuildIndexInfo(Relation index)
Definition: index.c:2230
bool smgrexists(SMgrRelation reln, ForkNumber forknum)
Definition: smgr.c:247
PgStat_Counter numscans
Definition: pgstat.h:636
#define INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_REMOVE_OLD_DEPS
Definition: index.h:79
void visibilitymap_count(Relation rel, BlockNumber *all_visible, BlockNumber *all_frozen)
void index_check_primary_key(Relation heapRel, IndexInfo *indexInfo, bool is_alter_table, IndexStmt *stmt)
Definition: index.c:201
PgStat_TableCounts t_counts
Definition: pgstat.h:158
void index_concurrently_swap(Oid newIndexId, Oid oldIndexId, const char *oldName)
Definition: index.c:1404
#define REINDEX_REL_SUPPRESS_INDEX_USE
Definition: index.h:137
static bool table_scan_getnextslot(TableScanDesc sscan, ScanDirection direction, TupleTableSlot *slot)
Definition: tableam.h:872
Form_pg_class rd_rel
Definition: rel.h:83
void heap_freetuple(HeapTuple htup)
Definition: heaptuple.c:1338
unsigned int Oid
Definition: postgres_ext.h:31
static bool ExecQual(ExprState *state, ExprContext *econtext)
Definition: executor.h:365
Oid pendingReindexedIndexes[FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER]
Definition: index.c:96
int namestrcpy(Name name, const char *str)
Definition: name.c:250
Oid amkeytype
Definition: amapi.h:201
Oid index_create(Relation heapRelation, const char *indexRelationName, Oid indexRelationId, Oid parentIndexRelid, Oid parentConstraintId, Oid relFileNode, IndexInfo *indexInfo, List *indexColNames, Oid accessMethodObjectId, Oid tableSpaceId, Oid *collationObjectId, Oid *classObjectId, int16 *coloptions, Datum reloptions, bits16 flags, bits16 constr_flags, bool allow_system_table_mods, bool is_internal, Oid *constraintId)
Definition: index.c:692
List * lappend_oid(List *list, Oid datum)
Definition: list.c:357
#define OidIsValid(objectId)
Definition: c.h:638
#define InvokeObjectPostAlterHookArg(classId, objectId, subId, auxiliaryId, is_internal)
Definition: objectaccess.h:166
PgStat_Counter t_tuples_returned
Definition: pgstat.h:101
Oid * ii_UniqueOps
Definition: execnodes.h:167
SysScanDesc systable_beginscan(Relation heapRelation, Oid indexId, bool indexOK, Snapshot snapshot, int nkeys, ScanKey key)
Definition: genam.c:352
bool IsBinaryUpgrade
Definition: globals.c:110
double itups
Definition: index.h:37
static TableScanDesc table_beginscan_strat(Relation rel, Snapshot snapshot, int nkeys, struct ScanKeyData *key, bool allow_strat, bool allow_sync)
Definition: tableam.h:760
#define REINDEXOPT_VERBOSE
Definition: parsenodes.h:3303
int32 relpages
Definition: pg_class.h:60
char relkind
Definition: pg_class.h:81
signed int int32
Definition: c.h:346
int errdetail_internal(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:887
static void ResetReindexProcessing(void)
Definition: index.c:3715
List * RelationGetIndexPredicate(Relation relation)
Definition: relcache.c:4644
void pg_rusage_init(PGRUsage *ru0)
Definition: pg_rusage.c:27
Definition: type.h:89
#define INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_INIT_DEFERRED
Definition: index.h:77
void RelationSetNewRelfilenode(Relation relation, char persistence)
Definition: relcache.c:3418
void SetRelationHasSubclass(Oid relationId, bool relhassubclass)
Definition: tablecmds.c:2832
void InsertPgClassTuple(Relation pg_class_desc, Relation new_rel_desc, Oid new_rel_oid, Datum relacl, Datum reloptions)
Definition: heap.c:848
#define RelationOpenSmgr(relation)
Definition: rel.h:473
RangeVar * constrrel
Definition: parsenodes.h:2424
void FreeExecutorState(EState *estate)
Definition: execUtils.c:192
#define GetPerTupleExprContext(estate)
Definition: executor.h:501
List * ii_ExpressionsState
Definition: execnodes.h:161
Form_pg_index rd_index
Definition: rel.h:143
HeapTuple systable_getnext(SysScanDesc sysscan)
Definition: genam.c:444
unsigned short uint16
Definition: c.h:357
void pfree(void *pointer)
Definition: mcxt.c:1031
bool IsInParallelMode(void)
Definition: xact.c:994
Oid * rd_indcollation
Definition: rel.h:168
#define EarlyPruningEnabled(rel)
Definition: snapmgr.h:46
void UnlockRelationIdForSession(LockRelId *relid, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: lmgr.c:382
#define ObjectIdGetDatum(X)
Definition: postgres.h:507
#define ERROR
Definition: elog.h:43
int ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs
Definition: execnodes.h:158
Definition: rel.h:35
ambuild_function ambuild
Definition: amapi.h:210
char relpersistence
Definition: pg_class.h:78
void LockRelationIdForSession(LockRelId *relid, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: lmgr.c:369
IndexAmRoutine * GetIndexAmRoutineByAmId(Oid amoid, bool noerror)
Definition: amapi.c:56
#define RelationIsValid(relation)
Definition: rel.h:389
bool ReindexIsProcessingHeap(Oid heapOid)
Definition: index.c:3664
Relation relation_open(Oid relationId, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: relation.c:48
ItemPointerData t_self
Definition: htup.h:65
Oid get_relname_relid(const char *relname, Oid relnamespace)
Definition: lsyscache.c:1687
#define DEBUG2
Definition: elog.h:24
Tuplesortstate * tuplesort
Definition: index.h:35
#define AttrNumberGetAttrOffset(attNum)
Definition: attnum.h:51
PgStat_StatTabEntry * pgstat_fetch_stat_tabentry(Oid relid)
Definition: pgstat.c:2459
#define SET_LOCKTAG_RELATION(locktag, dboid, reloid)
Definition: lock.h:181
char * c
#define NoLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:34
LockInfoData rd_lockInfo
Definition: rel.h:86
#define IsNormalProcessingMode()
Definition: miscadmin.h:376
HeapTuple heap_getnext(TableScanDesc sscan, ScanDirection direction)
Definition: heapam.c:1290
void ExecDropSingleTupleTableSlot(TupleTableSlot *slot)
Definition: execTuples.c:1219
List * RelationGetIndexExpressions(Relation relation)
Definition: relcache.c:4582
Oid * ii_UniqueProcs
Definition: execnodes.h:168
Oid values[FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER]
Definition: c.h:596
void GetUserIdAndSecContext(Oid *userid, int *sec_context)
Definition: miscinit.c:485
#define RowExclusiveLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:38
void AtEOXact_GUC(bool isCommit, int nestLevel)
Definition: guc.c:5729
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_INDEX_OID
Definition: progress.h:63
Oid get_opfamily_member(Oid opfamily, Oid lefttype, Oid righttype, int16 strategy)
Definition: lsyscache.c:163
IndexStateFlagsAction
Definition: index.h:24
const char * pg_rusage_show(const PGRUsage *ru0)
Definition: pg_rusage.c:40
#define InvalidTransactionId
Definition: transam.h:31
#define RelationGetRelationName(relation)
Definition: rel.h:450
ExprState * ExecPrepareQual(List *qual, EState *estate)
Definition: execExpr.c:518
static ListCell * list_head(const List *l)
Definition: pg_list.h:125
List * list_delete_oid(List *list, Oid datum)
Definition: list.c:831
FormData_pg_attribute * Form_pg_attribute
Definition: pg_attribute.h:200
PgStat_Counter tuples_fetched
Definition: pgstat.h:639
bool ii_BrokenHotChain
Definition: execnodes.h:173
bool ActiveSnapshotSet(void)
Definition: snapmgr.c:853
Oid * rd_opfamily
Definition: rel.h:158
Oid get_index_constraint(Oid indexId)
Definition: pg_depend.c:873
#define TriggerConstraintIndexId
Definition: indexing.h:254
static int64 itemptr_encode(ItemPointer itemptr)
Definition: index.h:166
static TupleDesc ConstructTupleDescriptor(Relation heapRelation, IndexInfo *indexInfo, List *indexColNames, Oid accessMethodObjectId, Oid *collationObjectId, Oid *classObjectId)
Definition: index.c:267
#define IndexRelationGetNumberOfKeyAttributes(relation)
Definition: rel.h:435
TransactionId GetTopTransactionIdIfAny(void)
Definition: xact.c:410
Oid index_concurrently_create_copy(Relation heapRelation, Oid oldIndexId, const char *newName)
Definition: index.c:1197
IndexInfo * makeIndexInfo(int numattrs, int numkeyattrs, Oid amoid, List *expressions, List *predicates, bool unique, bool isready, bool concurrent)
Definition: makefuncs.c:740
void CheckTableNotInUse(Relation rel, const char *stmt)
Definition: tablecmds.c:3416
void StoreSingleInheritance(Oid relationId, Oid parentOid, int32 seqNumber)
Definition: pg_inherits.c:417
Datum Int64GetDatum(int64 X)
Definition: fmgr.c:1699
static void IndexCheckExclusion(Relation heapRelation, Relation indexRelation, IndexInfo *indexInfo)
Definition: index.c:2884
#define ATTRIBUTE_FIXED_PART_SIZE
Definition: pg_attribute.h:192
Size EstimateReindexStateSpace(void)
Definition: index.c:3769
void index_register(Oid heap, Oid ind, IndexInfo *indexInfo)
Definition: bootstrap.c:1077
bool ii_ReadyForInserts
Definition: execnodes.h:171
#define ereport(elevel, rest)
Definition: elog.h:141
Node * map_variable_attnos(Node *node, int target_varno, int sublevels_up, const AttrNumber *attno_map, int map_length, Oid to_rowtype, bool *found_whole_row)
PgStat_Counter t_blocks_hit
Definition: pgstat.h:115
MemoryContext TopMemoryContext
Definition: mcxt.c:44
int numPendingReindexedIndexes
Definition: index.c:95
EState * CreateExecutorState(void)
Definition: execUtils.c:88
void TransferPredicateLocksToHeapRelation(Relation relation)
Definition: predicate.c:3097
bool get_rel_relispartition(Oid relid)
Definition: lsyscache.c:1829
List * ExecPrepareExprList(List *nodes, EState *estate)
Definition: execExpr.c:564
void UnregisterSnapshot(Snapshot snapshot)
Definition: snapmgr.c:907
List * lappend(List *list, void *datum)
Definition: list.c:321
static Oid currentlyReindexedIndex
Definition: index.c:3656
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_SUBPHASE_INITIALIZE
Definition: progress.h:87
#define WARNING
Definition: elog.h:40
void validate_index(Oid heapId, Oid indexId, Snapshot snapshot)
Definition: index.c:3040
static void AppendAttributeTuples(Relation indexRelation, int numatts)
Definition: index.c:489
#define RelationIsMapped(relation)
Definition: rel.h:465
FormData_pg_index * Form_pg_index
Definition: pg_index.h:66
HeapTuple SearchSysCache1(int cacheId, Datum key1)
Definition: syscache.c:1124
float float4
Definition: c.h:490
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE
Definition: progress.h:65
Definition: c.h:577
Size mul_size(Size s1, Size s2)
Definition: shmem.c:492
#define TextDatumGetCString(d)
Definition: builtins.h:84
#define PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_DONE
Definition: progress.h:103
void pgstat_progress_end_command(void)
Definition: pgstat.c:3271
void RelationDropStorage(Relation rel)
Definition: storage.c:148
IndexBulkDeleteResult * index_bulk_delete(IndexVacuumInfo *info, IndexBulkDeleteResult *stats, IndexBulkDeleteCallback callback, void *callback_state)
Definition: indexam.c:682
uintptr_t Datum
Definition: postgres.h:367
void CommandCounterIncrement(void)
Definition: xact.c:1003
void ReleaseSysCache(HeapTuple tuple)
Definition: syscache.c:1172
Expr * make_ands_explicit(List *andclauses)
Definition: makefuncs.c:705
int ii_NumIndexAttrs
Definition: execnodes.h:157
List * make_ands_implicit(Expr *clause)
Definition: makefuncs.c:716
Datum SysCacheGetAttr(int cacheId, HeapTuple tup, AttrNumber attributeNumber, bool *isNull)
Definition: syscache.c:1385
static bool relationHasPrimaryKey(Relation rel)
Definition: index.c:147
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_COMMAND_REINDEX
Definition: progress.h:93
PgStat_Counter blocks_hit
Definition: pgstat.h:651
#define InvalidMultiXactId
Definition: multixact.h:23
#define RelationGetNumberOfBlocks(reln)
Definition: bufmgr.h:198
#define InvokeObjectPostCreateHookArg(classId, objectId, subId, is_internal)
Definition: objectaccess.h:147
long deleteDependencyRecordsForClass(Oid classId, Oid objectId, Oid refclassId, char deptype)
Definition: pg_depend.c:240
PgStat_Counter t_numscans
Definition: pgstat.h:99
#define INDEX_CREATE_IS_PRIMARY
Definition: index.h:47
#define BoolGetDatum(X)
Definition: postgres.h:402
static void RemoveReindexPending(Oid indexOid)
Definition: index.c:3745
long changeDependenciesOf(Oid classId, Oid oldObjectId, Oid newObjectId)
Definition: pg_depend.c:407
#define InvalidOid
Definition: postgres_ext.h:36
static Datum slot_getattr(TupleTableSlot *slot, int attnum, bool *isnull)
Definition: tuptable.h:382
FormData_pg_attribute
Definition: pg_attribute.h:184
#define INDEX_CREATE_CONCURRENT
Definition: index.h:50
RegProcedure get_opcode(Oid opno)
Definition: lsyscache.c:1092
int16 attnum
Definition: pg_attribute.h:79
void DeleteRelationTuple(Oid relid)
Definition: heap.c:1472
int maintenance_work_mem
Definition: globals.c:122
TransactionId relminmxid
Definition: pg_class.h:126
#define NOTICE
Definition: elog.h:37
int message_level
Definition: genam.h:50
TransactionId MultiXactId
Definition: c.h:517
double num_heap_tuples
Definition: genam.h:51
bool ii_Unique
Definition: execnodes.h:170
#define PG_CATCH()
Definition: elog.h:310
#define makeNode(_type_)
Definition: nodes.h:572
#define ShareUpdateExclusiveLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:39
FormData_pg_constraint * Form_pg_constraint
bool list_member_oid(const List *list, Oid datum)
Definition: list.c:674
void index_build(Relation heapRelation, Relation indexRelation, IndexInfo *indexInfo, bool isreindex, bool parallel)
Definition: index.c:2689
#define HeapTupleIsValid(tuple)
Definition: htup.h:78
#define REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_UNLOGGED
Definition: index.h:139
List * ii_Expressions
Definition: execnodes.h:160
void relation_close(Relation relation, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: relation.c:206
#define Assert(condition)
Definition: c.h:732
oidvector * buildoidvector(const Oid *oids, int n)
Definition: oid.c:167
#define lfirst(lc)
Definition: pg_list.h:190
Definition: regguts.h:298
double tups_inserted
Definition: index.h:37
#define RELATION_IS_OTHER_TEMP(relation)
Definition: rel.h:546
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_BUILD
Definition: progress.h:75
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_VALIDATE_TABLESCAN
Definition: progress.h:79
void StartTransactionCommand(void)
Definition: xact.c:2794
void recordDependencyOnSingleRelExpr(const ObjectAddress *depender, Node *expr, Oid relId, DependencyType behavior, DependencyType self_behavior, bool reverse_self)
Definition: dependency.c:1629
CatalogIndexState CatalogOpenIndexes(Relation heapRel)
Definition: indexing.c:42
Relation heap_create(const char *relname, Oid relnamespace, Oid reltablespace, Oid relid, Oid relfilenode, Oid accessmtd, TupleDesc tupDesc, char relkind, char relpersistence, bool shared_relation, bool mapped_relation, bool allow_system_table_mods, TransactionId *relfrozenxid, MultiXactId *relminmxid)
Definition: heap.c:295
void pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(int nparam, const int *index, const int64 *val)
Definition: pgstat.c:3242
#define linitial_oid(l)
Definition: pg_list.h:197
#define INDEX_MAX_KEYS
int ii_ParallelWorkers
Definition: execnodes.h:174
size_t Size
Definition: c.h:466
void CatalogTupleUpdate(Relation heapRel, ItemPointer otid, HeapTuple tup)
Definition: indexing.c:224
Oid exprType(const Node *expr)
Definition: nodeFuncs.c:42
struct PgStat_TableStatus * pgstat_info
Definition: rel.h:204
int plan_create_index_workers(Oid tableOid, Oid indexOid)
Definition: planner.c:6244
FormData_pg_type * Form_pg_type
Definition: pg_type.h:251
static int list_length(const List *l)
Definition: pg_list.h:169
#define REINDEX_REL_CHECK_CONSTRAINTS
Definition: index.h:138
FormData_pg_trigger * Form_pg_trigger
Definition: pg_trigger.h:71
HeapTuple SearchSysCache2(int cacheId, Datum key1, Datum key2)
Definition: syscache.c:1135
Oid GetNewRelFileNode(Oid reltablespace, Relation pg_class, char relpersistence)
Definition: catalog.c:386
TupleTableSlot * ecxt_scantuple
Definition: execnodes.h:224
#define PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_TOTAL
Definition: progress.h:102
List * get_index_ref_constraints(Oid indexId)
Definition: pg_depend.c:929
void DeleteAttributeTuples(Oid relid)
Definition: heap.c:1501
#define PG_RE_THROW()
Definition: elog.h:331
int16 values[FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER]
Definition: c.h:585
#define INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_UPDATE_INDEX
Definition: index.h:78
List * RelationGetIndexList(Relation relation)
Definition: relcache.c:4348
Snapshot GetLatestSnapshot(void)
Definition: snapmgr.c:381
void reindex_index(Oid indexId, bool skip_constraint_checks, char persistence, int options)
Definition: index.c:3300
bool ii_Concurrent
Definition: execnodes.h:172
#define InvalidAttrNumber
Definition: attnum.h:23
#define ObjectAddressSet(addr, class_id, object_id)
Definition: objectaddress.h:40
void index_close(Relation relation, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: indexam.c:152
#define DatumGetPointer(X)
Definition: postgres.h:549
void CacheInvalidateRelcache(Relation relation)
Definition: inval.c:1270
double htups
Definition: index.h:37
void RemoveStatistics(Oid relid, AttrNumber attnum)
Definition: heap.c:3090
static void table_endscan(TableScanDesc scan)
Definition: tableam.h:831
static Datum values[MAXATTR]
Definition: bootstrap.c:167
void RelationInitIndexAccessInfo(Relation relation)
Definition: relcache.c:1362
#define IsBootstrapProcessingMode()
Definition: miscadmin.h:374
FormData_pg_class * Form_pg_class
Definition: pg_class.h:150
#define INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD
Definition: index.h:49
Oid get_base_element_type(Oid typid)
Definition: lsyscache.c:2599
#define SearchSysCacheCopy1(cacheId, key1)
Definition: syscache.h:174
#define AccessExclusiveLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:45
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_VALIDATE_IDXSCAN
Definition: progress.h:77
#define INDEX_CREATE_PARTITIONED
Definition: index.h:52
#define Int32GetDatum(X)
Definition: postgres.h:479
int NewGUCNestLevel(void)
Definition: guc.c:5715
void InsertPgAttributeTuple(Relation pg_attribute_rel, Form_pg_attribute new_attribute, CatalogIndexState indstate)
Definition: heap.c:694
Oid * ii_ExclusionOps
Definition: execnodes.h:164
void RestoreReindexState(void *reindexstate)
Definition: index.c:3798
void * palloc(Size size)
Definition: mcxt.c:924
int errmsg(const char *fmt,...)
Definition: elog.c:784
void heap_inplace_update(Relation relation, HeapTuple tuple)
Definition: heapam.c:5706
static void table_index_validate_scan(Relation table_rel, Relation index_rel, struct IndexInfo *index_info, Snapshot snapshot, struct ValidateIndexState *state)
Definition: tableam.h:1563
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_TUPLES_DONE
Definition: progress.h:68
TransactionId relfrozenxid
Definition: pg_class.h:123
void list_free(List *list)
Definition: list.c:1373
#define elog(elevel,...)
Definition: elog.h:226
ambuildempty_function ambuildempty
Definition: amapi.h:211
MemoryContext rd_indexcxt
Definition: rel.h:155
#define ShareLock
Definition: lockdefs.h:41
int i
void LockRelation(Relation relation, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: lmgr.c:216
RangeVar * relation
Definition: parsenodes.h:2408
Oid currentlyReindexedHeap
Definition: index.c:93
#define PROGRESS_CLUSTER_INDEX_REBUILD_COUNT
Definition: progress.h:45
#define NameStr(name)
Definition: c.h:609
ObjectAddress CreateTrigger(CreateTrigStmt *stmt, const char *queryString, Oid relOid, Oid refRelOid, Oid constraintOid, Oid indexOid, Oid funcoid, Oid parentTriggerOid, Node *whenClause, bool isInternal, bool in_partition)
Definition: trigger.c:162
void ScanKeyInit(ScanKey entry, AttrNumber attributeNumber, StrategyNumber strategy, RegProcedure procedure, Datum argument)
Definition: scankey.c:76
#define CStringGetTextDatum(s)
Definition: builtins.h:83
char * nodeToString(const void *obj)
Definition: outfuncs.c:4303
#define REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_PERMANENT
Definition: index.h:140
void CatalogCloseIndexes(CatalogIndexState indstate)
Definition: indexing.c:60
#define REINDEX_REL_PROCESS_TOAST
Definition: index.h:136
void BuildSpeculativeIndexInfo(Relation index, IndexInfo *ii)
Definition: index.c:2402
#define CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPTS()
Definition: miscadmin.h:99
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_SUBPHASE
Definition: progress.h:66
void CacheInvalidateRelcacheByTuple(HeapTuple classTuple)
Definition: inval.c:1306
void check_exclusion_constraint(Relation heap, Relation index, IndexInfo *indexInfo, ItemPointer tupleid, Datum *values, bool *isnull, EState *estate, bool newIndex)
Definition: execIndexing.c:866
Oid * rd_opcintype
Definition: rel.h:159
static Datum slot_getsysattr(TupleTableSlot *slot, int attnum, bool *isnull)
Definition: tuptable.h:403
AttrNumber ii_IndexAttrNumbers[INDEX_MAX_KEYS]
Definition: execnodes.h:159
uint16 * ii_ExclusionStrats
Definition: execnodes.h:166
void CheckAttributeType(const char *attname, Oid atttypid, Oid attcollation, List *containing_rowtypes, int flags)
Definition: heap.c:578
void tuplesort_end(Tuplesortstate *state)
Definition: tuplesort.c:1235
#define PG_TRY()
Definition: elog.h:301
#define INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT
Definition: index.h:48
Relation table_open(Oid relationId, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: table.c:39
HeapTuple heap_modify_tuple(HeapTuple tuple, TupleDesc tupleDesc, Datum *replValues, bool *replIsnull, bool *doReplace)
Definition: heaptuple.c:1113
void index_concurrently_set_dead(Oid heapId, Oid indexId)
Definition: index.c:1676
bool ReindexIsProcessingIndex(Oid indexOid)
Definition: index.c:3685
void index_concurrently_build(Oid heapRelationId, Oid indexRelationId)
Definition: index.c:1356
FormData_pg_opclass * Form_pg_opclass
Definition: pg_opclass.h:83
#define ERRCODE_DUPLICATE_OBJECT
Definition: streamutil.c:33
static bool validate_index_callback(ItemPointer itemptr, void *opaque)
Definition: index.c:3168
PgStat_Counter blocks_fetched
Definition: pgstat.h:650
bool reindex_relation(Oid relid, int flags, int options)
Definition: index.c:3529
Definition: pg_list.h:50
long changeDependenciesOn(Oid refClassId, Oid oldRefObjectId, Oid newRefObjectId)
Definition: pg_depend.c:463
char * get_rel_name(Oid relid)
Definition: lsyscache.c:1730
#define PointerIsValid(pointer)
Definition: c.h:626
ItemPointerData tts_tid
Definition: tuptable.h:130
List * get_partition_ancestors(Oid relid)
Definition: partition.c:116
int16 AttrNumber
Definition: attnum.h:21
#define RelationGetRelid(relation)
Definition: rel.h:416
#define INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE
Definition: index.h:76
long val
Definition: informix.c:684
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_COMMAND
Definition: progress.h:62
void CatalogTupleInsert(Relation heapRel, HeapTuple tup)
Definition: indexing.c:183
Relation index_open(Oid relationId, LOCKMODE lockmode)
Definition: indexam.c:126
float4 reltuples
Definition: pg_class.h:63
#define PG_END_TRY()
Definition: elog.h:317
#define BTEqualStrategyNumber
Definition: stratnum.h:31
#define offsetof(type, field)
Definition: c.h:655
PgStat_Counter t_blocks_fetched
Definition: pgstat.h:114
#define lfirst_oid(lc)
Definition: pg_list.h:192
double index_tuples
Definition: genam.h:33
#define INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_MARK_AS_PRIMARY
Definition: index.h:75
double heap_tuples
Definition: genam.h:32
#define PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_ACCESS_METHOD_OID
Definition: progress.h:64
Oid relId
Definition: rel.h:37
bool estimated_count
Definition: genam.h:49
ObjectAddress index_constraint_create(Relation heapRelation, Oid indexRelationId, Oid parentConstraintId, IndexInfo *indexInfo, const char *constraintName, char constraintType, bits16 constr_flags, bool allow_system_table_mods, bool is_internal)
Definition: index.c:1737
#define DescriptionObjIndexId
Definition: indexing.h:154
Oid ii_Am
Definition: execnodes.h:175
#define RelationGetNamespace(relation)
Definition: rel.h:457